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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 317-324, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927136

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The incidence of stroke and/or systemic thromboembolism (SSE) has not been properly evaluated in well-anticoagulated atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. This study investigated the incidence of SSE according to CHA2DS2-VASc score in contemporary well-anticoagulated Korean AF patients. @*Materials and Methods@#From the prospective multicenter COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation (CODE-AF) registry, we identified 9503 patients with non-valvular AF (mean age, 68±8 years; female 35.5%) enrolled between June 2016 and May 2020 with eligible follow-up visits. Stroke incidence in the CODE-AF registry was compared with that in an oral anticoagulant (OAC)-naïve AF cohort from the Korean National Health Insurance database. @*Results@#The usage rates of OACs and antiplatelet agents were 73.5% (non-vitamin K OACs, 56.4%; warfarin, 17.1%) and 23.8%, respectively. During a mean follow-up period of 26.3±9.6 months, 163 (0.78 per 100 person-years) patients had SSE. The incidence rate (per 100 person-years) of SSE was 0.77 in the total population, 0.26 in low-risk patients [CHA2DS2-VASc score 0 (male) or 1 (female)], and 0.88 in high-risk patients (CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2). Contemporary AF patients had a stroke rate that was about one-fifth the stroke rate reported in a Korean OAC-naïve AF cohort. In this cohort, most risk factors for CHA2DS2-VASc score showed significant associations with SSE. Female sex was not associated with an increased risk of stroke/SSE in well-anticoagulated AF patients. @*Conclusion@#Contemporary AF patients have a stroke rate about one-fifth that in OAC-naïve AF patients and exhibit different stroke risk factors.

2.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 851-862, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901666

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads worldwide, cardiac injury in patients infected with COVID-19 becomes a significant concern. Thus, this study investigates the impact of several electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters and disease severity in COVID-19 patients. @*Methods@#Seven medical centers in Daegu admitted 822 patients with COVID-19 between February and April 2020. This study examined 267 patients among them who underwent an ECG test and evaluated their biochemical parameters like C-reactive protein (CRP), log N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac enzyme, and ECG parameters (heart rate, PR interval, QRS interval, T inversion, QT interval, and Tpe [the interval between peak to end in a T wave]). @*Results@#Those patients were divided into 3 groups of mild (100 patients), moderate (89 patients), and severe (78 patients) according to clinical severity score. The level of CRP, log NT-proBNP, and creatinine kinase-myocardial band were significantly increased in severe patients. Meanwhile, severe patients exhibited prolonged QT intervals (QTc) and Tpe (Tpe-c) compared to mild or moderate patients. Moreover, deceased patients (58; 21.7%) showed increased dispersion of QTc and Tpe-c compared with surviving patients (78.2±41.1 vs. 40.8±24.6 ms and 60.2±37.3 vs. 40.8±24.5 ms, both p<0.05, respectively). The QTc dispersion of more than 56.1 ms could predict the mortality in multivariate analysis (odd ratio, 11.55; 95% confidence interval, 3.746–42.306). @*Conclusions@#COVID-19 infections could involve cardiac injuries, especially cardiac repolarization abnormalities. A prolonged QTc dispersion could be an independent predictable factor of mortality.

3.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 235-247, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901649

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs) can be continuously detected by cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs); however, the predictors of clinically relevant AHREs are unclear. @*Methods@#This prospective multicenter study monitored 816 patients (median age 73 years, 40.4% male) without atrial fibrillation (AF) from September 2017 to July 2020. AHREs was defined as a programmed atrial detection rate >220 beats/min. The reference values of 6 minutes and 6 hours were set to analyze clinical implication of AHREs based on previously published data that the 6 minutes excluded most episodes of oversensing. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 18 months (interquartile interval 9–26 months), AHREs with the longest durations of >15 seconds, >6 minutes, and >6 hours and clinically documented AF by electrocardiography were noted in 246 (30.1%), 112 (13.7%), 49 (6.0%), and 24 (2.9%) patients, respectively. Among patients developing AHREs >6 minutes, 102 (91.1%) of 112 patients were identified at the 6-month visit. Patients with AHREs >6 minutes had higher proportions of sick sinus syndrome, subjects with atrial premature beat >1% on Holter monitoring, and larger left atrium (LA) size than patients with AHREs ≤6 minutes.Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that LA diameter >41 mm (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.25–3.45), and sick sinus syndrome (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.91–5.43) were associated with AHREs >6 minutes. @*Conclusions@#In patients with LA diameter >41 mm, and sick sinus syndrome before CIEDs implantation is associated with risk of developing AHREs >6 minutes.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875456

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Comparative occurrence of ischemic stroke for rhythm versus rate control strategy in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is still inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the rhythm control strategy is associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke compared to the rate control strategy in NVAF patients. @*Methods@#The CODE-AF registry prospectively enrolled 6,280 consecutive patients who were treated for NVAF at 10 tertiary referral centers in South Korea. Of these, 2,513 NVAF patients (age, 67 ± 10 years; male, 61.8%) were clinically followed up for over 1-year and divided into rate and rhythm control groups. @*Results@#Those treated with the rhythm control strategy were younger and had less proportions of underlying disease compared to those treated with the rate control strategy. After the propensity matching analysis, those treated with the rhythm control strategy had similar baseline characteristics including the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASC score compared to those treated with the rate control strategy.The rate of oral anticoagulation, all bleeding, and hospitalization were also similarly between the two groups. The incidence rate of ischemic stroke in the rhythm control group was significantly lower than in the rate control group (0.7 vs. 6.9 per 1,000 person-years, p = 0.011). @*Conclusions@#The rhythm control strategy demonstrated a beneficial effect to lower the risk of ischemic stroke during a 1-year follow-up compared to the rate control strategy.

5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 851-862, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893962

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads worldwide, cardiac injury in patients infected with COVID-19 becomes a significant concern. Thus, this study investigates the impact of several electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters and disease severity in COVID-19 patients. @*Methods@#Seven medical centers in Daegu admitted 822 patients with COVID-19 between February and April 2020. This study examined 267 patients among them who underwent an ECG test and evaluated their biochemical parameters like C-reactive protein (CRP), log N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac enzyme, and ECG parameters (heart rate, PR interval, QRS interval, T inversion, QT interval, and Tpe [the interval between peak to end in a T wave]). @*Results@#Those patients were divided into 3 groups of mild (100 patients), moderate (89 patients), and severe (78 patients) according to clinical severity score. The level of CRP, log NT-proBNP, and creatinine kinase-myocardial band were significantly increased in severe patients. Meanwhile, severe patients exhibited prolonged QT intervals (QTc) and Tpe (Tpe-c) compared to mild or moderate patients. Moreover, deceased patients (58; 21.7%) showed increased dispersion of QTc and Tpe-c compared with surviving patients (78.2±41.1 vs. 40.8±24.6 ms and 60.2±37.3 vs. 40.8±24.5 ms, both p<0.05, respectively). The QTc dispersion of more than 56.1 ms could predict the mortality in multivariate analysis (odd ratio, 11.55; 95% confidence interval, 3.746–42.306). @*Conclusions@#COVID-19 infections could involve cardiac injuries, especially cardiac repolarization abnormalities. A prolonged QTc dispersion could be an independent predictable factor of mortality.

6.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 235-247, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893945

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs) can be continuously detected by cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs); however, the predictors of clinically relevant AHREs are unclear. @*Methods@#This prospective multicenter study monitored 816 patients (median age 73 years, 40.4% male) without atrial fibrillation (AF) from September 2017 to July 2020. AHREs was defined as a programmed atrial detection rate >220 beats/min. The reference values of 6 minutes and 6 hours were set to analyze clinical implication of AHREs based on previously published data that the 6 minutes excluded most episodes of oversensing. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 18 months (interquartile interval 9–26 months), AHREs with the longest durations of >15 seconds, >6 minutes, and >6 hours and clinically documented AF by electrocardiography were noted in 246 (30.1%), 112 (13.7%), 49 (6.0%), and 24 (2.9%) patients, respectively. Among patients developing AHREs >6 minutes, 102 (91.1%) of 112 patients were identified at the 6-month visit. Patients with AHREs >6 minutes had higher proportions of sick sinus syndrome, subjects with atrial premature beat >1% on Holter monitoring, and larger left atrium (LA) size than patients with AHREs ≤6 minutes.Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that LA diameter >41 mm (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.25–3.45), and sick sinus syndrome (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.91–5.43) were associated with AHREs >6 minutes. @*Conclusions@#In patients with LA diameter >41 mm, and sick sinus syndrome before CIEDs implantation is associated with risk of developing AHREs >6 minutes.

9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 942-950, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833386

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are the standard of care for primary prevention (PP) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). However, PP ICD implantation is underused in Asian countries. This study investigated ICD implantation rates and factors associated with appropriate PP ICD implants for ICM. @*Materials and Methods@#In this prospective multicenter observational registry (ADVANCE-ICM registry), ICM patients who were eligible for PP ICD were screened and enrolled. Factors associated with appropriate ICD implantation, including hospital and clinical factors, were investigated. @*Results@#Of the 1453 ICM patients eligible for PP ICD [1111 male; median age, 71.0 (61.0–78.0) years], only 76 (5.2%) patients underwent ICD implantation. Among hospital factors, a non-monetary incentive for referral (72.4% vs. 52.9%, p=0.001) and total hospital system score (6.0 vs. 5.0, p=0.013) were higher in the ICD than in the no-ICD group. In multivariate analysis, total hospital system score [odds ratio (OR), 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10–1.50] was an independent factor for predicting ICD implantation, along with clinical factors, including high New York Heart Association class (≥III: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 2.97–17.87) and younger age (<70 years: OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.30–3.53). @*Conclusion@#PP ICD implantation for ICM patients is underused in Korea. Hospital factors were important for improving PP ICD implantation rate, suggesting that new screening and referral systems for ICM patients would improve the PP ICD implantation rate (Clinical trial registration No. NCT03590925).

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831766

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Efforts to reduce stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have focused on increasing physician adherence to oral anticoagulant (OAC) guidelines; however, the high early discontinuation rate of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is a limitation. Although non-VKA OACs (NOACs) are more convenient to administer than warfarin, their lack of monitoring may predispose patients to nonpersistence. We compared the persistence of NOAC and VKA treatment for AF in real-world practice. @*Methods@#In a prospective observational registry (COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation [CODE-AF] registry), 7,013 patients with nonvalvular AF (mean age 67.2 ± 10.9 years, women 36.4%) were consecutively enrolled between June 2016 and June 2017 from 10 tertiary hospitals in Korea. This study included 3,381 patients who started OAC 30 days before enrollment (maintenance group) and 572 patients who newly started OAC (new-starter group). The persistence rate of OAC was evaluated. @*Results@#In the maintenance group, persistence to OAC declined during 6 months, to 88.3% for VKA and 95.5% for NOAC (p < 0.0001). However, the persistence rate was not different among NOACs. In the new-starter group, persistence to OAC declined during 6 months, to 78.9% for VKA and 92.1% for NOAC (p < 0.0001). The persistence rate was lower for rivaroxaban (83.7%) than apixaban (94.6%) and edoxaban (94.1%, p < 0.001). In the new-starter group, diabetes, valve disease, and cancer were related to nonpersistence of OAC. @*Conclusions@#Nonpersistence was significantly lower with NOAC than VKA in both the maintenance and new-starter groups. In only the new-starter group, apixaban or edoxaban showed higher persistence rates than rivaroxaban.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Symptom burden is an important factor in determining the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is frequently accompanied by heart failure (HF). This study investigated the characteristics of AF symptoms with concomitant HF. @*Methods@#A total of 4885 patients with AF were consecutively enrolled through a prospective observational registry (the Comparison Study of Drugs for Symptom Control and Complication Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation [CODE-AF] registry). Clinically diagnosed HF was divided into three categories (preserved, mid-range, and reduced ejection fraction [EF]). Symptom severity was assessed using the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) classification. @*Results@#The presence of AF-related symptoms was comparable irrespective of concomitant HF. Patients with HF with reduced EF demonstrated severe (EHRA classes 3 and 4) and atypical symptoms. HF with preserved EF was also associated with atypical symptoms. Female sex and AF type were associated with the presence of symptoms in AF without HF, and non-maintenance of sinus rhythm and increased left atrial pressure (E/e′ ≥ 15) were factors related to the presence of symptoms in AF with HF. @*Conclusion@#AF with concomitant HF presented with more severe and atypical symptoms than AF without HF. Maintaining the sinus rhythm and reducing the E/e’ ratio are important factors for reducing symptoms in AF with concomitant HF.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835471

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Dose reduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is indicated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with renal impairment. This study investigated anticoagulation patterns and outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). @*Materials and methods@#In a prospective observational registry (CODE-AF), 3445 patients with non-valvular AF including 1129 with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤ 60 mL min−1 1.73 m−2) were identified between June 1, 2016, and July 3, 2017. @*Results@#Compared with patients with no-CKD, patients with CKD more frequently had a high stroke risk (94.9% vs. 67.0%, p < 0.001) and higher NOAC usage rate (61.1% vs. 47.8%, p < 0.001). Among 718 patients with renal indication for dose reduction (RIDR), 7.5% were potentially overdosed. Among 2587 patients with no-RIDR, 79% were potentially underdosed. Compared with patients with no-RIDR, the underdose rates of dabigatran (0% vs. 88.6%, p = 0.001) and rivaroxaban (0% vs. 79.5%, p = 0.001) were lower in patients with RIDR. However, the underdose rate of apixaban was not different (62.5% vs. 53.9%, p = 0.089). The overdose rate of dabigatran (7.5% vs. 0%) and rivaroxaban (13.7% vs. 0%) was higher in RIDR than in no-RIDR patients. Stroke/transient ischemic attack was significantly higher in CKD patients (1.4 vs. 0.6 per 100 person-years, p = 0.045). Aspirin significantly increased minor bleeding in CKD patients compared with controls (p = 0.037). @*Conclusion@#CKD patients might have a high stroke risk and NOAC usage rate. The underdose rate of NOACs decreased in CKD patients, except for apixaban. Aspirin significantly increased minor bleeding in CKD patients.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on the efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for primary prevention in Asian patients are relatively lacking compared to those for secondary prevention. Also, it is important to stratify which patients will benefit from ICD therapy for primary prevention.METHODS: Of 483 consecutive patients who received new implantation of ICD in 9 centers in Korea, 305 patients with reduced left ventricular systolic function and/or documented ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia were enrolled and divided into primary (n = 167) and secondary prevention groups (n = 138).RESULTS: During mean follow-up duration of 2.6 ± 1.6 years, appropriate ICD therapy occurred in 78 patients (25.6%), and appropriate ICD shock and anti-tachycardia pacing occurred in 15.1% and 15.1% of patients, respectively. Appropriate ICD shock rate was not different between the two groups (primary 12% vs. secondary 18.8%, P = 0.118). However, appropriate ICD therapy rate including shock and anti-tachycardia pacing was significantly higher (primary 18% vs. secondary 34.8%, P = 0.001) in the secondary prevention group. Type of prevention and etiology, appropriate and inappropriate ICD shock did not affect all-cause death. High levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, New York Heart Association functional class, low levels of estimated glomerular filtration ratio, and body mass index were associated with death before appropriate ICD shock in the primary prevention group. When patients were categorized in 5 risk score groups according to the sum of values defined by each cut-off level, significant differences in death rate before appropriate ICD shock were observed among risk 0 (0%), 1 (3.6%), 2 (3%), 3 (26.5%), and 4 (40%) (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: In this multicenter regional registry, the frequency of appropriate ICD therapy is not low in the primary prevention group. In addition, combination of poor prognostic factors of heart failure is useful in risk stratification of patients who are not benefiting from ICD therapy for primary prevention.


Subject(s)
Asians , Body Mass Index , Defibrillators, Implantable , Filtration , Follow-Up Studies , Heart , Heart Failure , Humans , Korea , Mortality , Primary Prevention , Risk Assessment , Secondary Prevention , Shock
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Studies on the efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for primary prevention in Asian patients are relatively lacking compared to those for secondary prevention. Also, it is important to stratify which patients will benefit from ICD therapy for primary prevention.@*METHODS@#Of 483 consecutive patients who received new implantation of ICD in 9 centers in Korea, 305 patients with reduced left ventricular systolic function and/or documented ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia were enrolled and divided into primary (n = 167) and secondary prevention groups (n = 138).@*RESULTS@#During mean follow-up duration of 2.6 ± 1.6 years, appropriate ICD therapy occurred in 78 patients (25.6%), and appropriate ICD shock and anti-tachycardia pacing occurred in 15.1% and 15.1% of patients, respectively. Appropriate ICD shock rate was not different between the two groups (primary 12% vs. secondary 18.8%, P = 0.118). However, appropriate ICD therapy rate including shock and anti-tachycardia pacing was significantly higher (primary 18% vs. secondary 34.8%, P = 0.001) in the secondary prevention group. Type of prevention and etiology, appropriate and inappropriate ICD shock did not affect all-cause death. High levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, New York Heart Association functional class, low levels of estimated glomerular filtration ratio, and body mass index were associated with death before appropriate ICD shock in the primary prevention group. When patients were categorized in 5 risk score groups according to the sum of values defined by each cut-off level, significant differences in death rate before appropriate ICD shock were observed among risk 0 (0%), 1 (3.6%), 2 (3%), 3 (26.5%), and 4 (40%) (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#In this multicenter regional registry, the frequency of appropriate ICD therapy is not low in the primary prevention group. In addition, combination of poor prognostic factors of heart failure is useful in risk stratification of patients who are not benefiting from ICD therapy for primary prevention.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Studies on the efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for primary prevention in Asian patients are relatively lacking compared to those for secondary prevention. Also, it is important to stratify which patients will benefit from ICD therapy for primary prevention.@*METHODS@#Of 483 consecutive patients who received new implantation of ICD in 9 centers in Korea, 305 patients with reduced left ventricular systolic function and/or documented ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia were enrolled and divided into primary (n = 167) and secondary prevention groups (n = 138).@*RESULTS@#During mean follow-up duration of 2.6 ± 1.6 years, appropriate ICD therapy occurred in 78 patients (25.6%), and appropriate ICD shock and anti-tachycardia pacing occurred in 15.1% and 15.1% of patients, respectively. Appropriate ICD shock rate was not different between the two groups (primary 12% vs. secondary 18.8%, P = 0.118). However, appropriate ICD therapy rate including shock and anti-tachycardia pacing was significantly higher (primary 18% vs. secondary 34.8%, P = 0.001) in the secondary prevention group. Type of prevention and etiology, appropriate and inappropriate ICD shock did not affect all-cause death. High levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, New York Heart Association functional class, low levels of estimated glomerular filtration ratio, and body mass index were associated with death before appropriate ICD shock in the primary prevention group. When patients were categorized in 5 risk score groups according to the sum of values defined by each cut-off level, significant differences in death rate before appropriate ICD shock were observed among risk 0 (0%), 1 (3.6%), 2 (3%), 3 (26.5%), and 4 (40%) (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#In this multicenter regional registry, the frequency of appropriate ICD therapy is not low in the primary prevention group. In addition, combination of poor prognostic factors of heart failure is useful in risk stratification of patients who are not benefiting from ICD therapy for primary prevention.

16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 277-284, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742534

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Label adherence for non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has not been well evaluated in Asian patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The present study aimed to assess label adherence for NOACs in a Korean AF population and to determine risk factors of off-label prescriptions of NOACs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of AF (CODE-AF) registry, patients with AF who were prescribed NOACs between June 2016 and May 2017 were included. Four NOAC doses were categorized as on- or off-label use according to Korea Food and Drug Regulations. RESULTS: We evaluated 3080 AF patients treated with NOACs (dabigatran 27.2%, rivaroxaban 23.9%, apixaban 36.9%, and edoxaban 12.0%). The mean age was 70.5±9.2 years; 56.0% were men; and the mean CHA₂DS₂-VASc score was 3.3±1.4. Only one-third of the patients (32.7%) was prescribed a standard dose of NOAC. More than one-third of the study population (n=1122, 36.4%) was prescribed an off-label reduced dose of NOAC. Compared to those with an on-label standard dosing, patients with an off-label reduced dose of NOAC were older (≥75 years), women, and had a lower body weight (≤60 kg), renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance ≤50 mL/min), previous stroke, previous bleeding, hypertension, concomitant dronedarone use, and anti-platelet use. CONCLUSION: In real-world practice, more than one-third of patients with NOAC prescriptions received an off-label reduced dose, which could result in an increased risk of stroke. Considering the high risk of stroke in these patients, on-label use of NOAC is recommended.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Asians , Atrial Fibrillation , Body Weight , Cohort Studies , Drug and Narcotic Control , Drug Labeling , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Male , Off-Label Use , Prescriptions , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rivaroxaban , Stroke
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the therapeutic effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) with sleep hygiene in patients with chronic insomnia. METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective, double-blinded, and randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven patients with chronic insomnia were recruited and randomly allocated to two groups; cranial microcurrent therapy (MC) group and sham group. All patients received sleep hygiene education. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were measured at baseline (pre-treatment), and 2 weeks and 4 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: In MC group, the PSQI and ISI showed a tendency to decrease consistently until 4 weeks of treatment. In sham group, PSQI and ISI initially decreased during the first 2 weeks, but it increased after 2 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that combination treatment of CES and sleep hygiene is more effective in treating chronic insomnia than sleep hygiene only as demonstrated by improvement and maintenance of sleep score for 1 month.


Subject(s)
Education , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Humans , Hygiene , Prospective Studies , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 330-342, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759950

ABSTRACT

The choice of an adequate antithrombotic regimen for atrial fibrillation patients undergoing emergent or elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) should be based on the ischemic event and on the risk of bleeding. Recent randomized controlled trials have consistently demonstrated that dual antithrombotic therapeutic regimens, using non-vitamin K anticoagulants and clopidogrel, are superior to triple or dual therapy with warfarin and aspirin. This report incorporates findings of recent notable studies to provide concrete, clinically useful details and recommendations for bleeding risk assessment and optimal antithrombotic therapeutic strategies after PCI. In addition, we introduce guidelines for antithrombotic management after structural heart disease intervention.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Aspirin , Atrial Fibrillation , Heart Diseases , Heart , Hemorrhage , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Risk Assessment , Warfarin
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759920

ABSTRACT

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and have emerged as the treatment of choice in Korea. However, several questions remain regarding the optimal use of these agents in specific clinical situations. In this paper we discuss 1) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease, 2) avoiding confusion with NOAC dosing across indications, 3) cardioversion in a patient treated with a NOAC, 4) AF patients who present with acute stroke while on NOACs, 5) NOACs in special situations, 6) anticoagulation in AF patients with a malignancy, and 7) optimizing VKA dose adjustments.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation , Coronary Artery Disease , Electric Countershock , Heart , Humans , Korea , Stroke , Vitamin K
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761831

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify relative age effects of South Korea national male football teams that participated in 38 international competitions in age-specific categories from 2000 to 2018; U-16 (n=176), U-17 (n=82), U-19 (n=198), U-20 (n=147), and U-23 (n=166). METHODS: Available information on birth-dates, heights, and body weights of South Korean elite male football players was collected from the official websites. Chi-square test was conducted and odds ratios were calculated with 95% confidence interval in order to examine differences of quarter distribution between expected and observed subgroups. RESULTS: The birth distributions observed in each team were significantly different than those expected in general population of the same age (U-16: χ2=59.364, p<0.05; U-17: χ2=36.829, p<0.05; U-19: χ2=51.697, p<0.05; U-20: χ2=39.531, p<0.05) except U-23 (χ2=17.759, p=0.087). The magnitude of birth distribution was 3.2 times higher in the first quarter compared to that in the fourth quarter and was decreased in accordance with age. In accordance with age, the distribution of “competition age group” was significantly decreased in each team (U-16, 91%; U-17, 89%; U-19, 76%; U-20, 63%; U-23, 42%; p<0.05) but that of “under-competition age group” was increased (U-16, 9%; U-17, 1 1%; U-19, 2 4%; U-20, 37%; U-23, 5 8%; p <0.05). There is also significant difference in distribution between both “competition” and “under-competition age group” at the same tournament category (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Conclusively, these findings indicate that Korean players who are in the early stage of development have higher “relative age effects” than those in the late stage of development. This may implicate that it is necessary to develop strategies for relatively late-mature players who have potentials in terms of skills and intelligence of football.


Subject(s)
Aptitude , Body Weight , Football , Humans , Intelligence , Korea , Male , Odds Ratio , Parturition
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