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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 290-302, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929083

ABSTRACT

Deficits in the clearance of amyloid β protein (Aβ) by the peripheral system play a critical role in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impaired uptake of Aβ by dysfunctional monocytes is deemed to be one of the major mechanisms underlying deficient peripheral Aβ clearance in AD. In the current study, flow cytometry and biochemical and behavioral techniques were applied to investigate the effects of polysaccharide krestin (PSK) on AD-related pathology in vitro and in vivo. We found that PSK, widely used in therapy for various cancers, has the potential to enhance Aβ uptake and intracellular processing by human monocytes in vitro. After administration of PSK by intraperitoneal injection, APP/PS1 mice performed better in behavioral tests, along with reduced Aβ deposition, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, and tau hyperphosphorylation. These results suggest that PSK holds promise as a preventive agent for AD by strengthening the Aβ clearance by blood monocytes and alleviating AD-like pathology.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Animals , Cognition , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Monocytes/pathology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Proteoglycans
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928162

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis(AS) by frequency network Meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials(RCTs)of Chinese patent medicines for AS were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, EMbase and Cochrane Library databases from the time of database establishment to January 2021. The quality of the included RCTs was evaluated according to the Cochrane bias risk standard, and the data was analyzed by RevMan 5.3 and Stata/MP 15.1. A total of 12 kinds of Chinese patent medicines in 55 RCTs were included. According to Meta-analysis, in term of the effectiveness, the top three optimal medication regimens were Biqi Capsules, Yishen Juanbi Pills and Yaobitong Capsules combined with western medicine. The top three interventions to reduce the erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR)were Yishen Juanbi Pills, Xianling Gubao Capsules and Fufang Xuanju Capsules combined with western medicine. The top three interventions to reduce the C-reactive protein(CRP)were Biqi Capsules, Xianling Gubao Capsules and Fufang Xuanju Capsules combined with western medicine. In terms of the safety, top three optimal medication regimens were Total Glucosides of Paeony Capsules, Yishen Juanbi Pills, and Wangbi Tablets combined with western medicine. This network Meta-analysis suggests that Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional western medicine can effectively improve the joint pain symptoms of AS patients and reduce the acute inflammatory indicators, with high safety. However, the literature included in this study is generally of low methodological quality, and the conclusion needs to be verified by high-quality research.


Subject(s)
Capsules , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924008

ABSTRACT

@#The properties of adhesives and light-cured resin composites are closely related to the repair of dental defects. Therefore, improving the properties of adhesives and resins composite to increase the success rate of filling has been the focus of research in the field of prosthodontics in recent years. Current studies have confirmed that temperature can change the properties of adhesives and light-cured resin composites, affecting their repair effect. A proper storage temperature ensures the good performance of materials: the self-etching adhesive system should be refrigerated, and the light-cured resin composite should be refrigerated or stored at room temperature according to its composition, proportion and other properties; however, the appropriate storage temperature for the etch-and-rinse adhesive system is not clear. The appropriate application temperature could improve the fluidity, monomer conversion, bonding strength, compressive strength and other properties of the materials to improve the quality of filling restoration. However, there is a wide variety of adhesives and resin composites, and the effect of temperature on each material is different. Thus, it is still necessary to explore the temperature range for material storage, precooling and preheating. Few studies have been performed in vivo, and the clinical restorative effects of adhesives and resin composites stored and used at different temperatures need to be further studied.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908253

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effects of perceived stress and self-efficacy on patients′ compliance with rehabilitation exercise after total hip replacement (THR).Methods:Perceived Stress Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Harris Hip Function Score Scale and Rehabilitation Exercise Compliance Scale for patients after total hip arthroplasty were used to investigate 118 cases THR patients in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University from August 2019 to November 2019.Results:Self-efficacy had a direct positive predictive effect on rehabilitation compliance of patients after THR ( r value was 0.215, P<0.05), and perceived pressure had a direct negative predictive effect ( r value was -0.665, P<0.05). Conclusion:In the nursing intervention for patients after total hip arthroplasty, in addition to improving the patient's compliance with rehabilitation exercise, the relevant nursing staff also need to pay attention to the relief of patient's perceived pressure and the improvement of self-efficacy.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905252

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the features and rehabilitation of Pusher syndrome (PS). Methods:A female patient was reported and the literatures were reviewed. Results:The patient presented moderate ipsilateral, deep sensory disturbance, left spatial neglect and disuse. White matter degeneration was found. After four-week rehabilitation, the score of Scale for Contraversive Pushing decreased from 2.5 to 0.75, and her hand function recovered to assistant hand. Conclusion:The degeneration of white matter develops rapidly in PS patient, while the recovery of motor function is relatively slow, and need longer and comprehensive rehabilitation, especially the exercise therapy and somatosensory stimulation.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905237

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the characteristics of local brain neural activity in post stroke aphasia (PSA) patients in different frequency bands and the relationship between Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) scores and specific frequency bands. Methods:From March, 2015 to May, 2018, 15 PSA patients, and 15 healthy adults as controls matched for age, gender and education were recruited. They were assessed with WAB and scaned with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) on the frequency bands of 0.01-0.08 Hz, 0.027-0.073 Hz, and 0.01-0.027 Hz were calculated. The ALFF and fALFF in different frequency bands were extracted and the correlation with the WAB scores in the patients were analyzed. Results:On 0.01-0.08 Hz, ALFF increased in the right precentral gyrus in the patients. On 0.027-0.073 Hz, ALFF increased values in the right precentral gyrus, and fALFF decreased in the right cerebellar Crus2 region; fALFF in the right cerebellar Crus2 region negatively correlated with the scores of information content (r = -0.576, P = 0.025), auditory comprehension (r = -0.658, P = 0.008), repetition (r = -0.616, P = 0.014) and aphasia quotient (r = -0.611, P = 0.016) of WAB. On 0.01-0.027 Hz, the fALFF decreased in the left inferior parietal limbic gyrus, and positively correlated with the scores of information content (r = 0.538, P = 0.039) and aphasia quotient (r = 0.526, P = 0.044). Conclusion:Resting-state fALFF abnormalities in PSA patients are frequency-dependent, which associate with some frequency-specific neurofunctional alterations.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911650

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the safety of pregnancy after kidney transplantation and summarize the optimal timing of pregnancy and the experience in the management during pregnancy and peripartum.Methods:A total of 25 kidney transplant recipients were pregnant during March 2013 to February 2020. A matched cohort of 75 general pregnant women wasincluded as control.Results:Twenty-five women successfully delivered healthy babies in the transplant group. The mean age at kidney transplantationwas (25.6 ±3.2) years old, and the mean interval between transplantation and conception was (54.0±23.1) months. 92% (23 / 25) of recipients had cesarean surgery and all infants were singletons.During pregnancy, the incidence of preeclampsia was significantly higher in the transplant group(20.0%VS. 1.3%, P=0.001)compared with matched control. Compared with pre-pregnancy, the serum creatinine levels of the recipients decreased in the second trimester( P<0.001)and increased in the third trimester( P=0.019), which was similar with the control group. In the third trimester, 40%(10/25)of recipients in the transplant group had proteinuria, which decreased to negative(5/10) or 1+ (4/10) within 6 months after delivery. No rejection occurred in all patients during pregnancy and 6 months after delivery. A higher dose of tacrolimus was needed to maintain the normal trough level after pregnancy, which returned to routine dose postpartum. Conclusions:Although the risk of pregnancy was higher in kidney transplant recipients than that in non-transplant women, the overall risk was acceptable. Strict screening of patients preparing for pregnancy, adjustment of immunosuppressive drugs, and multi-disciplinary collaboration are important for safe pregnancy and delivery.

8.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 644-649, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911088

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the risk factors of clinical cure and biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP).Methods:The clinical data of 896 patients who underwent RP at Peking University First Hospital from April 2001 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Average age was (65.90±6.3) years, median preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA) was 10.75 (0.36-264.20) ng/ml, median prostate volume was 40.0 (12.0-220.9) ml, median PSA density (PSAD) was 0.27 (0.02-3.42) ng/(ml·g). Clinical staging: 432 cases in T 1c stage, 333 cases in T 2a/bstage, 76 cases in T 2c stage, and 55 cases in ≥T 3 stage. Preoperative Gleason score of biopsy: 193 cases in 3+ 3, 315 cases in 3+ 4, 162 cases in 4+ 3, 226 cases in ≥8. The RP surgery was operated by open or laparoscopic or robot-assisted approach. Clinical cure and BCR were used as the end points for analysis. Clinical cure was defined as a decrease in serum PSA level below 0.03 ng/ml 6 weeks after surgery. BCR was defined as the 2 consecutive serum PSA >0.2ng/ml during the follow-up after RP. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the independent risk factors of clinical cure. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw the biochemical recurrence-free survival curve, the log-rank method was used for univariate analysis of BCR, and the Cox regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results:All 896 patients were followed-up for 58 (5-241) months, 678 cases (75.7%) achieved clinical cure. Based on univariate analysis and multivariate analysis, among the preoperative indicators, whether the proportion of positive biopsy needles ≥33% ( P=0.007) and preoperative Gleason score of biopsy ( P=0.041) were independent risk factors of clinical cure. A total of 890 cases were included in the analysis of risk factors of BCR, of whom 172 cases (19.3%) had BCR. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year biochemical recurrence-free survival(BFS)rates were 98.1%, 83.1% and 68.4% respectively. The median BFS has not been reached, and the average BFS was 181 months (95% CI 172-189). The results of univariate and multivariate analysis showed that whether achieved clinical cure ( P=0.001) and postoperative pathological staging ( P<0.001) were independent risk factors of BCR. Conclusions:Whether the proportion of positive biopsy needles≥33% and preoperative Gleason score of biopsy were independent risk factors of clinical cure. Postoperative pathological staging and whether achieved clinical cure may be independent risk factors of BCR.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888182

ABSTRACT

A spectrum-activity relationship is established with high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints and the in vitro antioxidant activity to improve the quality evaluation system of Aralia taibaiensis. The HPLC profiles of 12 batches of samples were collected, and the similarity evaluation, heat map analysis and principal component analysis were conducted for the chemometric study of the fingerprint data. Combined with grey correlation analysis, the contributions of the common peaks in the fingerprints to the antioxidant activity were clarified, and the important peaks reflecting the efficacy were identified. The results showed that 17 common peaks were found in 12 batches of A. taibaiensis samples, and 6 of them were identified as saponins. Similarity evaluation, heat map analysis and principal component analysis roughly classified the A. taibaiensis herbs into two categories, i.e.,(1) S1-S10, S12 and(2) S11. Twelve batches of samples showed different antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, S9 had the strongest antioxidant activity, while S11 was the weakest in antioxidant capacity, which was basically consistent with the overall score results. The results of grey correlation analysis demonstrated that the 17 common peaks scavenged DPPH radicals in the following order: X_3>X_(17)>X_4>X_8>X_7>X_(13)>X_2>X_6>X_(11)>X_(10)>X_(16)>X_(12)>X_9>X_5>X_(14)>X_1>X_(15), and scavenged ABTS radicals in the order of X_4>X_3>X_7>X_8>X_2>X_(17)>X_(13)>X_6>X_(16)>X_(11)>X_5>X_(12)>X_(10)>X_9>X_(14)>X_1>X_(15). Among them, X_3, X_4, X_7(araloside C), X_8 and X_(17) were the important peaks reflecting the efficacy of A. taibaiensis, which were basically consistent with those contained in the principal component 1. In this study, the correlation between the HPLC fingerprints of 12 batches of A. taibaiensis and its antioxidant activity provides a reference for the Q-marker screening and quality control of A. taibaiensis.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Aralia , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Saponins
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888140

ABSTRACT

This study was mainly based on the compatibility of Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma to prepare submicron emulsion and evaluated its physical and pharmaceutical properties. Firstly, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were drawn by dripping method which took Chuanxiong oil as the oil phase and the area of microemulsion region as the index. On this basis, suitable emulsifier and co-emulsifier were screened for the preparation of Chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion. Then, the formula realizing the largest oil loading was selected. Finally, puerarin substituted part of emulsifier and co-emulsifier to lower their content, so as to form puerarin-Chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion featuring the combination of medicine and adjuvant. Its particle size, zeta potential, centrifugal stability and storage stability were determined, and the in vitro drug release behavior was investigated by dialysis bag method, based on which the quality of the as-prepared submicron emulsion was evaluated comprehensively. The proposed method was proved feasible for the preparation of Chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion, which adopted polyoxyethylene castor oil(EL-40) as the emulsifier and was free from co-emulsifier. The formula of the maximum oil loading was found as Chuanxiong oil∶EL-40∶water 3∶7∶90. Further, puera-rin successfully replaced up to 10% of the emulsifier in submicron emulsion. Eventually, the optimal drug-loading formula was determined as puerarin∶Chuanxiong oil∶EL-40∶water 7∶30∶63∶900. The quality evaluation results of the as-prepared submicron emulsion demonstrated that the average emulsion droplet size was 333.9 nm, the PDI 0.26, and the zeta potential-10.12 mV. The submicron emulsion had a good centrifugal stability and did not present any instable phenomena such as delamination and precipitation during its standing still for 50 days. The evaluation of in vitro drug release behavior indicated that the submicron emulsion was capable of releasing the drug completely. The puerarin-chuanxiong oil submicron emulsion prepared in this study possessed a stable quality and to some extent increased the solubility of puerarin along with a sustained-release effect. This study provided ideas for the clinical application of puerarin.


Subject(s)
Emulsions , Isoflavones , Particle Size , Solubility
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883495

ABSTRACT

Mammalian catechol-O-methyltransferases(COMT)are an important class of conjugative enzymes,which play a key role in the metabolism and inactivation of catechol neurotransmitters,catechol es-trogens and a wide range of endobiotics and xenobiotics that bear the catechol group.Currently,COMT inhibitors are used in combination with levodopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in clinical practice.The crucial role of COMT in human health has raised great interest in the development of more practical assays for highly selective and sensitive detection of COMT activity in real samples,as well as for rapid screening and characterization of COMT inhibitors as drug candidates.This review summarizes recent advances in analytical methodologies for sensing COMT activity and their applications.Several lists of biochemical assays for measuring COMT activity,including the probe substrates,along with their analytical conditions and kinetic parameters,are presented.Finally,the challenges and future perspec-tives in the field,such as visualization of COMT activity in vivo and in situ,are highlighted.Collectively,this review article overviews the practical assays for measuring COMT activities in complex biological samples,which will strongly facilitate the investigations on the relevance of COMT to human diseases and promote the discovery of COMT inhibitors via high-throughput screening.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877648

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect of wheat grain moxibustion and warming acupuncture on chronic superficial gastritis of spleen-stomach deficiency and cold.@*METHODS@#A total of 200 patients with chronic superficial gastritis of spleen-stomach deficiency and cold were randomly divided into a wheat grain moxibustion group (100 cases, 13 cases dropped off ) and a warming acupuncture group (100 cases, 16 cases dropped off ). The acupoints of Zhongwan (CV 12), Tianshu (ST 25), Qihai (CV 6), Liangqiu (ST 34) and Zusanli (ST 36) were selected in both groups. The patients in the wheat grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat grain moxibustion, and 5 cone were given on every acupoint each time. Moxibustion was performed after acupuncture in the warming acupuncture group, and 3 cone each acupoint. Both groups were treated every other day for 15 times. The scores of clinical symptoms and signs, scores of physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of quality of life in the two groups were recorded before and after treatment and during follow-up 1 month after treatment, and the clinical effects of the two groups were evaluated after treatment and during follow-up.@*RESULTS@#After treatment and during follow-up, the scores of clinical symptoms and signs of the two groups were lower than before treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#The wheat grain moxibustion can effectively improve the clinical symptoms, signs and quality of life in patients with chronic superficial gastritis of spleen-stomach deficiency and cold, and its long-term effect is better than warming acupuncture.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Moxibustion , Quality of Life , Spleen , Stomach , Triticum
13.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 555-561, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922362

ABSTRACT

Meiosis is an essential step in gametogenesis which is the key process in sexually reproducing organisms as meiotic aberrations may result in infertility. In meiosis, programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is one of the fundamental processes that are essential for maintaining homolog interactions and correcting segregation of chromosomes. Although the number and distribution of meiotic DSBs are tightly regulated, still abnormalities in DSB formation are known to cause meiotic arrest and infertility. This review is a detailed account of molecular bases of meiotic DSB formation, its evolutionary conservation, and variations in different species. We further reviewed the mutations of DSB formation genes in association with human infertility and also proposed the future directions and strategies about the study of meiotic DSB formation.


Subject(s)
DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , DNA Repair/genetics , Humans , Infertility/genetics , Meiosis/physiology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of domestic imatinib (made in China) in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia chronic phase(CML-CP).@*METHODS@#Fifty-seven newly diagnosed CML-CP patients who did not receive any other anti-CML treatment were treated by domestic imatinib 400 mg once a day. The hematological, cytogenetic and molecular reactions and safety were observed and evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment.@*RESULTS@#Fifty-six patients were treated for ≥3 and 6 months, among which 50 patients were treated for ≥12 months. After 3 months of treatment, 49 patients underwent hematological examination, 47 patients (95.9%) achieved complete hematological response (CHR), 49 patients underwent cytogenetic examination, 39 patients (79.6%) achieved major cytogenetic response (MCyR), and 12 patients (24.5%) achieved complete cytogenetic response (CCyR). 49 patients underwent the level of BCR-ABL test, including 41 patients (83.7%) with BCR-ABL@*CONCLUSION@#In the real world, Domestics imatinib mesylate is effective and safe in the treatment of newly diagnosed CML-CP patients, but long-term follow-up data are still necessary to verify its long-term efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides/therapeutic use , China , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Piperazines , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787737

ABSTRACT

@#To evaluate the association between the frequency of bowel movement (BMF) and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, 510 134 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) were included after excluding those who reported to had been diagnosed with cancer at baseline survey. The baseline survey was conducted from 2004 to 2008. The study used the data from the baseline survey and follow-up until December 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the s and the 95s of risk of PD diagnosis with BMF. During an average follow-up period of (9.9±1.9) years, 808 participants were diagnosed with PD. Compared with participants who had bowel movements every day, the multivariable-adjusted (95) for those who had bowel movements<3 times/week, once every 2-3 days, and>1 time/day were 3.62 (2.88-4.54), 2.13 (1.74-2.60), and 0.81 (0.63-1.05), respectively. The linear trend test results of the association between BMF and risk of PD diagnosis was significant (<0.001). Compared with the participants who had bowel movements ≥1 time/day, the multivariable-adjusted (95) for those who had bowel movements<1 time/day was 3.13 (2.32-4.23) within the 5 years of follow- up and was 2.48 (2.05-3.01) beyond the 5 years of follow-up. The gender specific results were similar. The association of BMF<1 time/day with risk of PD diagnosis was stronger in older participants. The participants with low BMF at baseline survey would have higher risk for PD diagnosis in the subsequent 10 years on average. Since abnormal decrease of BMF is easy to be found, programs could be set up for the early screening of PD in older people, along with other early symptoms of PD.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873146

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndromes of 46 patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) by cluster analysis method. Method:The 46 COVID-19 patients with TCM symptoms, signs, tongue and pulse were analyzed by frequency analysis and clustering analysis, and the TCM syndrome types of COVID-19 patients were classified and summarized by combining clinical expertise, and the evolution law was analyzed by combining the median days of the syndrome collection. Result:The major signs and symptoms of the 46 patients with COVID-19: fever (frequency of 39, accounted for 84.8%), poor appetite (frequency of 44, 95.7%), fatigue (frequency of 42, 91.3%), wheezing breath (frequency of 35, 76.1%), dry mouth (frequency of 21, 45.7%), lung condition short (frequency of 20, 43.5%), defecate pond (frequency of 15, 32.6%), red tongue (frequency 30, accounting for 65.2%), yellowish moss (frequency 27, accounting for 58.7%), and slimy pulse (frequency 30, accounting for 62.5%). TCM syndromes were divided into seven types, i.e. dampness and heat syndrome (13 cases), dampness and toxin syndrome (10 cases), heat stasis syndrome (7 cases), dampness and heat syndrome (5 cases), cold dampness internal invasion syndrome (4 cases), dampness poison blood stasis syndrome (2 cases).According to the time of onset, there were cold and dampness syndrome (median days 6.5 days), dampness was heavier than heat syndrome (10 days), dampness and heat syndrome (10 days), dampness and heat syndrome (11.5 days), heat stagnation of liver and gallbladder syndrome (13 days), dampness and blood stasis syndrome (15 days), and Yin injury syndrome (16 days). Conclusion:Among the 46 cases of COVID -19, damp-heat syndrome was the most common, followed by heat stagnation of liver and gallbladder syndrome, Yin injury and gas consumption syndrome, cold and damp internal invasion syndrome, and dampness and blood stasis syndrome. The pathogenesis of the disease evolved into heat and poison, and later appeared to consume Qi Yin performance.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846103

ABSTRACT

Objective: In order to improve the bioavailability of the insoluble drug silybin, silybin supersaturated self- nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SLB-S-SNEDDS) containing functional oil were prepared, its characterization and in vitro evaluation were also performed. Methods: Functional oils were screened by performing potassium ferrohydride reduction and 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging experiments. The pseudo-ternary phase diagram was drawn to investigate the emulsifying ability of emulsifier. The proportion of mixed oil phase and drug loading capacity were explored by analyzing particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, etc. The type and concentration of supersaturated substance in SLB-S-SNEDDS were obtained by conducting the compatibility and dissolution experiments. SLB-S-SNEDDS was characterized with appearance, particle size distribution, self-emulsification efficiency, and morphology, and its in vitro dissolution, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. Results: The prescriptions of SLB-S-SNEDDS were as follows: (1) wheatgerm oil/Capryol 90- Cremophor ELP-Transcutol HP; (2) seabuckthorn seed oil/Capryol 90-Cremophor ELP-Transcutol HP. One g S-SNEDDS matrix contained 0.043 g of wheatgerm oil or sea-buckthorn seed oil, 0.387 g of Capryol 90, 0.380 g of Cremophor ELP, and 0.190 g of Transcutol HP. The adding amount of silybin in S-SNEDDS prescription was 20% of the sum of the equilibrium solubility of silybin in each component, and the adding amount of Soluplus was 0.1% of the total mass described above. The two obtained SLB-S-SNEDDS were transparent homogeneous liquid with light yellow (wheat germ oil) and bright yellow (seabuckthorn seed oil) color, respectively. After being dispersed, SLB-S-SNEDDS turned into subspherical white flat emulsion droplets with the particle size of about 50 nm, and the emulsification time was 65 s. Compared with raw materials and SLB-SNEDDS, the cumulative dissolution of silybin in SLB-S-SNEDDS was maintained between 85% and 110% within 8 h, indicating that the two systems can significantly improve the dissolution of silybin. The absorbance of SLB-S-SNEDDS after reaction with potassium ferricyanide (0.452-0.782, 0.488-0.765) and the DPPH free radical clearance of SLB-S-SNEDDS (39.09%-96.02%, 30.54%-89.20%) were all higher than those of raw silybin (0.411-0.760, 22.89%-63.21%), which suggested that the two systems can enhance the antioxidant capacity of silybin. Cytotoxicity test results showed that the cell survival rate in silybin raw material group, combination of silybin and S-SNEDDS group, and blank S-SNEDDS group were greater than 90% at 5 µmol/L and 10 µmol/L drug concentration, indicating that SLB-S-SNEDDS and its auxiliary materials were safe and less toxic to human cloned colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2). Conclusion: The SLB-S-SNEDDS containing functional oil prepared in this paper can not only increase the cumulative dissolution of silybin, but also enhance its antioxidant capacity, which provides a useful reference for supersaturated self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (S-SNEDDS) to improve the water-solubility and bioactivity of insoluble drugs.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828404

ABSTRACT

Zha-xun is widely used in Tibetan medicine and is also an international traditional medicine. This study believes that the black organic matter constituting Zha-xun is mainly stored in the rocks. The exudation points of Zha-xun mostly distribute on the cliffs of high mountains, which makes it difficult to evaluate its resource distribution and storage area. This paper was aimed at the exudation environment of Tibetan medicine Zha-xun in Sichuan province and 6 ecological environmental factors of the Zha-xun were determined via the field investigation. Combining with these 6 factors as well as the GIS data of Sichuan province, ArcGIS software was used to extract ideal environmental factors which are suitable for exudation of Zha-xun, including geology types, geomorphological types, altitude, slope, vegetation types, and mean annual temperature. The spatial overlay analyses on the extracted environmental factors were carried out to predict the distribution area of Zha-xun in Sichuan province. Afterwards, field investigation was conducted to verify the prediction. The prediction showed that the exudation spots of Zha-xun in Sichuan province mainly located in 29 counties including 12 in Aba Prefecture, 15 in Ganzi Prefecture, and Muli County and Dechang County in Liangshan Prefecture. The deposit areas of Zha-xun were located in the Triassic, Devonian and Silurian strata and were basically distributed in 9 basins, including Dingqu River, Yalong River, Xianshui River, Dadu River, Suomo River, Minjiang River and Baishui River, characterized by a fragmented patch-like distribution along the mountain ranges, and the exudation spots of Zha-xun were mainly scattered among the rain-free cliffs' concavities of river valleys at a certain altitude. The prediction was consistent with the field investigation results, which suggested that it is possible and feasible to predict distribution of Zha-xun resources based on GIS-analysis. The study may provide a scientific basis for comprehensive investigations into Zha-xun's distribution and formation mechanism, thus promoting rational development and utilization of Zha-xun resources.


Subject(s)
China , Geographic Information Systems , Geology , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Medicine, Traditional , Temperature
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1639-1648, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The efficacy of entecavir (ETV) add-on peg-interferon therapy compared with ETV monotherapy in treatment-naïve hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients remains controversial. We investigated whether adding peg-interferon to ongoing ETV treatment leads to a better curative effect or not.@*METHODS@#All patients have been recruited between August 2013 and January 2015 from the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and Zhongshan Hospital (China). Eligible HBV patients (n = 144) were randomly divided (1:1) to receive either ETV monotherapy (n = 70) or peg-interferon add-on therapy from week 26 to 52 (n = 74). Patients were followed-up for at least 2 years. Indexes including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion rate, sustained virologic response, transient elastography value, and histological scores were evaluated every 3 months until the end of the study. The rate of patients with HBsAg loss was defined as the primary endpoint criteria.@*RESULTS@#At week 26, no patient achieved HBsAg seroconversion in either group. At week 52, one patient in the monotherapy group was HBsAg-negative but there was none in the combination therapy group. The monotherapy group showed significantly better liver function recovery results than the combination therapy group. At week 78, one patient in the combination group had HBsAg seroconverted. At week 104, only three patients in the combination therapy group were HBsAg-negative compared with one patient in monotherapy. The mean alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and transient elastography values decreased significantly compared with baseline. Both groups showed a favorable decrease in alpha-fetoprotein (monotherapy: 4.5 [2.8, 7.1] vs. 2.2 [1.8, 3.1] ng/mL, P < 0.001; combination therapy: 5.7 [3.0, 18.8] vs. 3.2 [2.0, 4.3] ng/mL, P < 0.001) and an improved result of liver biopsy examination scores. The combination group showed a better improvement in histology compared with the monotherapy group (mean transient elastography value 6.6 [4.9, 9.8] vs. 7.8 [5.4, 11.1] kPa, P = 0.028). But there was no significant difference in HBsAg conversion rate (1.8% [1/56] vs. 4.1% [3/73], P = 0.809) and HBeAg conversion rate (12.5% [7/56] vs. 11.0% [8/73], P = 0.787), as well as HBV-DNA, sustained virologic response (93.2% vs. 98.5%, P = 0.150) between the two groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Both therapies supported liver function recovery and histology improvement. Combination therapy did not show better anti-viral efficacy in HBsAg or HBeAg seroconversion compared with monotherapy. However, combination therapy played a more positive role in reversing hepatic fibrosis compared with monotherapy.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02849132; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02849132.

20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 696-704, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826799

ABSTRACT

To evaluate whether the polygenic profile modifies the development of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD) and pathological biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 462 sAD patients and 463 age-matched cognitively normal (CN) controls were genotyped for 35 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with sAD. Then, the alleles found to be associated with sAD were used to build polygenic risk score (PRS) models to represent the genetic risk. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate the predictive value of PRS for the sAD risk and age at onset. We measured the CSF levels of Aβ42, Aβ42/Aβ40, total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) in a subgroup (60 sAD and 200 CN participants), and analyzed their relationships with the PRSs. We found that 14 SNPs, including SNPs in the APOE, BIN1, CD33, EPHA1, SORL1, and TOMM40 genes, were associated with sAD risk in our cohort. The PRS models built with these SNPs showed potential for discriminating sAD patients from CN controls, and were able to predict the incidence rate of sAD and age at onset. Furthermore, the PRSs were correlated with the CSF levels of Aβ42, Aβ42/Aβ40, T-tau, and P-tau. Our study suggests that PRS models hold promise for assessing the genetic risk and development of AD. As genetic risk profiles vary among populations, large-scale genome-wide sequencing studies are urgently needed to identify the genetic risk loci of sAD in Chinese populations to build accurate PRS models for clinical practice.

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