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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903740

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There are no definite guidelines for the management of gastric lesions diagnosed as indefinite for dysplasia (IND) by endoscopic forceps biopsy (EFB). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of gastric IND and predictive factors for gastric neoplasm. @*Methods@#This study included 457 patients with a first diagnosis of gastric IND by EFB between January 2005 and December 2013. Patient characteristics and endoscopic and pathological data were reviewed and compared. @*Results@#Of the 457 gastric IND patients, 128 (28%) were diagnosed with invasive carcinoma, 21 (4.6%) with high-grade dysplasia, 31 (6.8%) with low-grade dysplasia, and 277 (60.6%) as negative for dysplasia. Of lesions observed, 180 (39.4%) showed upgraded histology. Multivariate analysis revealed that surface erythema (odds ratio [OR], 2.804; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.741 to 4.516), spontaneous bleeding (OR, 2.618; 95% CI, 1.298 to 5.279), lesion size ≥ 1 cm (OR, 5.762; 95% CI, 3.459 to 9.597), and depressed morphology (OR, 2.183; 95% CI, 1.155 to 4.124) were significant risk factors for high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. The ORs associated with 2 and ≥ 3 risk factors were 7.131 and 34.86, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Precautions should be taken in the management of gastric IND patients, especially when risk factors, including surface erythema, spontaneous bleeding, lesion size ≥ 1 cm, and depressed morphology are present. Considering the combined effect of the presence of multiple risk factors on the incidence of high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma, endoscopic resection should be recommended if a gastric IND patient has at two or more of these factors.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900440

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem in the elderly. Because of the limitations of life style modifications and the comorbidity, laxative use is also very common. Therefore, this study reviews the latest literature on the effect and safety of laxative in the elderly. @*Methods@#A systematic review of randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness and safety of laxatives for constipation in elderly patients over 65 years old were performed using the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. @*Results@#Twenty-three randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Among the selected studies, 9 studies compared laxative with placebo and 5 studies compared laxatives of the same type. Four studies compared different types of laxatives or compared combination agents. Five studies compared novel medications such as prucalopride, lubiprostone, and elobixibat with placebo.Psyllium, calcium polycarbophil, lactulose syrup, lactitol, polyethylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, stimulant laxative with or without fiber, and other medications were more effective than placebo in elderly constipation patients in short-term. Generally, the frequency and severity of adverse effects of laxative were similar between the arms of studies. @*Conclusions@#Bulk laxative, osmotic laxative, stimulant laxative with or without fiber, and other medications can be used in elderly patients in short-term within 3 months with reasonable safety. However, the quality of included studies was not high and most of studies was conducted in a small number of patients. Among these laxatives, polyethylene glycol seems to be safe and effective in long-term use of about 6 months in elderly patients.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900397

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Belching disorder (BD) is clinically distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with belching. Supragastric belching (SGB) is closely associated with reflux episodes. This study investigates belch characteristics in association with reflux, compared between patients with BD and those who had GERD with belching. @*Methods@#Impedance pH monitoring data from 10 patients with BD and 10 patients with GERD who exhibited belching were retrospectively analyzed. Belches were considered “isolated“ or “reflux-related” and acidicon-acidic. Belch characteristics were compared between patients with BD and those with GERD. @*Results@#Symptomatic belches were more frequent in patients with BD than in patients with GERD (median, 160.5 vs 56.0, P < 0.05). SGB was the most common type in both groups; common subtypes comprised “isolated“ in patients with BD and “isolated during the reflux period” in patients with GERD. Reflux-related SGB was more common in patients with GERD than in BD (78.3% vs 45.2%, P < 0.005).Both “preceding belching” including the reflux period and acidic SGB were more common in patients with GERD than in BD (31.8% vs 8.6% and 38.1% vs 8.9%, both P < 0.05). Supragastric belch number positively correlated with all reflux episodes in patients with GERD (adjusted R2 = 0.572, P = 0.007). @*Conclusions@#BD is characterized by more belching, compared to GERD. SGB is more frequently associated with reflux in GERD than in BD; acidity may be related to GERD. In BD, SGB is typically non-acidic and unrelated to reflux. Distinct SGB characteristics may reflect different pathogenic mechanisms of reflux and associated symptoms.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896036

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There are no definite guidelines for the management of gastric lesions diagnosed as indefinite for dysplasia (IND) by endoscopic forceps biopsy (EFB). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of gastric IND and predictive factors for gastric neoplasm. @*Methods@#This study included 457 patients with a first diagnosis of gastric IND by EFB between January 2005 and December 2013. Patient characteristics and endoscopic and pathological data were reviewed and compared. @*Results@#Of the 457 gastric IND patients, 128 (28%) were diagnosed with invasive carcinoma, 21 (4.6%) with high-grade dysplasia, 31 (6.8%) with low-grade dysplasia, and 277 (60.6%) as negative for dysplasia. Of lesions observed, 180 (39.4%) showed upgraded histology. Multivariate analysis revealed that surface erythema (odds ratio [OR], 2.804; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.741 to 4.516), spontaneous bleeding (OR, 2.618; 95% CI, 1.298 to 5.279), lesion size ≥ 1 cm (OR, 5.762; 95% CI, 3.459 to 9.597), and depressed morphology (OR, 2.183; 95% CI, 1.155 to 4.124) were significant risk factors for high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. The ORs associated with 2 and ≥ 3 risk factors were 7.131 and 34.86, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Precautions should be taken in the management of gastric IND patients, especially when risk factors, including surface erythema, spontaneous bleeding, lesion size ≥ 1 cm, and depressed morphology are present. Considering the combined effect of the presence of multiple risk factors on the incidence of high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma, endoscopic resection should be recommended if a gastric IND patient has at two or more of these factors.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892736

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem in the elderly. Because of the limitations of life style modifications and the comorbidity, laxative use is also very common. Therefore, this study reviews the latest literature on the effect and safety of laxative in the elderly. @*Methods@#A systematic review of randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness and safety of laxatives for constipation in elderly patients over 65 years old were performed using the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. @*Results@#Twenty-three randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Among the selected studies, 9 studies compared laxative with placebo and 5 studies compared laxatives of the same type. Four studies compared different types of laxatives or compared combination agents. Five studies compared novel medications such as prucalopride, lubiprostone, and elobixibat with placebo.Psyllium, calcium polycarbophil, lactulose syrup, lactitol, polyethylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, stimulant laxative with or without fiber, and other medications were more effective than placebo in elderly constipation patients in short-term. Generally, the frequency and severity of adverse effects of laxative were similar between the arms of studies. @*Conclusions@#Bulk laxative, osmotic laxative, stimulant laxative with or without fiber, and other medications can be used in elderly patients in short-term within 3 months with reasonable safety. However, the quality of included studies was not high and most of studies was conducted in a small number of patients. Among these laxatives, polyethylene glycol seems to be safe and effective in long-term use of about 6 months in elderly patients.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892693

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Belching disorder (BD) is clinically distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with belching. Supragastric belching (SGB) is closely associated with reflux episodes. This study investigates belch characteristics in association with reflux, compared between patients with BD and those who had GERD with belching. @*Methods@#Impedance pH monitoring data from 10 patients with BD and 10 patients with GERD who exhibited belching were retrospectively analyzed. Belches were considered “isolated“ or “reflux-related” and acidicon-acidic. Belch characteristics were compared between patients with BD and those with GERD. @*Results@#Symptomatic belches were more frequent in patients with BD than in patients with GERD (median, 160.5 vs 56.0, P < 0.05). SGB was the most common type in both groups; common subtypes comprised “isolated“ in patients with BD and “isolated during the reflux period” in patients with GERD. Reflux-related SGB was more common in patients with GERD than in BD (78.3% vs 45.2%, P < 0.005).Both “preceding belching” including the reflux period and acidic SGB were more common in patients with GERD than in BD (31.8% vs 8.6% and 38.1% vs 8.9%, both P < 0.05). Supragastric belch number positively correlated with all reflux episodes in patients with GERD (adjusted R2 = 0.572, P = 0.007). @*Conclusions@#BD is characterized by more belching, compared to GERD. SGB is more frequently associated with reflux in GERD than in BD; acidity may be related to GERD. In BD, SGB is typically non-acidic and unrelated to reflux. Distinct SGB characteristics may reflect different pathogenic mechanisms of reflux and associated symptoms.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833881

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Our study aims to characterize esophageal motor function; evaluate the relationships among esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), high-resolution manometry (HRM), and 24-hour esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring combined with pHmetry (MII-pH); and elucidate the determinants of esophageal symptom perception in South Koreans with systemic sclerosis (SSc). @*Methods@#We reviewed prospectively collected HRM (n = 46), EGD (n = 41), and MII-pH (n = 37) data from 46 consecutive patients with SSc (42 females; mean age 50.1 years) who underwent esophageal tests between June 2013 and September 2018. @*Results@#The most common HRM diagnosis was normal (39.1%), followed by ineffective esophageal motility (23.9%) and absent contractility (21.7%). Erosive esophagitis was observed in 12.2% of total SSc patients, with a higher frequency in patients with absent contractility than those with normal motility (44.5% vs 0.0%, P = 0.01). Pathologic acid exposure was observed in 6 patients (20.0%) and positive symptom association in 18 patients (60.0%) in MII-pH tests of symptomatic patients. The proportion of SSc patients with esophageal symptoms not explained by reflux or mucosal or motor esophageal abnormalities was 33.0%. @*Conclusions@#Esophageal involvement among South Koreans with SSc was characterized by heterogeneous motility patterns, with a higher prevalence of normal motility and lower prevalence of erosive esophagitis. Reflux hypersensitivity or functional heartburn might be partly attributed to the perception of esophageal symptoms in SSc patients who have neither gastroesophageal reflux disease nor esophageal dysmotility.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833865

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate associations between comorbidities, peripheral neuropathy, and spontaneous internal anal sphincter relaxation (SAR) in patients with defecatory disorders. @*Methods@#A patient was considered to exhibit SAR during high-resolution anorectal manometry (HR-ARM) when the nadir pressure is < 15 mmHg and the time from onset to relaxation was ≥ 15 seconds in the resting pressure frame. A case-control study was performed using HR-ARM data collected from 880 patients from January 2010 to May 2015. We identified 23 cases with SAR (median age 75 years; 15 females; 12 fecal incontinence and 11 constipation). We compared HR-ARM values, Charlson index comorbidity scores, neuropathy, and the prevalence of diseases that potentially cause neuropathy between controls and SAR patients. Each SAR case was compared to 3 controls. Controls were selected to match the age, gender, and examination year of each SAR case. @*Results@#Compared to controls (26.1%), SAR patients (52.2%) exhibited a significantly higher frequency of fecal incontinence. SAR patients also had higher Charlson index scores (5 vs 4, P = 0.028). Nine of 23 SAR patients (39.1%) exhibited peripheral neuropathy— this frequency was higher than that for the control group (11.6%; P = 0.003). Diseases that potentially cause neuropathy were observed in 17 of 23 SAR cases and 32 of 69 controls (P = 0.022). @*Conclusions@#SAR develops in patients with constipation and fecal incontinence but is more common in patients with fecal incontinence. Our controlled observational study implies that SAR is associated with peripheral neuropathy and more severe comorbidities.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#This study was conducted to clarify the sustained virological response (SVR) prediction ability of baseline and treatment-related factors in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study collected data at four tertiary referral hospitals between June 2004 and July 2012. Out of 476 patients, 330 treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV infection were recruited. Pegylated interferon α-2a/-2b plus ribavirin was administered for either 24 or 48 weeks depending on the HCV genotype. The baseline and treatment-related predictive factors of SVR were evaluated by analyzing data measured before treatment (i.e., baseline) and during treatment.@*RESULTS@#SVR rates for genotypes 1 and 2 were 63% (97/154) and 79.5% (140/176), respectively (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis for baseline factors revealed that young age (p = 0.009), genotype 2 (p = 0.001), HCV RNA level of 150 × 10³/µL (p 150 × 10³/µL. In multivariate analysis for treatment-related factors, SVR was associated with achievement of a rapid virological response (RVR; p < 0.001), treatment adherence of ≥ 80/80/80 (p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Young age, genotype 2, low HCV RNA level, RVR, and treatment adherence were significantly associated with SVR. In addition, platelet count was an independent predictive factor for SVR. Therefore, platelet count could be used to develop individualized treatment regimens and to optimize treatment outcomes in patients with chronic HCV infection.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the severe complications of liver cirrhosis. Early detection of high-risk patients is essential for prognostic improvement. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive factors related to in-hospital mortality in patients with SBP. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 233 SBP patients (181 males, 52 females) who were admitted to four tertiary referral hospitals between August 2002 and February 2013. The patients' laboratory and radiologic data were obtained from medical records. The Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score and model for end-stage liver disease sodium model (MELD-Na) scores were calculated using the laboratory data recorded at the time of the SBP episode. RESULTS: The causes of liver cirrhosis were hepatitis B (44.6%), alcohol (43.8%), hepatitis C (6.0%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (5.6%). The mean MELD-Na and CTP scores were 27.1 and 10.7, respectively. Thirty-one of the patients (13.3%) died from SBP in hospital. Multivariate analysis revealed that maximum creatinine level during treatment was a statistically significant factor for in-hospital mortality (P = 0.005). The prognostic accuracy of the maximum creatinine level during treatment was 78.0% (P < 0.001). The optimal cutoff point for the maximum serum creatinine was 2 mg/dL (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The follow-up creatinine level during treatment is an important predictive factor of in-hospital mortality in cirrhotic patients with SBP. Patients with SBP and a serum creatinine level during treatment of ≥ 2.0 mg/dL might have a high risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Creatinine , Cytidine Triphosphate , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Male , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Peritonitis , Retrospective Studies , Sodium , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the content quality of YouTube videos on exercises to help relieve constipation and to assess whether the video source, exercise types, and popularity affected their quality. METHODS: Eight gastroenterologists independently evaluated the exercises presented in the constipation YouTube videos for seven items: image quality, usefulness in relieving constipation (quality 1), usefulness for general physical health (quality 2), difficulty in following, activity intensity, fun, and overall quality. Raters were asked open-ended questions to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the videos. Five-point ordinal scales were used to score each item aforementioned, with the exception of image quality and overall quality that used a six-point Likert scale. RESULTS: The 20 videos had a mean length of 268 seconds and a mean viewership of 32,694. The most common video source was commercial (n=10), and the most common type of physical activity was yoga (n=11). The median values of image quality, quality 1, quality 2, difficulty in following, activity intensity, fun, and overall quality were 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, and 2, respectively. Yoga videos had significantly higher median quality 1 values (3) compared with massage videos (2, adjusted p=0.006) and ‘others’ videos (2, adjusted p<0.001). A lack of medical evidence was the most common answer to open-ended questions about the weaknesses of each video. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, YouTube exercise videos presented a low-quality content. This study highlights the need for evidence-based comprehensive educational videos addressing exercises for treating constipation.


Subject(s)
Constipation , Exercise , Massage , Motor Activity , Weights and Measures , Yoga
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739181

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common disorder encountered in an emergency department or primary clinical setting. The therapeutic basis for GI bleeding is endoscopic hemostasis. To date, epinephrine injection, through-the-scope clips, monopolar or biopolar coagulation, and band ligation have been established for GI bleeding. Despite the advances in endoscopic techniques, we often experience re-bleeding associated with significant inhospital mortality in GI bleeding. New devices that complement the disadvantages of these conventional endoscopic techniques have recently been introduced. For example, over-the-scope clip, which has wider and stronger pressure than conventional mechanical devices, can ligate a wide range of surrounding mucous membranes and has been reported to be effective in severe lesions of fibrosis. In addition, hemostatic powders achieved successful hemostasis as primary or rescue therapy in several cases of GI bleeding. Successful application of these new techniques requires appropriate patient selection and understanding of the device and further research is expected in the future.


Subject(s)
Complement System Proteins , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epinephrine , Fibrosis , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Hospital Mortality , Ligation , Mucous Membrane , Patient Selection , Powders
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 440-446, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Controversy still exists regarding the benefits of covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) compared to uncovered SEMSs. We aimed to compare the patency and stent-related adverse events of partially covered SEMSs (PC-SEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. METHODS: A total of 134 patients who received a PC-SEMS or uncovered SEMS for palliation of unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction were reviewed retrospectively. The main outcome measures were stent patency, stent-related adverse events, and overall survival. RESULTS: The median stent patency was 118 days (range, 3 to 802 days) with PC-SEMSs and 105 days (range, 2 to 485 days) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.718). The overall endoscopic revision rate due to stent dysfunction was 36.6% (26/71) with PC-SEMSs and 36.5% (23/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.589). Tumor ingrowth was more frequent with uncovered SEMSs (4.2% vs 19.1%, p=0.013), but migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs (11.2% vs 1.5%, p=0.04). The incidence of stent-related adverse events was 2.8% (2/71) with PC-SEMSs and 9.5% (6/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.224). The median overall survival was 166 days with PC-SEMSs and 168 days with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.189). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to uncovered SEMSs, PC-SEMSs did not prolong stent patency in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. Stent migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs. However, tumor ingrowth was less frequent with PC-SEMSs compared to uncovered SEMSs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Incidence , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Stents
16.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 273-281, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Delayed post-endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) bleeding (DPEB) is difficult to predict and there is controversy regarding the usefulness of prophylactic hemostasis during second-look endoscopy. This study evaluated the risk factors related to DPEB, the relationship between clinical outcomes and the Forrest classification, and the results of prophylactic hemostasis during second-look endoscopy. METHODS: Second-look endoscopy was performed on the day after ESD to check for recent hemorrhage or potential bleeding and the presence of artificial ulcers in all patients. RESULTS: DPEB occurred in 42 of 581 patients (7.2%). Multivariate analysis determined that a specimen size ≥40 mm (odds ratio [OR], 3.03; p=0.003), and a high-risk Forrest classification (Forrest Ib+IIa+IIb; OR, 6.88; p<0.001) were risk factors for DPEB. DPEB was significantly more likely in patients classified with Forrest Ib (OR, 24.35; p<0.001), IIa (OR, 12.91; p<0.001), or IIb (OR, 8.31; p<0.001) ulcers compared with Forrest III ulcers. There was no statistically significant difference between the prophylactic hemostasis and non-hemostasis groups (Forrest Ib, p=0.938; IIa, p=0.438; IIb, p=0.397; IIc, p=0.773) during second-look endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The Forrest classification of artificial gastric ulcers during second-look endoscopy seems to be a useful tool for predicting delayed bleeding. However, routine prophylactic hemostasis during second-look endoscopy seemed to not be useful for preventing DPEB.


Subject(s)
Classification , Endoscopy , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms , Stomach Ulcer , Ulcer
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 231-238, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is sometimes difficult to incise the distal papillary roof (PR) completely in patients with choledocholiths and choledochoduodenal fistula (CDF). The Iso-Tome(R) (MTW-Endoskopie W. Haag KG), which is helpful in preventing electrical leakage, has good orientation capabilities and can be easily placed at the orifice of the CDF or ampulla of Vater (AV). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with the Iso-Tome(R) for cutting the distal PR. METHODS: Between May 2003 and July 2012, 35 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The distal PR was cut downward and/or upward using the Iso-tome(R) until the pink intrapapillary mucosa was fully exposed. Downward incisions were performed from the opening of the CDF to the orifice of the AV; upward incisions were performed in reverse. RESULTS: Spontaneous or artificial CDF occurred in four and 31 patients, respectively. The technical and therapeutic success rates were 94.3% (33/35) and 94.3% (33/35), respectively. There was no case of electrical damage to the pink intrapapillary mucosa. Adverse events occurred in 2.9% (1/35; 1, mild bleeding) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The new technique of ES with the Iso-tome(R) is feasible and useful for effectively incising the distal PR in patients with CDF and choledocholiths.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ampulla of Vater/surgery , Biliary Fistula/surgery , Choledocholithiasis/surgery , Common Bile Duct Diseases/surgery , Duodenal Diseases/surgery , Female , Humans , Intestinal Fistula/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 231-238, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is sometimes difficult to incise the distal papillary roof (PR) completely in patients with choledocholiths and choledochoduodenal fistula (CDF). The Iso-Tome(R) (MTW-Endoskopie W. Haag KG), which is helpful in preventing electrical leakage, has good orientation capabilities and can be easily placed at the orifice of the CDF or ampulla of Vater (AV). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with the Iso-Tome(R) for cutting the distal PR. METHODS: Between May 2003 and July 2012, 35 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The distal PR was cut downward and/or upward using the Iso-tome(R) until the pink intrapapillary mucosa was fully exposed. Downward incisions were performed from the opening of the CDF to the orifice of the AV; upward incisions were performed in reverse. RESULTS: Spontaneous or artificial CDF occurred in four and 31 patients, respectively. The technical and therapeutic success rates were 94.3% (33/35) and 94.3% (33/35), respectively. There was no case of electrical damage to the pink intrapapillary mucosa. Adverse events occurred in 2.9% (1/35; 1, mild bleeding) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The new technique of ES with the Iso-tome(R) is feasible and useful for effectively incising the distal PR in patients with CDF and choledocholiths.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ampulla of Vater/surgery , Biliary Fistula/surgery , Choledocholithiasis/surgery , Common Bile Duct Diseases/surgery , Duodenal Diseases/surgery , Female , Humans , Intestinal Fistula/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are few data supporting the diagnostic yield of brush cytology depending on the order of cytologic preparation method or the location or shape of tumors in biliary strictures. We investigated diagnostic yields and variations in brush cytology with direct smear and cell-block preparations according to sampling preparation sequence and tumor location and shape in biliary strictures. METHODS: Patients who had undergone ERCP with tissue sampling between August 2009 and April 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Group A was examined using brush cytology with direct smear followed by cell-block with or without biopsy, while the reverse order was performed for group B. RESULTS: Among 138 enrolled patients, 92 patients (A: 36, B: 56) underwent both brush cytology with direct smear and cell-block preparations. No differences in sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy were observed according to the sampling preparation method and the location or shape of tumors in biliary strictures. The cellularity observed from brush cytology with direct smear was better than that from cell-block according to the location of the tumor (p<0.01). The diagnostic yield was increased in both groups with addition of an endobiliary biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: No difference in diagnostic accuracy was observed between the sequences of preparation for brush cytology with direct smear and cell-block techniques. Brush cytology showed better cellularity for diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bile Duct Neoplasms/pathology , Cholangiocarcinoma/pathology , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cytodiagnosis , Female , Gallbladder Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 367-370, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47276

ABSTRACT

Afferent loop syndrome caused by an impacted enterolith is very rare, and endoscopic removal of the enterolith may be difficult if a stricture is present or the normal anatomy has been altered. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy is commonly used for endoscopic fragmentation of biliary and pancreatic duct stones. A 64-year-old man who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy presented with acute, severe abdominal pain for a duration of 2 hours. Initially, he was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis because of an elevated amylase level and pain, but was finally diagnosed with acute afferent loop syndrome when an impacted enterolith was identified by computed tomography. We successfully removed the enterolith using direct electrohydraulic lithotripsy conducted using a transparent cap-fitted endoscope without complications. We found that this procedure was therapeutically beneficial.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Afferent Loop Syndrome , Amylases , Constriction, Pathologic , Endoscopes , Gastrectomy , Gastric Bypass , Humans , Lithotripsy , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatitis
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