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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 180-186, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126258

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) should be treated as hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) according to guidelines published in 2005. However, controversy still exists on whether the high mortality of NHAP results from multidrug resistant pathogens or underlying disease. We aimed to outline differences and factors contributing to mortality between NHAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients aged 65 years or older with either CAP or NHAP from 2008 to 2014. Patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia other than NHAP or HAP were excluded. RESULTS: Among 317 patients, 212 patients had CAP and 105 had NHAP. Patients with NHAP had higher mortality, more frequently used a ventilator, and had disease of higher severity than CAP. The incidences of aspiration, tube feeding, and poor functional status were higher in NHAP. Twenty three out of 54 NHAP patients and three out of 62 CAP patients had multidrug resistant pathogens (p<0.001). Eleven patients with NHAP died at discharge, compared to 7 patients with CAP (p=0.009). However, there was no association between mortality rate and presence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. The number of involved lobes on chest X-ray [odds ratio (OR)=1.708; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.120 to 2.605] and use of mechanical ventilation (OR=9.537; 95% CI, 1.635 to 55.632) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with NHAP had higher mortality than patients with CAP. The excess mortality among patients with NHAP and CAP was related to disease severity but not to the presence of multidrug resistant pathogens.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Nursing Homes , Odds Ratio , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105222

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, despite advances in diagnosis and antibacterial treatment. Pneumonia is often misdiagnosed and mistreated up until recently. Recent classification of pneumonia consists of community-acquired pneumonia, health care-associated pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The etiology, risk factors, and treatment are different among them. This article briefly introduces new concepts and ideas in biomarkers, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of pneumonia during the past 2 years. One of the most frequent subjects of recent papers was those about pandemic H1N1 in 2009.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Pandemics , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Prognosis , Risk Factors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112927

ABSTRACT

Toxocariasis is one of the causes of pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrate that is increasing in Korea. This study was designed to identify the prevalence of toxocara seropositivity in patients with unexplained pulmonary patchy infiltrate and to evaluate associated factors. We evaluated 102 patients with unexplained pulmonary patchy infiltrate on chest computed tomography (CT) scan. As a control set, 116 subjects with normal chest CT were also evaluated. History of allergic disease, drug use, parasitic disease and raw cow liver intake were taken. Blood eosinophil count and total IgE level were measured. Specific serum IgG antibody to Toxocara canis larval antigen and specific IgG antibodies to 4 other parasites were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the infiltrate group, 66.7% subjects were toxocara seropositive whereas 22.4% of the control group were seropositive (p< 0.001). In the infiltrate group, patients with a history of eating raw cow liver (odds ratio [OR], 7.8) and patients with eosinophilia (OR, 5.2) had a higher incidence of toxocara seropositivity. Thirty-five percent of toxocara seropositive patients with infiltrate exhibited migrating infiltrate and 48% had decreased infiltrate on the follow- up CT. We recommend that toxocara ELISA should be performed in patients with unexplained pulmonary patchy infiltrate, and that the eating of raw cow liver should be actively discouraged.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Animals , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Korea , Leukocyte Count , Liver/parasitology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/diagnosis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Toxocara/immunology , Toxocariasis/complications
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179429

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary cavities are caused by bacterial pneumonia, fungal diseases, lung cancer, and tuberculosis (TB). However, in Korea, patients with cavitary lung lesions are generally considered to have pulmonary TB, where the incidence of TB is approximately 70 /100,000 per year. We report a case of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis that was obscured by multidrug-resistant pulmonary TB.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , Humans , Incidence , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Korea , Lung , Lung Diseases , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134485

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) may produce abnormalities in the peripheral blood, including anemia. However, the evolution of TB-associated anemia with short-term combination anti-TB chemotherapy has not been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to characterize TB-associated anemia by clarifying its prevalence, characteristics, and evolution, through involving large numbers of patients with TB. The medical records of adult patients with TB diagnosed between June 2000 and May 2001 were reviewed. Among 880 patients with TB, 281 (31.9%) had anemia on diagnosis of TB, however, the hemoglobin concentration was less than 10 g/dL in only 45 patients (5.0%). Anemia was more frequently associated with the female and old age. Good treatment response, young age (< or =65 yr-old) and initial high hemoglobin were the predictive factor for resolution of anemia. In 202 patients with anemia (71.9%), anemia was normocytic and normochromic. During or after anti-TB treatment, anemia was resolved in 175 (64.6%) out of 271 patients without iron intake. The mean duration of resolution from the initiation of anti-TB treatment was 118.8+/-113.2 days. In conclusion, anemia is a common hematological abnormality in patients with TB and close observation is sufficient for patients with TB-associated anemia, because TBassociated anemia is usually mild and resolves with anti-TB treatment.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment/methods , Prevalence , Middle Aged , Male , Korea/epidemiology , Humans , Female , Comorbidity , Causality , Anemia/epidemiology , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Age Distribution , Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134484

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) may produce abnormalities in the peripheral blood, including anemia. However, the evolution of TB-associated anemia with short-term combination anti-TB chemotherapy has not been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to characterize TB-associated anemia by clarifying its prevalence, characteristics, and evolution, through involving large numbers of patients with TB. The medical records of adult patients with TB diagnosed between June 2000 and May 2001 were reviewed. Among 880 patients with TB, 281 (31.9%) had anemia on diagnosis of TB, however, the hemoglobin concentration was less than 10 g/dL in only 45 patients (5.0%). Anemia was more frequently associated with the female and old age. Good treatment response, young age (< or =65 yr-old) and initial high hemoglobin were the predictive factor for resolution of anemia. In 202 patients with anemia (71.9%), anemia was normocytic and normochromic. During or after anti-TB treatment, anemia was resolved in 175 (64.6%) out of 271 patients without iron intake. The mean duration of resolution from the initiation of anti-TB treatment was 118.8+/-113.2 days. In conclusion, anemia is a common hematological abnormality in patients with TB and close observation is sufficient for patients with TB-associated anemia, because TBassociated anemia is usually mild and resolves with anti-TB treatment.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment/methods , Prevalence , Middle Aged , Male , Korea/epidemiology , Humans , Female , Comorbidity , Causality , Anemia/epidemiology , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Age Distribution , Adult
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some malignancies including lymphoma, head and neck cancer, and lung cancer are believed to be associated with the reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) because cyclic anti-cancer chemotherapy can induce the leukopenia or immunological deterioration. This report describes the clinical characteristics and treatment response of TB that developed during cyclic anti-cancer chemotherapy in patients with a solid tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1 2000 to July 31 2004, patients with TB diagnosed microbiologically, pa?thologically, or clinically during anti-cancer chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital were enrolled, and their medical records were reviewed. Patients with the known risk factors for the reactivation of TB were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were enrolled and their mean age was 56.5 years (range 21-78). The male to female ratio was 3.4:1 and pulmonary TB was the main variant (20 patients, 90.9%). Gastric cancer (10 patients, 45.4%) and lymphoma (4 patients, 18.2%) were the leading underlying malignancies. The other malignancies included lung cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, cervix cancer, and ovary cancer. Fifteen patients (68.2%) had a healed scar on a simple chest radiograph suggesting a previous TB infection. Among these patients, new TB lesions involved the same lobe or the ipsilateral pleura in 13 patients (87.6%). An isoniazid and rifampicin based regimen were started in all the subjects except for one patient with a hepatic dysfunction. The mean duration of medication was 9.9 +/- 2.4 months and no adverse events resulting in a regimen change were observed. With the exception of 5 patients who died of the progression of the underlying malignancy, 70.6% (12/17) completed the anti-TB treatment. CONCLUSION: The clinical characteristics and response to anti-TB treatment for TB that developed during anti- cancer chemotherapy for a solid tumor were not different from those of patients who developed TB in the general population.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Cicatrix , Drug Therapy , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Isoniazid , Leukopenia , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphoma , Male , Medical Records , Ovarian Neoplasms , Pleura , Radiography, Thoracic , Rifampin , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms , Tertiary Care Centers , Tuberculosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 400-406, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is one of the indispensible options for treatment of hemoptysis. Although it has been used increasingly, relatively little has been described about the factors related to its success. The aim of this study was to elucidate the outcomes of BAE and the various predictors of its success. METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical records and radiographic findings was performed for patients with hemoptysis who received BAE in Seoul National University Hospital from July 1, 1998 to June 30, 2003. Success of BAE was defined as a cessation of hemoptysis within first week, and recurrence of BAE as relapse of hemoptysis during the follow-up period after successful BAE. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty patients who received BAE were enrolled for analysis: 85 (65%) were men and the median age was 49 years. The mean follow-up duration was 30 months. Out of 130 patients, 40 (31%) had sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis, 14 (11%) had fungus ball complications involving sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis, 21 (16%) active tuberculosis, 10 (8%) lung cancer, 21 bronchiectasis (16%), and 24 (19%) miscellaneous diseases. Success of BAE was observed in 110 patients (85%), and recurrence in 29 (26%). Among parameters analyzed, patients who achieved success of BAE had significantly shorter duration between admission and receiving BAE than the rest (3.1 +/- 4.1 vs. 6.4 +/- 14.1days, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: BAE was very effective for patients with hemoptysis and shorter duration between admission and applying BAE improved success rates of BAE.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Arteries , Bronchiectasis , Follow-Up Studies , Fungi , Hemoptysis , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163762

ABSTRACT

Melioidosis is an infection of the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. While it is known as an important cause of sepsis or chronic abscessforming disease in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, no case has yet been reported in Korea. A 50-yr-old man visited our hospital for intermittent fever associated with dry cough and sputum. Roentgenographic examination showed migrating pulmonary infiltration. Symptoms and chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) image findings did not improve despite use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated on bronchoscopic washing culture and were identified as B. pseudomallei on DNA sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA with 100% homology. Treatment for melioidosis was commenced with high dose ceftazidime, and the patient's fever, cough, and sputum were improved and the lesion on chest radiograph and CT almost disappeared.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Burkholderia pseudomallei/metabolism , Ceftazidime/pharmacology , Diagnosis, Differential , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Humans , Korea , Lung/microbiology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Melioidosis/diagnosis , Middle Aged , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/chemistry , Sepsis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Temperature , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A pleural effusion is a common medical problem. Despite several diagnostic tests, 15-20% of pleural effusions go undiagnosed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of a lymphocyte dominant exudative pleural effusion with a low adenosine deaminase (ADA), low carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), negative cytology and negative acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear. METHOD: From Jan 2000 to Aug 2001, 43 patients with lymphocyte dominant exudative pleural effusions whose AFB smear and cytologic exam were negative, their pleural fluid ADA level was < 40 IU/L, and their CEA level was < 10 ng/mL were enrolled in this study. A retrospective analysis of the patients' medical records was carried out. RESULT: Among 31 of the 43 cases (72%), probable underlying diseases causing the pleural effusion were identified: 21cases of malignant diseases, 4 cases of liver cirrhosis, 2 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, 1 case of end stage renal disease, 1 case of a chylothorax, 1 case of a post?CABG (coronary artery bypass graft) state, 1 case of a pulmonary embolism. No clinically suspected etiology was identified in the remaining 12 cases (28%). Of these 12 pleural effusions, 7 cases spontaneously resolved, 2 effusions resolved with antibiotics, and the other 2 cases were persistent. CONCLUSION: Lymphocyte dominant exudative pleural effusions with a low ADA, low CEA, negative cytological exam, and negative AFB smear, but without a definite cause might have a benign course and clinicians can observe them with attention.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Deaminase , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Arteries , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Chylothorax , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Liver Cirrhosis , Lymphocytes , Medical Records , Pleural Effusion , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189371

ABSTRACT

Clinical study was made on 675 cases of newborn infant who were born by vacuum extraction during the period of January 1971 through December 1975. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The incidence of vacuum extraction among 4,153 deliveries was 16.3% and there was a slight decreasing tendency annually. 2. The highest maternal age incidence was 26 to 30 years of age and vacuum extraction rate was higher in primipara (75.6%) than multipara (24.4%). 3. There were more male (62.2%) than female (37.8%) and 91.6% of the infants were born with 40 to 41 weeks of gestational age and 89.3% of in infants weighing between 2,500 to 4,000g at birth. 4. The majority (774.6%) of the newborn infant had good (10) Apgar score at one minute and only 5.6%had score below 7. 5. The major complication was head injuries and which were 91.1% of increased size of caput succedaneum, 3.1% of scalp abrasion, 3.4% of cephalhematoma, 0.3% of intracranial hemorrhage, and 0.3% of linear skull fracture, Visible jaundice was found in 9.0% of the newborn infants among those 80.3% showed total serum bilirubin level of 15mg/100ml or less, 19.7% showed 20mg/100ml or more but there was no case of severe jaundice required exchange transfusion.


Subject(s)
Apgar Score , Bilirubin , Craniocerebral Trauma , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Jaundice , Male , Maternal Age , Parturition , Scalp , Skull Fractures , Vacuum
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