Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 68
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831689

ABSTRACT

Background@#To compare the chest computed tomography (CT) images of children and adults in families with clusters of humidifier disinfectant-related lung injury (HDLI) after cessation of exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD). @*Methods@#We reviewed medical records of 19 families with 43 patients (21 adults, 22 children) among families, which had at least one adult and one child with HDLI. Each family was exposed to the same HD exposure environment. @*Results@#In adults, centrilobular nodules were predominant (95.2%) in chronic HDLI findings after cessation of exposure to HD, however, in children, normal pattern was most prevalent on chest CT (45.5%), followed by centrilobular nodule (36.4%), bizarre lung cysts (36.4%), and reticulation (13.6%). @*Conclusion@#Unlike the known chronic HDLI finding of adults, centrilobular nodules were only present in 36.4% of children. The frequency of bizarre lung cysts were significantly greater in children than that in adults after cessation of similar exposure to HD. Thus, bizarre lung cysts may be useful as another novel finding of chronic HDLI in children who have no history of pulmonary infection or other perinatal disorder such as hyaline membrane disease or other interstitial lung disease.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Korea, around the abandoned metal mines, heavy metals are being accumulating in the cultivated areas. Among exposed heavy metals, mercury is known to harm for cardiovascular system known to affect blood pressure. So, we studied the relationship between blood mercury level and hypertension in residents around abandoned metal mines. METHODS: From 2008 to 2011, we surveyed 7,055 residents in provinces affected by abandoned metal mines and collected data from 6 Hospitals. We conducted a personal questionnaire interview survey with residents on the basis of household questionnaires, sex, age, household income, smoking, and drinking items. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between blood mercury level and hypertension. RESULTS: We compared residents with low and high groups based on blood mercury level 5.8 μg/L, and higher group was significantly higher risk of hypertension than lower group (odds ratio [OR]: 1.277; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.135–1.436), also in adjusted model, higher group was significantly higher risk of hypertension than lower group (OR: 1.276; 95% CI: 1.117–1.457). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a significant correlation between mercury and hypertension in residents around abandoned metal mines. Therefore, we should continuously monitor people who are higher than the standard value and the hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular System , Drinking , Family Characteristics , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Logistic Models , Metals, Heavy , Smoke , Smoking
3.
Immune Network ; : 42-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785819

ABSTRACT

There have been few studies investigating the association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and prenatal exposure to heavy metals. We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to heavy metals is associated with the development or severity of AD in a birth cohort study. A total of 331 subjects were followed from birth for a median duration of 60.0 months. The presence and severity of AD were evaluated at ages 6 and 12 months, and regularly once a year thereafter. The concentrations of lead, mercury, chromium, and cadmium in umbilical cord blood were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were isolated and stimulated for analysis of cytokine production using ELISA. Heavy metal levels in cord blood were not associated with the development of AD until 24 months of age. However, a positive correlation was observed between the duration of AD and lead levels in cord blood (p=0.002). AD severity was also positively associated with chromium concentrations in cord blood (p=0.037), while cord blood levels of lead, mercury, and cadmium were not significantly associated with AD severity (p=0.562, p=0.054, and p=0.055, respectively). Interleukin-13 production in CBMCs was positively related with lead and chromium levels in cord blood (p=0.021 and p=0.015, respectively). Prenatal exposure to lead and chromium is associated with the persistence and severity of AD, and the immune reaction toward a Th2 polarization.


Subject(s)
Cacao , Cadmium , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fetal Blood , Interleukin-13 , Mass Spectrometry , Metals, Heavy , Parturition , Plasma , Umbilical Cord
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896839

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sickness presenteeism (SP) indicates “going to work while being ill.” The importance of SP has only recently been investigated, and the association between SP and employment status has been inconsistent across studies. Therefore, we conducted this study to explore the association between SP and employment status by using presenteeism propensity (PP), which can reflect the individual decision-making process. @*Methods@#The study population included employees participating in the 5th Korean Working Condition Survey. We analyzed data of only employees with at least one health event, which was calculated as the sum of SP and sickness absenteeism days. Employment status was grouped into 3 categories: stable employment, unstable employment (contract period ≥ 1 year), and unstable employment (contract period 0.5”). @*Results@#Unstable employees (contract period ≥ 1 year) had higher odds of PP than stable employees (odds ratio [OR]: 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.47), whereas unstable employees (contract period < 1 year) had lower odds of PP than stable employees (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71–0.96). @*Conclusions@#Employment status was associated with SP. Given the negative health impact of SP, social efforts, such as paid sick leave, are required to reduce SP and enhance the health status of unstable workers.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889135

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sickness presenteeism (SP) indicates “going to work while being ill.” The importance of SP has only recently been investigated, and the association between SP and employment status has been inconsistent across studies. Therefore, we conducted this study to explore the association between SP and employment status by using presenteeism propensity (PP), which can reflect the individual decision-making process. @*Methods@#The study population included employees participating in the 5th Korean Working Condition Survey. We analyzed data of only employees with at least one health event, which was calculated as the sum of SP and sickness absenteeism days. Employment status was grouped into 3 categories: stable employment, unstable employment (contract period ≥ 1 year), and unstable employment (contract period 0.5”). @*Results@#Unstable employees (contract period ≥ 1 year) had higher odds of PP than stable employees (odds ratio [OR]: 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.47), whereas unstable employees (contract period < 1 year) had lower odds of PP than stable employees (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71–0.96). @*Conclusions@#Employment status was associated with SP. Given the negative health impact of SP, social efforts, such as paid sick leave, are required to reduce SP and enhance the health status of unstable workers.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) are well-known environmental pollutants. They are unnecessary in the biological processes of humans. This study was performed to estimate the representative background exposure levels to the metals by measuring concentrations in whole blood of the Korean general population. METHODS: This population-based cross-sectional study included 4,000 subjects (1,886 males and 2,114 females) 0–83 years of age in 2010 and 2011. Adult subjects (≥ 19 years of age) were collected by sex- and age-stratified probability method, and preschool- and school-aged subjects were recruited by a cluster sampling method. Written consent was provided prior to blood sampling. Pb and Cd blood concentrations were determined by a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and blood Hg was analyzed by a direct Hg analyzer. RESULTS: The geometric mean, median and 95th percentile of blood Pb was 1.82 µg/dL, 1.83 µg/dL, and 3.78 µg/dL, respectively. The respective values were 2.92 µg/L, 2.87 µg/L, 9.12 µg/L for Hg, and 0.56 µg/L, 0.59 µg/L, 2.20 µg/L for Cd. Blood Pb and Hg were higher in males than in females, but no sex difference was observed, respectively, in subjects 0–4 years of age for Pb and in subjects less than 20 years for Hg. However, blood Cd was higher in females than in males and no sex difference was observed in subjects < 30 years of age. CONCLUSION: This study provides representative data of human exposure to Pb, Hg, and Cd covering whole age groups of the general population in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biological Phenomena , Cadmium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Metals , Methods , Sex Characteristics , Spectrophotometry, Atomic
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786724

ABSTRACT

Inferring causality is necessary to achieve the goal of epidemiology, which is to elucidate the cause of disease. Causal inference is conducted in three steps: evaluation of validity of the study, inference of general causality, and inference of individual causality. To evaluate validity of the study, we propose a checklist that focuses on biases and generalizability. For general causal inference, we recommend utilizing Hill’s 9 viewpoints. Lastly, individual causality can be inferred based on the general causality and evidence of exposure. Additional considerations may be needed for social or legal purposes; however, these additional considerations should be based on the scientific truth elucidated by the causal inference described in the present article.


Subject(s)
Bias , Checklist , Environmental Exposure , Epidemiology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8200

ABSTRACT

Mercury occurs in various chemical forms, and it is different to health effects according to chemical forms. In consideration of the point, the evaluation of the mercury exposure to human distinguished from occupational and environmental exposure. With strict to manage occupational exposure in factory, it is declined mercury intoxication cases by metallic and inorganic mercury inhalation to occupational exposure. It is increasing to importance in environmental exposure and public health. The focus on the health impact of exposure to mercury is more on chronic, low or moderate grade exposure—albeit a topic of great controversy—, not high concentration exposure by methylmercury, which caused Minamata disease. Recently, the issue of mercury toxicity according to the mercury exposure level, health effects as well as the determination of what mercury levels affect health are in the spotlight and under active discussion. Evaluating the health effects and Biomarker of mercury exposure and establishing diagnosis and treatment standards are very difficult. It can implement that evaluating mercury exposure level for diagnosis by a provocation test uses chelating agent and conducting to appropriate therapy according to the result. but, indications for the therapy of chelating agents with mercury exposure have not yet been fully established. The therapy to symptomatic patients with mercury poisoning is chelating agents, combination therapy with chelating agents, plasma exchange, hemodialysis, plasmapheresis. But the further evaluations are necessary for the effects and side effects with each therapy.


Subject(s)
Chelating Agents , Diagnosis , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Inhalation , Mercury Poisoning , Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System , Occupational Exposure , Plasma Exchange , Plasmapheresis , Public Health , Renal Dialysis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Arsenic is a carcinogenic heavy metal that has a species-dependent health effects and abandoned metal mines are a source of significant arsenic exposure. Therefore, the aims of this study were to analyze urinary arsenic species and their concentration in residents living near abandoned metal mines and to monitor the environmental health effects of abandoned metal mines in Korea. METHODS: This study was performed in 2014 to assess urinary arsenic excretion patterns of residents living near abandoned metal mines in South Korea. Demographic data such as gender, age, mine working history, period of residency, dietary patterns, smoking and alcohol use, and type of potable water consumed were obtaining using a questionnaire. Informed consent was also obtained from all study subjects (n = 119). Urinary arsenic species were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). RESULTS: The geometric mean of urinary arsenic (sum of dimethylarsinic acid, monomethylarsonic acid, As3+, and As5+) concentration was determined to be 131.98 μg/L (geometric mean; 95% CI, 116.72–149.23) while urinary inorganic arsenic (As3+ and As5+) concentration was 0.81 μg/L (95% CI, 0.53–1.23). 66.3% (n = 79) and 21.8% (n = 26) of these samples exceeded ATSDR reference values for urinary arsenic (>100 μg/L) and inorganic arsenic (>10 μg/L), respectively. Mean urinary arsenic concentrations (geometric mean, GM) were higher in women then in men, and increased with age. Of the five regions evaluated, while four regions had inorganic arsenic concentrations less than 0.40 μg/L, one region showed a significantly higher concentration (GM 15.48 μg/L; 95% CI, 7.51–31.91) which investigates further studies to identify etiological factors. CONCLUSION: We propose that the observed elevation in urinary arsenic concentration in residents living near abandoned metal mines may be due to environmental contamination from the abandoned metal mine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not Applicable (We do not have health care intervention on human participants).


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Cacodylic Acid , Chromatography, Liquid , Delivery of Health Care , Drinking Water , Environmental Health , Female , Humans , Informed Consent , Internship and Residency , Korea , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Plasma , Reference Values , Smoke , Smoking
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nicotine dependence and its severity are often determined by individuals’ psychosocial factors.This study purposed to analyze how Korean workers’ job stress is related with their nicotine dependence according to demographic and occupational characteristics in order to reduce smoking related to job stress and to establish objective indicators to be used in developing adequate smoking cessation strategies. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 4,639 workers who replied to the questionnaire survey. In addition, 1,948 current smokers were separated from non-smokers and ex-smokers, and the relationship between job stress and nicotine dependence was analyzed with the current smoker group. Nicotine dependence was tested using Fagerström’s Test of Nicotine Dependence, and stress was measured using a questionnaire on subjective stress felt by workers in their daily life and the short form of the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. RESULTS: The smoking rate was 54.1 % among men and 2.5 % among women. Nicotine dependence was significantly different according to interpersonal conflict, organization system and lack of reward (p < 0.05). As multivariate logistic analysis, job control, occupational climate and total stress score were statistical significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Job stress was found to be related with smoking status and nicotine dependence. Based on this result, it is suggested to enhance workers’ welfare for health promotion in workplace by improving their working environment in order to reduce job stress and consequently to decrease the smoking rate.


Subject(s)
Climate , Female , Health Promotion , Humans , Male , Nicotine , Reward , Smoke , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-656280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are no reported studies of olfactory function of Korean children, and the existing tests of olfactory function for Korean adults may not be suitable for very young children. This study assessed the applicability of the Butanol Threshold Test (BTT) and Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT) to children. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A total of 79 children were included in the study: they were between 6-12 years of age, and had visited University Hospital Health Care Center between January 2012 and December 2013. All children were administered the BTT and CC-SIT. RESULTS: Using BTT, 69.62% of the sample was classified as moderate hyposmia. On the other hand, when CC-SIT was used, 45.57% of the sample was classified as moderate and 43.04% as mild hyposmia. CC-SIT and BTT scores were not correlated. Although gender and age were not taken into account in the test results, the CC-SIT could measure age-specific olfactory development. CONCLUSION: Our study provides fundamental data on the clinical use of the CC-SIT and BTT in healthy Korean children.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Hand , Humans , Smell
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52284

ABSTRACT

Lead, which is widely used in industry, is a common element found in low concentrations in the Earth's crust. Implementations to reduce environmental lead concentrations have resulted in a considerable reduction of lead levels in the environment (air) and a sustained reduction in the blood lead levels of the average citizen. However, people are still being exposed to lead through a variety of routes in everyday commodities. Lead causes health problems such as toxicity of the liver, kidneys, hematopoietic system, and nervous system. Having a carcinogenic risk as well, the IARC classifies inorganic lead compounds as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). Occupational lead poisonings have decreased due to the efforts to reduce the lead concentrations in the working environment. In contrast, health hazards associated with long-term environmental exposure to low concentrations of lead have been reported steadily. In particular, chronic exposure to low concentrations of lead has been reported to induce cognitive behavioral disturbances in children. It is almost impossible to remove lead completely from the human body, and it is not easy to treat health hazards due to lead exposure. Therefore, reduction and prevention of lead exposure are very important. We reviewed the toxicity and health hazards, monitoring and evaluation, and management of lead exposure.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Child , Environmental Exposure , Hematopoietic System , Human Body , Humans , Kidney , Lead Poisoning , Liver , Nervous System
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg). METHODS: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. RESULTS: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value) in the seaweed (94.2 mug/kg for Pb; 594 mug/kg for Cd), and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 mug/kg). The dietary exposure level (median value) of Pb was 0.14 mug/kg body weight (bw)/d, 0.18 mug/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 mug/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 mug/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age) were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 mug/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children) were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 mug/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency) was 81.0 % of all the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Weight , Cadmium , Child , Eating , Environmental Monitoring , European Union , Food Safety , Functional Food , Hazardous Substances , Health Surveys , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Korea , Metals, Heavy , Reference Values , Seaweed
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg). METHODS: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. RESULTS: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value) in the seaweed (94.2 mug/kg for Pb; 594 mug/kg for Cd), and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 mug/kg). The dietary exposure level (median value) of Pb was 0.14 mug/kg body weight (bw)/d, 0.18 mug/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 mug/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 mug/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age) were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 mug/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children) were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 mug/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency) was 81.0 % of all the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Weight , Cadmium , Child , Eating , Environmental Monitoring , European Union , Food Safety , Functional Food , Hazardous Substances , Health Surveys , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Korea , Metals, Heavy , Reference Values , Seaweed
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193465

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate demographic and lifestyle variables and blood cadmium concentrations in residents living near abandoned metal mines in Korea. Blood cadmium concentrations were measured in 15,161 subjects living around abandoned metal mines (exposed group, n = 14,464) and compared with those living in designated control areas (control group, n = 697). A questionnaire was provided to all subjects to determine age, gender, mine working history, times of residence, smoking habits and dietary water type. The geometric mean (95% confidence intervals) of blood cadmium concentration (1.25 [1.24-1.27] microg/L) in the exposed group was significantly higher than in the control group (1.17 [1.13-1.22] microg/L). Mean residence time and mine working history in the exposed group were significantly higher than in the control group. Blood cadmium concentrations increased with increasing age, and residence time in both groups, and blood cadmium concentrations were higher in current-smokers than in non-smokers in both groups. This study shows the geometric mean of blood cadmium concentration in abandoned mining areas are higher than in non-mining areas in the general adult Korean population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Cadmium/blood , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mining , Surveys and Questionnaires , Republic of Korea , Residence Characteristics , Smoking , Soil Pollutants/blood , Water Pollutants/blood
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35693

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors for mercury exposure by comparing with blood mercury concentration. Study population consisted of 1,866 adults (839 men and 1,027 women) in randomly-selected 30 districts in southeast Korea. Dietary mercury intake was calculated from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on seafood items and 24 hr recall record. Blood mercury concentration was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean age of the subjects was 43.5 +/- 14.6 yr. The FFQ showed that mercury-laden fish (tuna, shark) and frequently-eating fish (squid, belt fish, mackerel) were important in mercury intake from fish species. The recall record suggested that fish and shellfish was a highest group (63.1%) of mercury intake and had a wide distribution in the food groups. In comparison with the blood mercury concentration, age group, sex, household income, education, drinking status and coastal area were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, coefficient from the FFQ (beta = 0.003) had greater effect on the blood mercury than the recall record (beta = 0.002), but the effect was restricted (adjusted R2 = 0.234). Further studies with more precise estimation of dietary mercury intake were required to evaluate the risk for mercury exposure by foods and assure risk communication with heavily-exposed group.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking , Demography , Environmental Exposure , Female , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Male , Mercury/blood , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Seafood/analysis , Sex Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131200

ABSTRACT

Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments.


Subject(s)
Arsenic/toxicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/chemically induced , Reproduction/drug effects
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131198

ABSTRACT

Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.


Subject(s)
Arsenic/analysis , Cosmetics/chemistry , Drinking Water/chemistry , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Smoking , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131197

ABSTRACT

Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments.


Subject(s)
Arsenic/toxicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/chemically induced , Reproduction/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL