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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 885-893, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999773

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study evaluated whether an addition of simvastatin to chemotherapy improves survival in ever-smokers with extensive disease (ED)–small cell lung cancer (SCLC). @*Materials and Methods@#This is an open-label randomized phase II study conducted in National Cancer Center (Goyang, Korea). Chemonaive patients with ED-SCLC, smoking history (≥ 100 cigarettes lifetime), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of ≤ 2 were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive irinotecan plus cisplatin alone or with simvastatin (40 mg once daily orally) for a maximum of six cycles. Primary endpoint was the the 1-year survival rate. @*Results@#Between September 16, 2011, and September 9, 2021, 125 patients were randomly assigned to the simvastatin (n=62) or control (n=63) groups. The median smoking pack year was 40 years. There was no significant difference in the 1-year survival rate between the simvastatin and control groups (53.2% vs. 58.7%, p=0.535). The median progression-free survival and overall survival between the simvastatin arm vs. the control groups were 6.3 months vs. 6.4 months (p=0.686), and 14.4 months vs. 15.2 months, respectively (p=0.749). The incidence of grade 3-4 adverse events was 62.9% in the simvastatin group and 61.9% in the control group. In the exploratory analysis of lipid profiles, patients with hypertriglyceridemia had significantly higher 1-year survival rates than those with normal triglyceride levels (80.0% vs. 52.7%, p=0.046). @*Conclusion@#Addition of simvastatin to chemotherapy provided no survival benefit in ever-smokers with ED-SCLC. Hypertriglyceridemia may be associated with better prognosis in these patient population.

2.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 350-362, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001855

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) is a triage tool for patients in the emergency department (ED). This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the KTAS to predict poor outcomes in South Korean ED patients with a suspected infection. We also compared the effectiveness of KTAS with that of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) in predicting poor outcomes. @*Methods@#We conducted a single-center retrospective study that included adult patients with a suspected infection who were admitted to the ED between January 2019 and December 2019. Patients who received a prescription for antibiotics and associated culture tests in the ED were considered to have an infection. Poor outcomes were evaluated by in-hospital mortality, general ward admission, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate and compare KTAS, NEWS, and MEWS. @*Results@#Of the 4,127 patients in the study, in-hospital mortality was reported in 154 (3.7%) patients. The median KTAS was lower in the non-survivors than in the survivors (2.51 vs. 3.35). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the KTAS was associated with in-hospital mortality, ward admission, and ICU admission. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) values for predicting in-hospital mortality associated with the KTAS, NEWS, and MEWS were 0.776 (95% confidence interval, 0.747-0.803), 0.829 (0.759-0.811) and 0.739 (0.694-0.786), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Our results showed that the KTAS was associated with in-hospital mortality, ward admissions, and ICU admissions among ED patients with a suspected infection. Thus, KTAS may be reliable in predicting a poor outcome in ED patients with a suspected infection.

3.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 552-564, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967873

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The HEART score is a fast and simple cardiovascular disease (CVD) prediction tool useful in the emergency department (ED). This study evaluates the predictive value of the HEART score when applying other obesity indices such as waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) instead of body mass index (BMI). @*Methods@#Data were prospectively collected from the pre-made registry of patients who had visited the ED with chest pain. Based on their final diagnoses and coronary imaging study results, patients were classified as acute coronary syndrome (ACS), non-ACS, significant coronary arterial stenosis (SCS), and non-SCS. We compared the HEART score for each group and modified it with variable obesity indices. Multivariable logistic regression and the area under the curve were calculated to determine the most suitable obesity index for the HEART score in predicting ACS or SCS. In addition, we compared the gender-dependent relationship between obesity and ACS or SCS. @*Results@#Of the total 689 patients examined, 281 were diagnosed with ACS. The odds ratio (OR) of the HEART score for ACS was 12.1. The ORs were 13.2 and 11.2 when the HEART score was modified with WC or WHtR, respectively. Obesity was determined as the meaningful factor to predict ACS (OR: BMI, 2.38; WC, 3.39) and SCS (OR: BMI, 3.07; WC, 4.03) in women but not men. @*Conclusion@#The HEART score showed good predictive value regardless of obesity index modification. Furthermore, obesity is associated with CVD in women with chest pain, but not in men.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1024-1032, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913805

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Capmatinib, an oral MET kinase inhibitor, has demonstrated its efficacy against non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with MET dysregulation. We investigated its clinical impact in advanced NSCLC with MET exon 14 skipping mutation (METex14) or gene amplification. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients who participated in the screening of a phase II study of capmatinib for advanced NSCLC were enrolled in this study. MET gene copy number (GCN), protein expression, and METex14 were analyzed and the patients’ clinical outcome were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#A total of 72 patients were included in this analysis (group A: GCN ≥ 10 or METex14, n=14; group B: others, n=58). Among them, 13 patients were treated with capmatinib (group A, n=8; group B, n=5), and the overall response rate was 50% for group A, and 0% for group B. In all patients, the median overall survival (OS) was 20.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9 to not applicable [NA]) for group A, and 11.3 months (95% CI, 8.2 to 20.3) for group B (p=0.457). However, within group A, median OS was 21.5 months (95% CI, 20.8 to NA) for capmatinib-treated, and 7.5 months (95% CI, 3.2 to NA) for capmatinib-untreated patients (p=0.025). Among all capmatinib-untreated patients (n=59), group A showed a trend towards worse OS to group B (median OS, 7.5 months vs. 11.3 months; p=0.123). @*Conclusion@#Our data suggest that capmatinib is a new compelling treatment for NSCLC with MET GCN ≥ 10 or METex14 based on the improved survival within these patients.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 77-86, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874372

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and targeted small-molecule drugs are mainstay elements of lung cancer chemotherapy. However, they are associated with development of pneumonitis, a rare, but potentially life-threatening event. We analyzed lung cancer patients treated with ICI to evaluate the effect of sequential therapeutic administration on the incidence of pneumonitis. @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, 242 patients were included. Serial radiologic findings taken during and immediately after ICI treatment were reviewed. Factors that increased pneumonitis and the relationship between peri-ICI chemotherapy and the development of pneumonitis were evaluated. @*Results@#Pneumonitis developed in 23 patients (9.5%); severe pneumonitis (grade ≥ 3) occurred in 13 of 23 patients (56%); pneumonitis-related death occurred in six. High-dose thoracic radiation (≥ 6,000 cGy) revealed a tendency toward high risk of pneumonitis (odds ratio, 2.642; 95% confidence interval, 0.932 to 7.490; p=0.068). Among 149 patients followed for ≥ 8 weeks after the final ICI dose, more patients who received targeted agents within 8-weeks post-ICI experienced pneumonitis (3/16, 18.8%) compared with patients who received cytotoxic agents (4/54, 7.4%) or no chemotherapy (4/79, 5.1%) (p=0.162). Targeted therapy was associated with earlier-onset pneumonitis than treatment with cytotoxic agents (35 vs. 62 days post-ICI, p=0.007); the resulting pneumonitis was more severe (grade ≥ 3, 100% vs. 0%, p=0.031). @*Conclusion@#Sequential administration of small-molecule targeted agents immediately after ICI may increase the risk of severe pneumonitis. The sequence of chemotherapy regimens that include ICI and targeted agents should be carefully planned to reduce the risk of pneumonitis in lung cancer patients.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 87-92, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874368

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC) of the lung often express high levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), which is associated with primary resistance to pemetrexed. We explored the efficacy of pemetrexed in a selected population of patients with lung SqCC with low TS expression. @*Materials and Methods@#In this single-arm phase II trial, we enrolled 32 previously-treated patients with advanced lung SqCC exhibiting low immunohistochemical staining for TS (i.e., in 10% or less of tumor cells). The primary endpoint was 12-week progression-free survival (PFS) rate. @*Results@#Of 32 patients, eight patients (25%) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2, and seven patients (22%) had previously received three or more lines of chemotherapy. The disease control rate from pemetrexed treatment was 30%, and no objective response was observed. The 12-week PFS rate was 24.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0 to 46.1). Median PFS was 1.3 months (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.7), and median overall survival was 11.8 months (95% CI, 8.1 to not applicable). Most of adverse events were grade 1 or 2. @*Conclusion@#Pemetrexed demonstrated modest activity as a salvage chemotherapy in patients with advanced lung SqCC with low TS expression, although its toxicity was generally manageable.

7.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 377-385, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916554

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to compare the effects of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) treatment and conventional oxygen therapy (COT) in patients with heart failure (HF) admitted to the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This study was a single-center, retrospective, observational study. The subjects were divided into HFNC and COT groups. The characteristics were compared, and vital signs and arterial blood gas (ABG) results were analyzed. In addition, mortality, intubation rate, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and length of stay (LOS) were analyzed for clinical outcome. @*Results@#Among 252 patients, 91 and 161 were treated with HFNC and COT. Two groups showed differences in vital signs, ABG results, and pulmonary edema. The HFNC group showed no difference in mortality and LOS, but more intubation and ICU admission were observed (P=0.005, P<0.001). Due to the changes in vital signs and ABG results, the HFNC group reduced blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate, improved SpO2, increased pH, and decreased PaCO2. @*Conclusion@#HFNC therapy effectively improved vital signs and ventilation when administered to relatively unstable patients with HF admitted to the ED.

8.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 698-711, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916519

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Many previous studies have reported relationships between particulate matter 80 μg/m3, and the PM10 values on the 5 following days were recorded. To assess the cumulative effects of PM10, we calculated relative risk (RR) by analyzing the cumulative effects over 6 days (lag days 0 to 5). @*Results@#Asthma, COPD, and ischemic stroke patients (< 65 years old) showed a positive correlation between PM10 (asthma on lag day 5: RR, 2.587; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.001-3.344; COPD on lag day 4: RR, 3.727; 95% CI, 2.988-4.650; and ischemic stroke on lag day 4: RR, 1.573; 95% CI, 1.168-2.118). MI in those≥65 showed the highest RR on lag day 1 (RR, 1.471; 95% CI, 1.042-2.077). Hemorrhagic stroke was not found to be significantly correlated with PM10 in either age group. @*Conclusion@#An increase in PM10 is associated with ED visits by patients<65 years old with asthma, COPD, or ischemic stroke, and with MI for those≥65 years.

9.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 267-274, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889818

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Rapid determination of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED) is very important for patients presenting with ischemic symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of HEART score for ACS and significant coronary artery stenosis (SCS). @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data of patients who visited the ED with chest discomfort and were admitted to the cardiology department. Enrolled patients were classified into ACS and non-ACS groups according to their discharge diagnosis. Patients who underwent imaging were further divided into SCS and non-SCS groups according to study results. We compared age, sex, vital signs, risk factors, electrocardiogram, troponin, and HEART score for each group. For ACS and SCS predictive performance, the test characteristics of HEART score was calculated using sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, likelihood ratio, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. @*Results@#Of 207 patients, 112 had ACS. Among enrolled patients, 155 underwent imaging workup, of whom 67 had SCS. HEART score ≤3 had 93% sensitivity for ACS and 97% for SCS. HEART score ≥7 had 82% specificity for ACS and 83% for SCS. HEART score area under ROC curve for ACS was 0.706 (95% confidence interval, 0.627–0.776) and 0.737 (95% confidence interval, 0.660–0.804) for SCS. @*Conclusion@#HEART score was a fair predictor of ACS and SCS in ED patients who presented with chest symptoms and were admitted to the cardiology department. The predictive power of HEART score was better for SCS than for ACS.

10.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 157-169, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835182

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the pre- and postsurgical bone densities at alveolar and extra-alveolar sites following twojaw orthognathic surgery. @*Methods@#The sample consisted of 10 patients (mean age, 23.2 years; range, 18.0–27.8 years; 8 males, 2 females) who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery. A three-dimensional imaging program (Invivo 5) was used with multidetector computed tomography images taken preand postoperatively (obtained 32.3 ± 6.0 days before surgery and 5.8 ± 2.6 days after surgery, respectively) for the measurement of bone densities at the following sites: (1) alveolar bone in the maxilla and mandible, (2) extra-alveolar sites, such as the top of the head, menton (Me), condyle, and the fourth cervical vertebrae (C4). @*Results@#When pre- and postsurgical bone densities were compared, an overall tendency of decrease in bone density was noted. Statistically significant reductions were observed in the densities of cancellous bone at several areas of the maxillary alveolar bone; cortical and cancellous bone in most areas of the mandibular alveolar bone; cortical bone in Me; and cancellous bone in C4. There was no statistically significant difference in bone density in relation to the depth of the alveolar bone. In a comparison of the bone densities between groups with and without genioplasty, there was almost no statistically significant difference. @*Conclusions@#Accelerated tooth movement following orthognathic surgery may be confirmed with reduced bone density. In addition, this study could offer insights into bone metabolism changes following orthognathic surgery, providing direction for further investigations in this field.

11.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 52-57, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834911

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study evaluated the usefulness of cystatin C as a prognostic predictor in heart failure patients admitted to the emergency department. @*Methods@#This study was conducted retrospectively on patients with heart failure admitted to the emergency department between January and December 2018. Patients newly and previously diagnosed with heart failure underwent both N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide and cystatin C tests. To assess the patients’ prognosis, a poor prognosis was defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following events: intubation, admission to an intensive care unit, coronary angiography, continuous renal replacement therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and death. The patients were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of these events; the characteristics between the groups with and without events were compared. @*Results@#Seventy-four patients were included in the study analysis: 35 and 39 in the group without and with events, respectively. The number of patients with a history of diabetes, hypertension, troponin T, and cystatin C levels were significantly higher in the group with events than in the group without events (P=0.028, P=0.041, P<0.001, and P=0.002, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that cystatin C is a significant prognostic predictor of events. @*Conclusion@#An increased cystatin C level has been shown to clinically predict a poor prognosis of heart failure patients admitted to emergency departments.

12.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 267-274, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897522

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Rapid determination of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED) is very important for patients presenting with ischemic symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of HEART score for ACS and significant coronary artery stenosis (SCS). @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data of patients who visited the ED with chest discomfort and were admitted to the cardiology department. Enrolled patients were classified into ACS and non-ACS groups according to their discharge diagnosis. Patients who underwent imaging were further divided into SCS and non-SCS groups according to study results. We compared age, sex, vital signs, risk factors, electrocardiogram, troponin, and HEART score for each group. For ACS and SCS predictive performance, the test characteristics of HEART score was calculated using sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, likelihood ratio, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. @*Results@#Of 207 patients, 112 had ACS. Among enrolled patients, 155 underwent imaging workup, of whom 67 had SCS. HEART score ≤3 had 93% sensitivity for ACS and 97% for SCS. HEART score ≥7 had 82% specificity for ACS and 83% for SCS. HEART score area under ROC curve for ACS was 0.706 (95% confidence interval, 0.627–0.776) and 0.737 (95% confidence interval, 0.660–0.804) for SCS. @*Conclusion@#HEART score was a fair predictor of ACS and SCS in ED patients who presented with chest symptoms and were admitted to the cardiology department. The predictive power of HEART score was better for SCS than for ACS.

13.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 314-320, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score, which includes mentation, systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate, was developed to identify serious sepsis in out-of-hospital or emergency department (ED) settings. We evaluated the ability of the qSOFA score to predict poor outcome in South Korean ED patients with suspected infection.METHODS: The qSOFA score was calculated for adult ED patients with suspected infection. Patients who received intravenous or oral antibiotics in the ED were considered to have infection. In-hospital mortality rate, admission rate, intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, length of hospital stay (LOS), and lactate levels were compared between the qSOFA score groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for in-hospital mortality were calculated according to qSOFA cut-off points and lactate levels.RESULTS: Of 2,698 patients, in-hospital mortality occurred in 134 (5.0%). The mortality rate increased with increasing qSOFA score (2.2%, 6.4%, 17.5%, and 42.4% for qSOFA scores 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively, P<0.001). The admission rate, ICU admission rate, LOS, and lactate level also increased with increasing qSOFA score (all P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for predicting in-hospital mortality associated with qSOFA score, lactate ≥2 mmol/L, and lactate ≥4 mmol/L were 0.719 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.670 to 0.768), 0.657 (95% CI, 0.603 to 0.710), and 0.632 (95% CI, 0.571 to 0.693), respectively.CONCLUSION: Patients with a higher qSOFA score had higher admission, ICU admission, and in-hospital mortality rates, longer LOS, and higher lactate level. The qSOFA score showed better performance for predicting poor outcome than lactate level.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Blood Pressure , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Lactic Acid , Length of Stay , Mortality , Respiratory Rate , ROC Curve , Sepsis
14.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 232-238, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758465

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria used in the triage scale have been implemented incompletely without laboratory data, such as the white blood cell (WBC) count, so the validity of SIRS as a triage tool has been uncertain. This study assessed the validity of the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) in applying SIRS with or without a WBC count. METHODS: The KTAS level was simulated by the number of SIRS criteria. This new KTAS level that did not apply the WBC count was defined as the partial-simulated KTAS (PS-KTAS), and the KTAS level including the WBC count was called the total-simulated KTAS (TS-KTAS). The authors used the intensive care unit (ICU), overall admission rate, and use of emergent interventions as the primary outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1,077 patients with a suspected infection were triaged using the SIRS in KTAS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio for overall admission was greater with a higher KTAS level than with KTAS level 4 in both the PS-KTAS and TS-KTAS. All areas under the curve of the PS- and TS-KTAS for ICU admission and emergent intervention rate both showed very low discriminant powers. CONCLUSION: Compared to TS-KTAS, PS-KTAS showed a similar or partially better relationship between the KTAS level and the use of critical medical resource. Future research is recommended to improve the matching between the SIRS scoring and each KTAS level to better classify the patient severity status and develop or discover new infection assessment tools that can be applied to KTAS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Triage
15.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 631-636, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Since Korea has been divided into two countries over 60 years ago and differences has gradually developed between the two, an influx of North Korean refugees to South Korea have soared over the past 20 years. Their complaints regarding taste intensity, particularly about strong sweetness of foods, are common after entry into South Korea. Because a long-term over-exposure or restriction to some taste stimuli causes profound alterations in corresponding taste sensitivity in humans, we hypothesized that sugar restriction, which remains common in North Korea, has influenced sweet sensitivity of North Koreans.SUBJECTS AND METHOD: To test this hypothesis, we assessed the taste stimuli recognition and detection thresholds of both young adults North refugees and South Koreans using a 1-mL whole-mouth gustatory test applied to a series of sweet, bitter, sour, and salty solutions.@*RESULTS@#As expected, the cumulative curve of the recognition threshold for sucrose shifted to the left and the mean recognition threshold for sucrose was significantly lower (0.5357% vs. 0.7393%, p=0.044) for North refugees than for South participants. On the other hand, the recognition threshold for salt was significantly higher (0.2174% vs. 0.1212%, p=0.027) in North refugees. No differences on the recognition taste sensitivity for quinine hydrochloride and citric acid were observed.@*CONCLUSION@#The findings documented in the present study indicate that a prolonged food deficit seems to have changed the taste sensitivity of healthy North Korean refugees. The altered taste sensitivity was most pronounced for sweet and salty tastes, and lasted up to 3.5 years after the refugees left North Korea.

16.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 3-10, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919222

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The purpose of this study was to predict the optimal bending angles of a running loop for bodily protraction of the mandibular first molars and to clarify the mechanics of molar tipping and rotation.@*METHODS@#A three-dimensional finite element model was developed for predicting tooth movement, and a mechanical model based on the beam theory was constructed for clarifying force systems.@*RESULTS@#When a running loop without bends was used, the molar tipped mesially by 9.6° and rotated counterclockwise by 5.4°. These angles were almost similar to those predicted by the beam theory. When the amount of tip-back and toe-in angles were 11.5° and 9.9°, respectively, bodily movement of the molar was achieved. When the bend angles were increased to 14.2° and 18.7°, the molar tipped distally by 4.9° and rotated clockwise by 1.5°.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Bodily movement of a mandibular first molar was achieved during protraction by controlling the tip-back and toe-in angles with the use of a running loop. The beam theory was effective for understanding the mechanics of molar tipping and rotation, as well as for predicting the optimal bending angles.

17.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 602-609, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53387

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the injury severity and pain intensity according to age in patients with extremity injuries. METHODS: Adult patients with an extremity injury who visited the emergency department (ED) from June 1, 2016 to November 31, 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. The major injury was defined as structural damage below the muscle layer, such as muscle, ligament, and bone. Minor injury group and major injury group were separated according to this definition. The relationship of age and pain score assessed with the numerical rating scale (NRS) with the injury severity was analyzed. RESULTS: Of a total of 1,441 patients, the number of patients with a minor and major injury was 854 (59.3%) and 587 (40.7%), respectively. The proportion of patients aged 65 and older was 6.1% and 25.7% in the minor and major injury group, respectively. Age and NRS scale showed significantly positive associations with the injury severity (p < 0.001). In all NRS scores, the overall proportion of major injuries in the older age group was higher than that in the younger age group. Regardless of the younger ( < 65 years) or older (≥65 years) age group, the NRS score was positively related to the injury severity (young age group [odds ratio, 3.944]; older age group [odds ratio, 5.754]). CONCLUSION: The pain intensity is positively related to the severity of injury regardless of age. The pain intensity is the important factor of a patient assessment and treatment in the emergency department.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Emergency Service, Hospital , Extremities , Ligaments , Pain Measurement , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Severity Indices
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 981-989, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160274

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is the standard care for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; however, a more effective regimen is needed to improve the outcome by better controlling occult metastases. We conducted two parallel randomized phase II studies to incorporate erlotinib or irinotecan-cisplatin (IP) into CCRT for stage III NSCLC depending on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with EGFR-mutant tumors were randomized to receive three cycles of erlotinib first and then either CCRT with erlotinib followed by erlotinib (arm A) or CCRT with IP only (arm B). Patients with EGFR unknown or wild-type tumors were randomized to receive either three cycles of IP before (arm C) or after CCRT with IP (arm D). RESULTS: Seventy-three patients were screened and the study was closed early because of slow accrual after 59 patients were randomized. Overall, there were seven patients in arm A, five in arm B, 22 in arm C, and 25 in arm D. The response rate was 71.4% and 80.0% for arm A and B, and 70.0% and 73.9% for arm C and D. The median overall survival (OS) was 39.3 months versus 31.2 months for arm A and B (p=0.442), and 16.3 months versus 25.3 months for arm C and D (p=0.050). Patients with sensitive EGFR mutations had significantly longer OS than EGFR-wild patients (74.8 months vs. 25.3 months, p=0.034). There were no unexpected toxicities. CONCLUSION: Combined-modality treatment by molecular diagnostics is feasible in stage III NSCLC. EGFR-mutant patients appear to be a distinct subset with longer survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pathology, Molecular , ErbB Receptors
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1001-1011, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160272

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This phase II study examined whether the addition of simvastatin to afatinib provides a clinical benefit compared with afatinib monotherapy in previously treated patients with nonadenocarcinomatous non-small cell lung cancer (NA-NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced NA-NSCLC who progressed after one or two chemotherapy regimens were randomly assigned to a simvastatin (40 mg/day) plus afatinib (40 mg/day) (AS) arm or to an afatinib (A) arm. The primary endpoint was response rate (RR). RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were enrolled (36 in the AS arm and 32 in the A arm). The RR was 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 19.2) for AS and 9.4% (95% CI, 2.0 to 25.0) for A (p=0.440). In arms AS and A, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.0 versus 3.6 months (p=0.240) and the overall survival was 10.0 months versus 7.0 months (p=0.930), respectively. Skin rash, stomatitis, and diarrhea were the most common adverse events in both arms. More grade 3 or 4 diarrhea was observed in arm A (18.8% vs. 5.6% in arm AS). In all patients, the median PFS for treatment including afatinib was not correlated with the status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (p=0.122), EGFR fluorescence in situ hybridization (p=0.944), or EGFR immunohistochemistry (p=0.976). However, skin rash severity was significantly related to the risk of progression for afatinib (hazard ratio for skin rash grade ≥ 2 vs. grade < 2, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.78; p=0.005). CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the efficacy between AS and A arms in patients with NA-NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Diarrhea , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Exanthema , Fluorescence , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , ErbB Receptors , Simvastatin , Stomatitis
20.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 140-148, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32631

ABSTRACT

Hyperlipidemia, which is closely associated with a fatty diet and aging, is commonly observed in the western and aged society. Therefore, a novel therapeutic approach for this disease is critical, and an immunological view has been suggested as a novel strategy, because hyperlipidemia is closely associated with inflammation and immune dysfunction. In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of Rubus occidentalis (RO) in obese mice were investigated using immunological indexes. The mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce hyperlipidemia, which was confirmed by biochemical analysis and examination of the mouse physiology. Two different doses of RO and rosuvastatin, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor used as a control, were orally administered. Disturbances in immune cellularity as well as lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were significantly normalized by oral administration of RO, which also decreased the elevated serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level and total cholesterol. The specific immune-related actions of RO comprised considerable improvement in cytotoxic T cell killing functions and regulation of antibody production to within the normal range. The immunological evidence confirms the significant cholesterol-lowering effect of RO, suggesting its potential as a novel therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia and associated immune decline.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Administration, Oral , Aging , Antibody Formation , Cholesterol , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Homicide , Hyperlipidemias , Inflammation , Lymphocytes , Mice, Obese , Physiology , Reference Values , Rosuvastatin Calcium , Rubus , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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