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1.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 21-45, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967493

ABSTRACT

Clonazepam, a 7-nitrobenzodiazepine, has been used for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders such as seizures, sleep disorders, panic disorders, anxiety, and movement disorders. However, clonazepam is officially approved as a therapeutic drug only for epilepsy and panic disorders in Korea. This raises ethical issues in clinical practice, as clonazepam is prescribed off-label for most neuropsychiatric disorders in many other countries as well. The misuse and abuse of clonazepam as a recreational drug have also been commonly reported in global literature. In this review, as a therapeutic drug as the authors aim to highlight the pharmacological aspects, clinical effects, and potential addictive risks of clonazepam use, by reviewing the current literature on clonazepam to increase its clinical use by accurately understanding and identifying its psychopharmacological benefits and characteristics. However, establishing the risk/benefit ratio of clonazepam for use in specific clinical situations is difficult because of the lack of adequate updated data. Therefore, the use of clonazepam needs to be approached from the point of view of personalized drug treatment rather than following fixed guidelines which would not reflect the current real-world clinical practices.

2.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 135-142, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900088

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study examined the satisfaction of patients who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy to provide important information for improving the social misunderstanding about electroconvulsive therapy, to increase the effectiveness of treatment, and make a decision of effective treatment. @*Methods@#A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction, adverse effects, attitudes, and experiences toward electroconvulsive therapy in patients at 2 to 4 weeks after finishing an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy in three psychiatric hospitals. @*Results@#There were 85 respondents (38 males), whose average age was 42.0±13.6 years and average illness duration was 12.8±8.9 years. Fifty-two patients (61.2%), 19 (22.4%), 8 (9.4%), and 6 (7.1%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and other mental disorders, respectively. The average session number for acute electroconvulsive therapy was 12.6±6.0 sessions, and 61 patients (71.8%) had received maintenance electroconvulsive therapy. Among the respondents, 60.0% reported that they were satisfied with the electroconvulsive therapy. Satisfaction was similar according to sex, age, diagnosis, electrode placement, and use of anesthetic agents. Forty-three (53.8%) patients experienced memory impairment during acute electroconvulsive therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that patients who received electroconvulsive therapy were generally satisfied with the treatment and that memory impairment should be detected early and managed promptly. Follow-up studies with a large number of subjects and variables will be needed to determine the predictive factors affecting satisfaction toward electroconvulsive therapy.

3.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 135-142, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892384

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study examined the satisfaction of patients who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy to provide important information for improving the social misunderstanding about electroconvulsive therapy, to increase the effectiveness of treatment, and make a decision of effective treatment. @*Methods@#A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction, adverse effects, attitudes, and experiences toward electroconvulsive therapy in patients at 2 to 4 weeks after finishing an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy in three psychiatric hospitals. @*Results@#There were 85 respondents (38 males), whose average age was 42.0±13.6 years and average illness duration was 12.8±8.9 years. Fifty-two patients (61.2%), 19 (22.4%), 8 (9.4%), and 6 (7.1%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and other mental disorders, respectively. The average session number for acute electroconvulsive therapy was 12.6±6.0 sessions, and 61 patients (71.8%) had received maintenance electroconvulsive therapy. Among the respondents, 60.0% reported that they were satisfied with the electroconvulsive therapy. Satisfaction was similar according to sex, age, diagnosis, electrode placement, and use of anesthetic agents. Forty-three (53.8%) patients experienced memory impairment during acute electroconvulsive therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that patients who received electroconvulsive therapy were generally satisfied with the treatment and that memory impairment should be detected early and managed promptly. Follow-up studies with a large number of subjects and variables will be needed to determine the predictive factors affecting satisfaction toward electroconvulsive therapy.

4.
Journal of Agricultural Medicine & Community Health ; : 13-23, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate a relationship between the blood concentrations of toxic metals and the blood pressure in people living near the copper smelter. METHODS: The study included 570 adults living within 4km of the smelter. We compared systolic and diastolic blood pressure between tertiary groups for blood cadmium, mercury and lead levels, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors affecting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. RESULTS: In male subjects, there is a significant difference in the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between tertiary groups of blood cadmium and mercury levels, but in women, there was no significant difference in the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures in all tertiary groups of heavy metals. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that age, BMI, and cadmium concentration in men were risk factors for blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Residents living near the Janghang smelter showed high concentrations of blood lead and cadmium, suggesting that they were exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals released from the smelter in the past. Such exposure may have caused some blood pressure increase. Especially, the concentration of cadmium in the case of men and the concentration of mercury in blood in the case of women were found to be significantly related to the increase of blood pressure. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize cardiovascular disease, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Blood Pressure , Cadmium , Cardiovascular Diseases , Copper , Korea , Metals , Metals, Heavy , Risk Factors
5.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 395-401, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is investigate the clinical characteristics and the change of depression and anxiety in pathological gamblers who completed 10-week admission treatment programs. METHODS: To investigate the clinical characteristics, we included 40 pathological gamblers who completed admission treatment programs from Jan 2006 to Jun 2010. To measure the change through treatment, we included 16 patients who completed pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment scales, including the Korean-National Opinion Research Center DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems (K-NODS), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and the State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), from May 2008 to Aug 2008. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 42.9+/-9.0 years and mean intelligent quotient was 109.7+/-10.4. Thirty (75%) patients showed comorbid disorders, including depression (14 patients, 35%), anxiety disorder (five patients, 12.5%), alcohol use disorder (five patients, 12.5%), and personality disorder (four patients, 10%). After treatment, K-NODS, BDI, STAI-I, and STAI-II scores showed improvement, from 9.1+/-1.5 to 7.6+/-2.7, from 23.5+/-5.8 to 11.1+/-3.2, from 52.6+/-10.3 to 41.9+/-7.1, and from 53.7+/-10.6 to 46.0+/-4.4, respectively. CONCLUSION: In treatment of pathological gambling, comorbid psychiatric risk factors, such as depression and anxiety should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Depression , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Gambling , Personality Disorders , Risk Factors , Weights and Measures
6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 853-859, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223647

ABSTRACT

Different subtypes of dendritic cells (DC) influence the differentiation of naive T lymphocytes into T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 effector cells. We evaluated the percentages of DC subtypes in peripheral blood from pregnant women (maternal blood) and their cord blood compared to the peripheral blood of healthy non pregnant women (control). Circulating DC were identified by flow cytometry as lineage (CD3, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD20, and CD56)-negative and HLA-DR-positive cells. Subtypes of DC were further characterized as myeloid DC (CD11c+/CD123+/-), lymphoid DC (CD11c-/CD123+++) and less differentiated DC (CD11c-/CD123+/-). The frequency of DC out of all nucleated cells was significantly lower in maternal blood than in control (P<0.001). The ratio of myeloid DC/lymphoid DC was significantly higher in maternal blood than in control (P<0.01). HLA-DR expressions of myeloid DC as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) were significantly less in maternal blood and in cord blood than in control (P<0.001, respectively). The DC differentiation factors, TNF-alpha and GM-CSF, released from mononuclear cells after lipopolysaccharide stimulation were significantly lower in maternal blood than in control (P<0.01). The distribution of DC subtypes was different in maternal and cord blood from those of non-pregnant women. Their role during pregnancy remains to be determined.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Cell Differentiation , Dendritic Cells/classification , Fetal Blood/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Th1 Cells/cytology , Th2 Cells/cytology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
7.
Journal of the Korean Geriatrics Society ; : 142-151, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in Abeta-induced neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We measured the membrane potentials of mitochondria (delta psim) and assessed the genetic expressions of A beta(25-35)-induced neurotoxicity in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH cell. METHODS: SK-N-SH cells were incubated with a single dose of 25 micrometer A beta(25-35) for 0-24 hours, and kinetic study was done. delta psim was measured by flow cytometry. Messenger RNA expressions of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), cytochrome c, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), amyloid-beta alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD), caspase 9, and Bcl-2 were measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). Cell death rate was measured by MTT reduction assay. RESULTS: delta psim was reduced at 24 hours. mRNA expression for COX gradually decreased by about 29% (p<0.05) while-expressions for cytochrome c, SDH, ABAD, and caspase 9 increased (p<0.05) progressively during the 24-hour time period. Bcl-2 expression decreased (p<0.05) gradually; and apoptotic cell death rate was about 24% (p<0.01) by 24 hours. CONCLUSION: Extracellular administration of A beta(25-35) contributes directly to mitochondrial dysfunction in SK-N-SH cells with the enzymatic impairment of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transport chain, and eventually leading to apoptotic cell death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Dehydrogenase , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Apoptosis , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Citric Acid Cycle , Cytochromes c , Electron Transport , Electron Transport Complex IV , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Membrane Potentials , Mitochondria , Neuroblastoma , Neurons , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Succinate Dehydrogenase
8.
The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; : 207-213, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current status of external quality assessment (EQA) of laboratory tests for syphilis in Korea was analyzed to find out the problems that should be improved in the future. METHODS: Based on the data from the external quality assessment program performed twice a year by the Immunoserology Subcommittee of the Korean Association of Quality Assurance for Clinical Laboratory from the year 2004 to 2006, discordance rates were analyzed according to the test method and commercial kit used. RESULTS: Among the laboratories participating in the EQA program for syphilis test, about 90% of them used non-treponemal tests and about 55% treponemal tests. The non-treponemal tests included RPR (rapid plasma reagin) and VDRL tests used in 88% (363/412) and 11% (45/412), respectively, of the laboratories. The discordance rates were 2.2% for RPR test and 3.6% for VDRL. For the treponemal tests, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) was used in 60-76% and Immunochromatography assay (ICA) in about 30% of the laboratories in 2006. A high discordance rate of over 10% was reported in both TPHA and in ICA methods, possibly due to a low titer (1:1 in VDRL) of EQA samples in 2005. Analysis of the accumulated data from year 2004 to 2006 showed that the discordance rates of TPHA, ICA, and FTA-ABS were 4.6%, 3.7%, and 2.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For syphilis tests, RPR test, TPHA, and ICA are mainly used in Korea. A high discordance rate is still reported in TPHA and ICA, especially when testing samples with a low titer. Further analysis of data and education of laboratory personnel are needed for the improvement of the EQA program.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , False Positive Reactions , Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test , Korea , Quality Control , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis Serodiagnosis/methods , Treponema Immobilization Test
9.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 443-448, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-724157

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare severity of disability and quality of life between the handicapped residing in a welfare facility and the handicapped living at home. METHOD: This research conducted a survey for the handicapped persons in Goyang city. The survey consisted of the following items: disability diagnosis, modified Barthel index (MBI), Korean-activities of daily living (K-ADL), 8-item short form health survey instrument (SF-8) and life domain satisfaction measure (LDSM). A total number of 144 handicapped persons participated, and 66 among them lived at home. RESULTS: In regard to the range of activities of daily living MBI, K-ADL and quality of life; SF-8, those who resided in a welfare facility showed higher scores. In terms of satisfaction of life, the two groups did not show significant difference in housing, education and family relationship. However, as for leisure and health, those who resided in a welfare facility showed higher satisfaction. CONCLUSION: The handicapped persons residing in a welfare facility could function more independently in carrying out daily activities, and they showed higher quality and more satisfaction of life compared to those who lived at home. These results support that more attention would be needed for disabled persons at home to make welfare and rehabilitation policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Disabled Persons , Family Relations , Health Surveys , Housing , Leisure Activities , Lifting , Quality of Life
10.
Journal of the Korean Geriatrics Society ; : 235-245, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We determined the changes of complement regulator gene expression in the amyloid-beta1-42(A beta1-42) and interferon-gamma(IFN-gamma)-stimulated human astrocytoma cell line. METHODS: The human astrocytoma cell line, U373MG, was stimulated with IFN-gamma(62.5-1,000U/ml) in the presence or absence of aggregated A beta1-42(1-20micrometer) for 24 hours. Messenger RNA expression of C1 inhibitor(C1-INH), complement factor I(CFI), clusterin, vitronectin, decay accelerating factor(DAF), membrane cofactor protein(MCP), and CD59 was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. RESULTS: IFN-gamma(final concentration, 500U/ml) markedly increased the expression of mRNA for C1-INH in a time dependent fashion. A beta1-42(final concentration, 2micrometer) induced a slight increase in the expression of C1-INH. Messenger RNAs for CFI and clusterin were minimally increased, but other regulators were unchanged or decreased by either A beta1-42 or IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma overrode A beta1-42-induced mRNA expression of C1-INH when the cells were treated with these two reagents together. CONCLUSION: Among the complement regulator genes in the human astrocytoma cell line, U373MG, only C1-INH was significantly up-regulated by IFN-gamma with or without A beta1-42 administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Aminopeptidases , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Astrocytoma , Cell Line , Clusterin , Complement Factor I , Complement System Proteins , Genes, Regulator , Indicators and Reagents , Interferon-gamma , Interferons , Membranes , RNA, Messenger , Vitronectin
11.
The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; : 312-318, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance and false positive rate of Mediace RPR test (Sekisui, Japan), a newly introduced nontreponemal test using a chemistry autoanalyzer. METHODS: The sensitivity of Mediace RPR test was analyzed using sera from 50 patients with syphilis in different stages (8 primary, 7 secondary, and 35 latent), 14 sera positive with fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) IgM, and 74 sera positive with conventional rapid plasma regain (RPR) card test (Asan, Korea) and also positive with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test or FTA-ABS IgG test. The specificity was analyzed on 108 healthy blood donors. We also performed RPR card test on 302 sera that had been tested positive with Mediace RPR test and also performed TPHA or FTA-ABS IgG test to analyze the false positive rate of Mediace RPR test. A cutoff value of 0.5 R.U. (RPR unit) was used for Mediace RPR test. RESULTS: Mediace RPR test on syphilitic sera of different stages (primary, secondary, and latent stages) and FTA-ABS IgM positive sera showed a sensitivity of 100%, 100%, 82.9% and 100%, respectively. Among the 74 sera positive with conventional RPR card test and TPHA or FTA-ABS IgG test, 55 were positive with Mediace test. The specificity of Mediace RPR test on blood donors was 97.2%. Among the 302 sera positive with Mediace RPR test, 137 sera (45.4%) were negative by RPR card and TPHA/FTA-ABS IgG tests. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sensitivities of Mediace RPR were good for primary and secondary syphilis, due to its high negative rate of Mediace RPR over the conventional RPR positive samples, further studies are necessary whether it can replace conventional nontreponemal test for screening purpose. Moreover, in view of the high false positive rate, positive results by Mediace RPR test should be confirmed with treponemal tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoanalysis/methods , False Positive Reactions , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis Serodiagnosis/methods
12.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 26-34, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218240

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was aimed at understanding the nature of the suffering of families with patients in mental health nursing homes and hoped to contribute to the rehabilitation process of those with a chronic mental disorder. METHOD: Research methodology was based upon Parse's human becoming research methodology. RESULTS: a) Despite the despair the family feels by the violence caused by their now-institutionalized relative, they also realize anew the importance of their role as protectors b) Although they fear social stigmatization they also try to be supportive, out of guilt feelings; c) They regret their severe rearing style and wish to be more sympathetic, d) They find courage and hope through family therapy, which leads to a better understanding of the illness, e) With hopes of rehabilitation, the family members feel happy and go through an emotional release, by sharing the pain with each other. CONCLUSION: Families of nursing home residents share a focus on the process of human-health-universe. This is a positive, 'human-becoming' process with which, based on past feelings of despair, fear, resignation, and pain, one can render meaning into his or her experiences in the present in the pursuit of love, conquest, hope, liberty and success.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caregivers/psychology , Chronic Disease , Family Nursing , Family Relations , Mental Health , Nursing Homes , Nursing Methodology Research/methods , Psychiatric Nursing , Schizophrenia/nursing
13.
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 260-264, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80663

ABSTRACT

A positive HLA crossmatch in cadevaric liver transplantation is relatively acceptable, but in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using relatively small sized grafts, the rejection rates were higher in positive crossmatchcases than in negative cases, as described in several previous reports. We report a case of LDLT performed with therapeutic plasmapheresis, in a recipient with a positive HLA crossmatch to donor before transplantation. The patient was a 56-year-old male patient with liver cirrhosis (UNOS status IIA, MELD score 28) caused by chronic hepatitis B. The HLA crossmatch results were 1:2 and 1:8 positive for NIH-CDC (complement dependent cytotoxicity) and AHG-CDC, respectively. The flow cytometric crossmatch (FCXM) was also positive (T-MFI ratio 9.0 and B-MFI ratio 3.4). With 5 cycles of preoperative therapeutic plasmapheresis, the HLA crossmatch converted to negative and liver transplantation was performed. The liver function of the patient was well maintained for 5 months, without any sign of hyperacute or acute rejection. However, the patient eventually died from suddenly occurred infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome at 5 months after surgery. Therapeutic plasmapheresis can be considered as one of therapeutic options for LDLT patients with a positive HLA crossmatch to donor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Living Donors , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Plasmapheresis , Tissue Donors , Transplants
14.
The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; : 451-457, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some differences exist among various Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA quantification assays due to lack of standardization and besides clinical usefulness has not been firmly elucidated in Korean HBV patients. METHODS: We compared Bayer VERSANT HBV DNA 3.0 Assay (VERSANT 3.0) with Digene Hybrid Capture II HBV DNA Test (HC-II) according to HBeAg status and ALT levels in 232 HBV-infected Korean patients. One hundred and seventeen sera with undetectable DNA levels by HC-II were further analyzed by Real-Q HBV quantification assay (BioSewoom). RESULTS: Although VERSANT 3.0 and HC-II showed an excellent correlation (r=0.9739), the results (copies/mL) by VERSANT 3.0 were 0.45 log10 higher than those by HC-II. HBV DNA levels were higher in HBeAg-positive group than in HBeAg-negative group (P=0.002), and in abnormal ALT group than in normal ALT group (P<0.0001). The detection rate of HBV DNA by VERSANT 3.0 was lower in HBeAg-negative and normal ALT group (n=68) than in HBeAg-positive or abnormal ALT group (n=164) (35.3% vs 89.6%, P<0.0001). Fifty two sera out of 61 sera with undetectable DNA by VERSANT 3.0 were measurable by Real-Q with mean value of 3.26 log10 copies/mL. CONCLUSIONS: VERSANT 3.0 and HC-II showed an excellent correlation, but a little difference (0.45 log10) existed. VERSANT 3.0 effectively measured clinically relevant HBV DNA levels in most HBVinfected patients in Korea. However, more sensitive assays are needed for patients with negative HBeAg and normal ALT to see the low copies of HBV DNA levels.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , DNA, Viral/analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hepatitis B e Antigens/metabolism , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Hybridization/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Regression Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Journal of the Korean Geriatrics Society ; : 130-138, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) could influence the expression of a few inflammatory mediator-related genes in amyloid-beta1-42(Abeta42)-activated microglia. METHODS: BV-2 cells, a murine microglial cell line, were pretreated with a single dose of 20microM of aggregated Abeta42 for 18 hours followed by incubation with ibuprofen(100microM), indomethacin(150microM) or ketorolac(10nM) for 24 hours. Expression of mRNAs for CCL7(beta-chemokine), CXCL2(alpha-chemokine), CCR7(beta-chemokine receptor), interleukin(IL)-1alpha, matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-3, beta-secretase(BACE1) and cyclooxygenase(COX)-2 gene were measured with quantitative realtime reverse transcriptase(RT)-PCR. RESULTS: Abeta42 increased expression of mRNAs for CCL7, CXCL2, CCR7, IL-1alpha, MMP-3, BACE1 and COX-2 genes. Administration of each NSAIDs effectively lowered the expression of these genes in Abeta42-activated microglia. CONCLUSION: NSAIDs inhibit increased expression of a few cytokines, chemokine receptor and inflammatory mediatorrelated protease genes in Abeta42-activated microglia. These data demonstrate a possible mechanism how NSAIDS may decrease the risk and delay the onset of chronic neuroinflammatory process in AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cell Line , Chemokine CCL7 , Cytokines , Gene Expression , Microglia , RNA, Messenger
16.
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 106-115, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ABO genotyping is being used increasingly when the results of serologic typing are unclear or there is some suspicion of rare ABO subtypes. Conventional molecular diagnostic methods such as PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), allele-specific PCR, PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequence-based typing have been used in this field. Recently, a pyrosequencing technique was introduced into clinical laboratories. This study evaluated the possibility of applying pyrosequencing to ABO genotyping. METHODS: A total of 36 samples, which had previously been analyzed by PCR-RFLP and serological method in the Blood Genetics Clinic of Seoul National University Hospital between August 2001 and September 2004 and shown to have the A/A, A/B, A/O, B/B, B/O, O/O, cis-AB/O, cis-AB/A, or cis-AB/B genotypes, were analyzed by pyrosequencing analysis. Briefly, two PCR reactions were carried out separately for one region including nucleotide 261, and for another region including nucleotides 796 and 803. Pyrosequencing was then performed, and the pyrograms were interpreted using an automated interpretation program from the manufacturer and by researchers independently to determine the nucleotides 261, 796 and 803 for ABO genotyping. RESULTS: The ABO genotypes from pyrosequencing and the interpretation of the pyrograms according to the researcher on 36 samples were in complete concordance with the results obtained by PCR-RFLP. The ABO genotypes from the automated interpretation program showed an error in one out of total 108 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) analyses (eRROR RATE=0.9%) OF 36 SAMPLES. CONCLUSION: ABO genotyping for A, B, O, cis-AB alleles by pyrosequencing of nucleotides 261, 796 and 803 was relatively simple and accurate and could be an another field we can use in clinical laboratories.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Genetics , Genotype , Nucleotides , Pathology, Molecular , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Seoul
17.
Korean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 2399-2403, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95645

ABSTRACT

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a chronic myeloproliferative disease characterized by a markedly elevated platelet count in the peripheral blood due to excessive proliferation of bone marrow megakaryocytes. When the disease affects women during pregnancy, an adverse obstetric outcome is possible: miscarriages, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death, preeclampsia. Maternal complications, both thrombotic and hemorrhagic, were reported relatively infrequently. Various treatments as acetylsalicylic acid, hydroxyurea, anagrelide, heparin, interferon-alpha and plateletpheresis have been proposed to improve the pregnancy. Our case was a 38 years old multiparous women at 37 weeks of gestation with preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction. Under the impression of oligohydramnios and fetal distress, an emergency cesarean section was performed under epidural anesthesia. During cesarean section, sudden cardiac arrest with unknown cause was developed, and successful resuscitation was done. After cesarean section, patient continued to elevate platelet count. So bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were performed and showed essential thrombocythemia. We report a case of essential thrombocythemia diagnosed during pregnancy with brief review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous , Anesthesia, Epidural , Aspirin , Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Cesarean Section , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Emergencies , Fetal Death , Fetal Distress , Fetal Growth Retardation , Heparin , Hydroxyurea , Interferon-alpha , Megakaryocytes , Oligohydramnios , Platelet Count , Plateletpheresis , Pre-Eclampsia , Resuscitation , Thrombocythemia, Essential
18.
Journal of the Korean Geriatrics Society ; : 115-124, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26143

ABSTRACT

Background: We investigated whether any single nucleotide polymorphism of the 7 candidate susceptibility genes is associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Genomic DNA from brain tissues of registered cases of autopsy-confirmed, sporadic AD (n=45) and from non-demented cerebral infarct with atherosclerosis (A/S, n=36) as a control group were isolated and single strand conformational polymorphism was done. Results: 287 base pair insertion/deletion (I/D) of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) was most frequent genotype in AD and infarct- A/S. Among (GT)18, (GT)19 and (GT)20 polymorphism, (GT)18 polymorphism in the promoter region of neprilysin (NEP) was most com- monly found in AD and infarct-A/S. CT genotype of NEP*159C>T in 3'-untranslated region was most frequent genotype in AD and infarct-A/S. ACE genotype and allele both were associated with the frequency of NEP (GT)n genotype (p<0.05) in AD. Polymorphisms of cathepsin D, nitric oxide synthase 3, low density lipoprotein receptor related-protein, G protein beta3-subunit and LBP-1c/CP2/LSF transcriptional factor were not related to AD. Conclusion: Coexistence of ACE I/D and NEP (GT)n polymorphism appeared to be a genetic risk factor for sporadic AD in comparison with cerebral infarct-atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Alzheimer Disease , Atherosclerosis , Base Pairing , Brain , Cathepsin D , DNA , Genotype , GTP-Binding Proteins , Neprilysin , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Receptors, LDL , Risk Factors
19.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 88-95, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microglia is a primary cellular component of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Beta amyloid deposits attract microglia and activate them to produce inflammatory mediators. The objectives of this study were to characterize activation of the microglia; production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), constitutive and upregulated expression of complement regulators, and intracellular localization of amyloid by phagocytosis. METHODS: BV-2 cells, mouse microglia cell line, were incubated for 3~18 hours with a single dose of 20 micro M of aggregated A beta1-42. ROS measurement was done with FACScan. Messenger RNA expressions of C1-INH, vitronectin, CD59, clusterin, factor H, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by RT-PCR. The intensity of bands from 6% polyacrylamide electrophoretic gel was analyzed by a bioimage analyzer. The intracellular localization of A beta in the phagocytosed microglia was observed by transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: A beta1-42 activates microglia with an increase of ROS production. Expression of mRNA for SOD was also increased. Messenger RNA for C1-INH and vitronectin were upregulated. A beta fibrils were located in the phagosome of microglia. CONCLUSIONS: A beta activated microglia are playing dual roles as effector and scavenger cell, which as a result, may contribute to the chronic neuroinflammation of Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Cell Line , Clusterin , Complement Factor H , Complement System Proteins , Genes, Regulator , Microglia , Phagocytosis , Phagosomes , Plaque, Amyloid , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger , Superoxide Dismutase , Vitronectin
20.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 565-573, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213597

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Monacolin-inoculated rice embryo on the body fat and serum lipid profiles in 61 obese elementary school students. The subjects divided into two groups 31 obese children had the experimental diet (rice embryo inoculated Monacolin) and 30 obese children had the control diet three times a day after meals. The mean age, height, weight, and BMI of 61 subjects were 10.5 +/- 0.5 years, 143.6 +/- 6.8 cm, 55.0 +/- 8.9 kg, and 26.1 +/- 3.9, respectively. The changes of body fat mass (kg) in experimental group and control group after 6 weeks were -0.60 kg and -0.03 kg, respectively. The changes of body fat (%) in experimental group and control group after 6 weeks were -1.44% and -0.25%, respectively. These changes of body fat in experimental group were significantly higher than in control group (p < 0.05). The change of total-cholesterol in experimental group and control group during 6 weeks were -17.52 mg/dL and -1.70 mg/dL, respectively. The change of LDL-cholesterol in experimental group and control group during 6 weeks were -17.06 mg/dL and -2.80 mg/dL, respectively. The change of triglyceride in experimental group and control group after 6 weeks were -9.58 mg/dL and 11.67 mg/dL. Total-cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol and triglyceride of experimental group after 6 weeks significantly decreased compared to control group (p < 0.05). After experimental diet (6 weeks), total-cholesterol was negatively correlated with body water contents, soft lean mass and fat free mass (p < 0.05). Triglyceride showed a significantly positive correlation with body weight and body fat mass, however, it was negatively correlated with fat free mass (p < 0.05). HDL-cholesterol showed a significantly positive correlation with fat free mass (p < 0.05). These results show that Monacolin-inoculated rice embryo is effective in decreasing body fat and blood lipid in obese children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adipose Tissue , Body Water , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Diet , Embryonic Structures , Meals , Triglycerides
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