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1.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 410-418, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000111

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has multiple negative impacts on the psychiatric health of both those previously infected and not infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Moreover, the negative impacts of COVID-19 are closely associated with geographical region, culture, medical system, and ethnic background. We summarized the evidence of the impact of COVID-19 on the psychiatric health of the Korean population. This narrative review included thirteen research articles, which investigated the impact of COVID-19 on the psychiatric health of Koreans. COVID-19 survivors were reported to have a 2.4 times greater risk of developing psychiatric disorders compared to members of a control group, and anxiety and stress-related disorders were the most common newly diagnosed psychiatric illnesses. Studies also reported that COVID-19 survivors had a 3.33-fold higher prevalence of insomnia, a 2.72-fold higher prevalence of mild cognitive impairment, and a 3.09-fold higher prevalence of dementia compared to the control group. In addition, more than four studies have highlighted that the medical staff members, including nurses and medical students, exhibit a greater negative psychiatric impact of COVID-19. However, none of the articles investigated the biological pathophysiology or mechanism linking COVID-19 and the risk of diverse psychiatric disorders. Moreover, none of the studies were actual prospective studies. Thus, longitudinal studies are needed to more clearly elucidate the effect of COVID-19 on the psychiatric health of the Korean population. Lastly, studies focusing on preventing and treating COVID-19–associated psychiatric problems are needed to provide a benefit in real clinical settings.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 9-17, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968555

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated the differences in suicidality between young people and older adults with depression over the course of 12-week naturalistic treatment with antidepressants. @*Methods@#A total of 565 patients who had moderate to severe depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] score ≥14) and significant suicidal ideation (Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation [SSI-B] score ≥6) were recruited from 18 hospitals. Participants were classified into two groups: the younger group (13–24 years of age, n=82) and the older group (≥25 years of age, n=483). Total scores over time on the SSI-B, HAM-D, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) were assessed and compared between the two groups. @*Results@#At baseline, the younger group had lower HAM-D scores (21.0 vs. 22.2; p=0.028) but higher SSI-B scores (19.4 vs. 15.6; p<0.001) compared with the older group. The overall 12-week proportion of patients with resolved suicidality was 44.1% in the younger group and 69.2% in the older group. Although the improvement in the HAM-D and HAM-A scores did not differ between the groups, suicidal ideation in the younger group remained more severe than in the older group throughout the treatment. The ratio of the subjects who achieved HAM-D remission or response but did not achieve SSI-B remission was significantly higher in the younger group than in the older group. @*Conclusion@#These data suggest that in depressed youths, suicide risk is a serious concern throughout the course of depression even when favorable treatment outcomes are obtained.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 32-48, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966698

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare recommendations of the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) with other recently published guidelines for treating bipolar disorder. We reviewed a total of six recently published global treatment guidelines and compared treatment recommendation of the KMAP-BP 2022 with those of other guidelines. For initial treatment of mania, there were no significant differences across treatment guidelines. All guidelines recommended mood stabilizer (MS) or atypical antipsychotic (AAP) monotherapy or a combination of an MS with an AAP as a first-line treatment strategy in a same degree for mania. However, the KMAP-BP 2022 recommended MS + AAP combination therapy for psychotic mania, mixed mania and psychotic depression as treatment of choice. Aripiprazole, quetiapine and olanzapine were the first-line AAPs for nearly all phases of bipolar disorder across guidelines. Some guideline suggested olanzapine is a second-line options during maintenance treatment, related to concern about long-term tolerability. Most guidelines advocated newer AAPs (asenapine, cariprazine, long-acting injectable risperidone, and aripiprazole once monthly) as first-line treatment options for all phases while lamotrigine was recommended for depressive and maintenance phases. Lithium and valproic acid were commonly used as MSs in all phases of bipolar disorder. KMAP-BP 2022 guidelines were similar to other guidelines, reflecting current changes in prescription patterns for bipolar disorder based on accumulated research data. Strong preference for combination therapy was characteristic of KMAP-BP 2022, predominantly in the treatment of psychotic mania, mixed mania and psychotic depression.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 188-196, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966683

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) is a relatively specific test for bipolar disorders designed to assess the main functioning problems experienced by patients. This brief instrument includes 24 items assessing impairment or disability in 6 domains of functioning: autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time. It has already been translated into standardized versions in several languages. The aim of this study is to measure the validity and reliability of the Korean version of FAST (K-FAST). @*Methods@#A total of 209 bipolar disorder patients were recruited from 14 centers in Korea. K-FAST, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered, and psychometric analysis of the K-FAST was conducted. @*Results@#The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the K-FAST was 0.95. Test-retest reliability analysis showed a strong correlation between the two measures assessed at a 1-week interval (ICC = 0.97; p < 0.001). The K-FAST exhibited significant correlations with GAF (r = −0.771), WHOQOL-BREF (r = −0.326), YMRS (r = 0.509) and BDRS (r = 0.598). A strong negative correlation with GAF pointed to a reasonable degree of concurrent validity. Although the exploratory factor analysis showed four factors, the confirmatory factor analysis of questionnaires had a good fit for a six factors model (CFI = 0.925; TLI = 0.912; RMSEA = 0.078). @*Conclusion@#The K-FAST has good psychometric properties, good internal consistency, and can be applicable and acceptable to the Korean context.

5.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 74-79, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926008

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#There has been increased use of medications in treating depressive disorders.Nowadays, patient value is an important part of prescribing medications. This study examines depressive patients’ perspectives on the side effects of medications. @*Methods@#We administered questionnaires nationwide to 364 patients with depressive disorders. Intent or willingness to endure 21 side effects from the Antidepressant Side-Effect Checklist (ASEC) were examined and compared in patients who are less than mildly ill and who are more than moderately ill. @*Results@#In the population, decreased appetite, yawning, increased body temperature, dry mouth, sweating, and constipation are regarded as generally endurable side effects. In contrast, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea or vomiting, headaches, disorientation, problems with urination, and difficulty sleeping are hard to endure. There were differences between patients who are less than mildly ill and those who are more than moderately ill regarding the willingness to endure drowsiness, decreased appetite, sexual dysfunction, palpitations, and weight gain. @*Conclusion@#This nationwide study revealed a general willingness in depressed patients to endure side effects. Sensitive and premeditative discussions of patient value with regard to medications might contribute to finding successful treatments.

6.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 98-109, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926005

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder is complex. A treatment guideline or algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was revised through expert consensus on pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted a survey of expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. Here, we report the results from KMAP-BP 2022. @*Results@#The preferred first-step strategies for acute euphoric mania are a combination of a mood stabilizer (MS) and an atypical antipsychotic (AAP), MS monotherapy, and AAP monotherapy. For psychotic mania, an MS and AAP combination, and AAP monotherapy are preferred. For hypomania, MS monotherapy and AAP monotherapy are preferred. The first-step strategies for mild to moderate bipolar depression are MS monotherapy, lamotrigine (LMT) monotherapy, AAP monotherapy, an MS+AAP combination, and an AAP+LMT combination. For non-psychotic severe depression, the MS+AAP combination, the AAP+LMT combination, and the MS+LMT combination are preferred. For psychotic severe depression, MS+AAP and AAP+LMT are preferred. @*Conclusion@#We obtained expert consensus and developed KMAP-BP 2022. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, we can figure out clinicians’ preferences and decisions in real clinical situations more clearly. The preference for AAP increased, and that of MS and an antidepressant decreased. We hope KMAP-BP 2022 is helpful for clinicians who treat patients with bipolar disorder.

7.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 110-122, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926004

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorders, we updated KMAP-BP to provide more timely information for clinicians. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey using a questionnaire on treatments formanic/hypomanic episodes. Eighty-seven members among ninety-three members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey. Each treatment strategy or treatment option for manic/hypomanic episodes was evaluated with an overall score of 9, and the resulting 95% confidence interval treatment options were categorized into three recommendation levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary). The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#The combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic, monotherapy with a mood stabilizer, or monotherapy with an atypical antipsychotic were recommended as the firstline pharmacotherapeutic strategy for the initial treatment of mania without psychotic features. The mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic combination was the treatment of choice, and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy was the first-line treatment for mania with psychotic features. When initial treatment fails, a combination of mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic and switching to another first-line agent is recommended. For hypomania, monotherapy with either mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic is the recommended first-line treatment, but the mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic combination is recommended as well. @*Conclusion@#It is notable that there were changes in the preferences for the use of individual atypical antipsychotics, and the preference for the use of mood stabilizer increased for treatment-resistant mania.

8.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 123-132, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926003

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#After the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was developed in 2002, its fifth revision was completed in 2022 to reflect the recent rapid developments and research into bipolar disorder and its psychopharmacology. @*Methods@#According to the methodology for previous versions, the depressive episode section of KMAP-BP 2022 was revised based on a survey consisting of 11 questions. Among ninetythree experts, eighty-seven members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey.The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#Overall, the results from this study showed little change in comparison with previous versions of KMAP-BP. However, there have been significant changes in recommendations over the span of about 20 years. The preferences for lamotrigine and atypical antipsychotics, especially aripiprazole, quetiapine, and olanzapine, have shown a tendency to continuously increase, but the preferences for risperidone and ziprasidone have not increased, but have decreased. Moreover, the preference for typical antipsychotics has significantly decreased. Additionally, concerns over the use of antidepressants in bipolar depression have been raised, and their use is not recommended in KMAP-BP 2022 as a first-line treatment. @*Conclusion@#Pharmacotherapy for acute depressive episodes with various clinical progressions and various subtypes still shows diversity, compared to pharmacotherapy for mania. We look forward to the development of bipolar depressive, episode-specific therapeutic drugs in the future, and hope the fifth update of KMAP-BP will be a complementary option for clinicians and their patients with bipolar disorder.

9.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 133-142, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926002

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Treatment guidelines or an algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) was revised again through a consensus of expert opinion. The diagnosis and treatment of mixed features are not simple, and there are many things to discuss. We describe the preferences and recommendations from KMAP-BP 2022 for the treatment of mood episodes with mixed features. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted the survey with expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. @*Results@#In first-step strategies for mixed features with more manic symptoms, a combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic is the treatment of choice. Mood stabilizer monotherapy and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy are preferred strategies. For mixed features with more depressive symptoms, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic, a combination of atypical antipsychotic and lamotrigine (LMT), atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, a combination of mood stabilizer and LMT, and mood stabilizer monotherapy are preferred. For mixed features with similar manic symptoms and depressive symptoms, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, and mood stabilizer monotherapy are preferred. @*Conclusion@#For mixed features, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic is generally preferred, and LMT is preferred for depressive symptoms. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, more diverse strategies and drugs are being attempted for the treatment of mixed features.

10.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 228-239, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924858

ABSTRACT

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that causes extreme mood swings and has a chronic course. However, the mechanism by which mood episodes with completely opposite characteristics appear repeatedly, or a mixture of symptoms appears, in patients with bipolar disorder remains unknown. Therefore, mood stabilizers are indicated only for single mood episodes, such as manic episodes and depressive episodes, and no true mood-stabilizing drugs effective for treating both manic and depressive episodes currently exist. Therefore, in this review, therapeutic targets that facilitate the development of mood stabilizers were examined by reviewing the current understanding of the neuromolecular etiology of bipolar disorder.

11.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 37-50, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924836

ABSTRACT

The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) first was published in 2002, and has been revised four times, in 2006, 2012, 2017, and 2021. In this review, we compared recommendations from the recently revised KMAP-DD 2021 to four global clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for depression published after 2010. The recommendations from the KMAP-DD 2021 were similar to those from other CPGs, although there were some differences. The KMAP-DD 2021 reflected social culture and the healthcare system in Korea and recent evidence about pharmacotherapy for depression, as did other recently published evidence-based guidelines. Despite some intrinsic limitations as an expert consensus-based guideline, the KMAP-DD 2021 can be helpful for Korean psychiatrists making decisions in clinical settings by complementing previously published evidence-based guidelines, especially for some clinical situations lacking evidence from rigorously designed clinical trials.

12.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 126-134, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924828

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigated the prevalence and comorbidities of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults and children/adolescents in Korea. @*Methods@#This study used data from the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service collected from 2008 to 2018. Study participants comprised patients with at least one diagnosis of ADHD (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Provisions, 10th revision code F90.0). Prevalence rates and psychiatric comorbidities were also analyzed. @*Results@#We identified 878,996 patients diagnosed with ADHD between 2008 and 2018. The overall prevalence rate of diagnosed ADHD increased steeply from 127.1/100,000 in 2008 to 192.9/100,000 in 2018; it increased 1.47 times in children/adolescents (≤ 18 years) and 10.1 times in adults (> 18 years) during this period. Among adult and children/adolescent ADHD patients, 61.84% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 61.74−61.93) and 78.72% (95% CI 78.53− 78.91) had at least one psychiatric comorbidity, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Our results showed that the prevalence rate of diagnosed ADHD has increased in Korea; however, it is lower than the global average. Further studies are required to identify and treat vulnerable populations appropriately.

13.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 143-153, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924826

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX) and OROS methylphenidate (MPH) as adjunctive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with comorbid partially responsive major depressive disorder (MDD). @*Methods@#Sixty Korean adults with ADHD and comorbid partially responsive MDD were recruited in a 12-week, randomized, rater-blinded, active-controlled trial and were evenly randomized to ATX or OROS MPH treatment. @*Results@#Depressive symptoms measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale, and ADHD symptoms measured using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, as well as the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement, and the Sheehan Disability Scale scores were significantly improved in both groups during the 12 weeks of treatment. The changes in all outcome measures during the 12-week treatment were not significantly different between the two groups (all p > 0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and there were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, weight, or body mass index between the ATX and MPH groups. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that ATX and MPH can be used as adjunctive treatments in adults with ADHD and comorbid partially responsive MDD. The efficacy and tolerability of ATX and MPH in adults with ADHD did not differ significantly. Further studies should be conducted to draw a definitive conclusion.

14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 48-58, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875374

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Network analysis can be used in terms of a novel psychopathological approach for depressive syndrome. We aimed to estimate the successive network structures of depressive symptoms in patients with depressive disorder using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study. @*Methods@#We enrolled 1,152 South Korean adult patients with depressive disorders who were beginning treatment for first-onset or recurrent depressive episodes. We examined the network structure of the severities of the items on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at baseline and at weeks 2, 12, 25, and 52. The node strength centrality of all the HAMD items at baseline and at week 2, 12, 25, and 52 in terms of network analysis. @*Results@#In the severity networks, the anxiety (psychic) item was the most centrally situated in the initial period (baseline and week 2), while loss of weight was the most centrally situated item in the later period (weeks 25 and 52). In addition, the number of strong edges (i.e., edges representing strong correlations) increased in the late period compared to the initial period. @*Conclusion@#Our findings support a period-specific and symptom-focused therapeutic approach that can provide complementary information to the unidimensional total HAMD score.

15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 69-79, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875370

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and the prevalence rapidly increased as the elderly population increased worldwide. In the contemporary model of AD, it is regarded as a disease continuum involving preclinical stage to severe dementia. For accurate diagnosis and disease monitoring, objective index reflecting structural change of brain is needed to correctly assess a patient’s severity of neurodegeneration independent from the patient’s clinical symptoms. The main aim of this paper is to develop a random forest (RF) algorithm-based prediction model of AD using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). @*Methods@#We evaluated diagnostic accuracy and performance of our RF based prediction model using newly developed brain segmentation method compared with the Freesurfer’s which is a commonly used segmentation software. @*Results@#Our RF model showed high diagnostic accuracy for differentiating healthy controls from AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural MRI, patient characteristics, and cognitive function (HC vs. AD 93.5%, AUC 0.99; HC vs. MCI 80.8%, AUC 0.88). Moreover, segmentation processing time of our algorithm (<5 minutes) was much shorter than of Freesurfer’s (6–8 hours). @*Conclusion@#Our RF model might be an effective automatic brain segmentation tool which can be easily applied in real clinical practice.

16.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 751-772, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914067

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In the 19 years since the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology and the Korean Society for Affective Disorders developed the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) in 2002, four revisions have been conducted. @*Methods@#To increase survey efficiency in this revision, to cover the general clinical practice, and to compare the results with previous KMAP-DD series, the overall structure of the questionnaire was maintained. The six sections of the questionnaire were as follows: 1) pharmacological treatment strategies for major depressive disorder (MDD) with/without psychotic features; 2) pharmacological treatment strategies for persistent depressive disorder and other depressive disorder subtypes; 3) consensus for treatment-resistant depression; 4) the choice of an antidepressant in the context of safety, adverse effects, and comorbid physical illnesses; 5) treatment strategies for special populations (children/adolescents, elderly, and women); and 6) non-pharmacological biological therapies. Recommended first-, second-, and third-line strategies were derived statistically. @*Results@#There has been little change in the four years since KMAP-DD 2017 due to the lack of newly introduced drug or treatment strategies. However, shortened waiting time between the initial and subsequent treatments, increased preference for atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), especially aripiprazole, and combination strategies with AAPs yield an active and somewhat aggressive treatment trend in Korea. @*Conclusion@#We expect KMAP-DD to provide clinicians with useful information about the specific strategies and medications appropriate for treating patients with MDD by bridging the gap between clinical real practice and the evidence-based world.

17.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 334-340, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897908

ABSTRACT

Objective@#There are animal models associating dopamine dysfunction with behavioral impairments that model attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Erythropoietin (EPO) has trophic effects on dopaminergic neurons. The aim of this study was to examine the EPO plasma levels and determine whether there was any correlation between plasma EPO levels and clinical characteristics of ADHD. @*Methods@#Plasma EPO levels were measured in 78 drug-naïve children with ADHD and in 81 healthy children. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) in ADHD children and healthy controls. @*Results@#The difference between median plasma EPO levels in ADHD children and in healthy controls was not statistically significant. Adjusting for age and sex, a linear regression analysis showed that inattention score was significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Hyperactivity-impulsivity score was significantly higher in the highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Moreover, total K-ARS scores were significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that plasma EPO levels were related to some ADHD symptoms, which could be used in the monitoring of the disorder.

18.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 341-354, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897907

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We performed a meta-analysis of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials (DB-RCTs) to investigate efficacy and safety of intranasal esketamine in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) including treatment resistant depression (TRD) and major depression with suicide ideation (MDSI). @*Methods@#Mean change in total scores on Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) from baseline to different time-points were our primary outcome measure. Secondary efficacy measures included rate of remission of depression and resolution of suicidality. @*Results@#Eight DB-RCTs (seven published and one un-published) covering 1,488 patients with MDD were included. Esketamine more significantly improved MADRS total scores than placebo starting from 2−4 hours after the first administration (standardized mean difference, −0.41 [95% CI, −0.58 to −0.25], p < 0.00001), and this superiority maintained until end of double-blinded period (28 days). Sub-group analysis showed that superior antidepressant effects of esketamine over placebo in TRD and MDSI was observed from 2−4 hours, which was maintained until 28 days. Resolution of suicide in MDSI was also greater for esketamine than for placebo at 2−4 hours (OR of 2.04, 95% CIs, 1.37 to 3.05, p = 0.0005), but two groups did not statistically differ at 24 hours and day 28. Total adverse events (AEs), and other common AEs including dissociation, blood pressure increment, nausea, vertigo, dysgeusia, dizziness, and somnolence were more frequent in esketamine than in placebo group. @*Conclusion@#Esketamine showed rapid antidepressant effects in patients with MDD, including TRD and MDSI. The study also suggested that esketamine might be associated with rapid anti-suicidal effects for patients with MDSI.

19.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 545-553, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897886

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the present study is to identify the factors that affect retention in outpatients with psychiatric disorders as indicators of treatment adherence, including Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores. @*Methods@#The medical records of 146 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorder for at least 10 years and discharged were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. The subjects were categorized based on the duration of outpatient treatment as < 6 months (L6) or ≥ 6 months (M6) groups and reclassified as < 36 months (L36) and ≥ 36 months (M36) groups. The demographic, clinical, and personality characteristics of the groups were compared. @*Results@#Patients in M6 and M36 groups were more likely to have a higher educational level compared with those in the L6 and L36 groups, respectively. Patients in the M6 group showed significantly lower hypomania (Ma) scores on the MMPI test than did patients in the L6 group. @*Conclusion@#The association between high Ma score on the MMPI test and early discontinuation of treatment suggests that impulsivity, hostility, and disinhibition confer higher risk of nonadherence.

20.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 334-340, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890204

ABSTRACT

Objective@#There are animal models associating dopamine dysfunction with behavioral impairments that model attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Erythropoietin (EPO) has trophic effects on dopaminergic neurons. The aim of this study was to examine the EPO plasma levels and determine whether there was any correlation between plasma EPO levels and clinical characteristics of ADHD. @*Methods@#Plasma EPO levels were measured in 78 drug-naïve children with ADHD and in 81 healthy children. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) in ADHD children and healthy controls. @*Results@#The difference between median plasma EPO levels in ADHD children and in healthy controls was not statistically significant. Adjusting for age and sex, a linear regression analysis showed that inattention score was significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Hyperactivity-impulsivity score was significantly higher in the highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Moreover, total K-ARS scores were significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that plasma EPO levels were related to some ADHD symptoms, which could be used in the monitoring of the disorder.

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