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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 150-158, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913181

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are one of the most important ways of cell-to-cell communication in living lives. They are involved in major physiological and pathological processes, including drug resistance, infection propagation, cancer development and cardiovascular diseases. The biological functions of exosomes made it possess characteristics of low immunogenicity, high delivery efficiency, ability to cross multiple biological barriers and targeting capacity, which also encourage people to try to use it as a drug carrier to overcome the disadvantages of poor stability, low solubility, low bioavailability and high toxicity of some drugs. In this paper, the latest progress of exosomes in the delivery of antitumor drugs, including small chemotherapeutic drugs, biological macromolecules and nucleic acid drugs, is reviewed. In addition, the isolation, drug loading, and modification method and the application prospect of exosomes are also discussed.

2.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1105-1108, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911326

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the efficacy of general anesthesia for percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI).Methods:The clinical data of 6 patients underwent PPVI under general anesthesia in Children′s Heart Center of Henan Provincial People′s Hospital from December 2017 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, central venous pressure, SpO 2 and regional cerebral oxygen saturation were recorded before anesthesia induction (T 1), after anesthesia induction (T 2), before beginning of surgery (T 3), before pulmonary valve implantation (T 4), during pulmonary valve implantation (T 5), immediately after pulmonary valve implantation (T 6) and when the patients left the operating room (T 7). Right ventricular systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, pulmonary artery systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were recorded at T 4 and T 6.The development of related complications during operation and the cardiac, liver and kidney functions before and after operation were recorded.The postoperative extubation time, intensive care unit stay time and hospital stay time were recorded. Results:Six patients (3 males, 3 females), aged (16±4) yr, weighing (41±12) kg, were analyzed.Compared with the value at T 1-4 and T 6, 7, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, regional cerebral oxygen saturation and SpO 2 were significantly decreased at T 5 ( P<0.05). Compared with the value at T 1-5, central venous pressure was significantly decreased at T 6, 7 ( P<0.05). Compared with the value at T 4, right ventricular diastolic pressure was significantly decreased, and pulmonary artery diastolic pressure was increased at T 6 ( P<0.05). No anesthesia- and surgery-related serious complications occurred among the patients.One patient was transferred to the ward after extubation in the operating room, and 5 patients were transferred to the intensive care unit after operation.All 6 patients were discharged successfully and entered the follow-up stage. Conclusion:General anesthesia provides better efficacy when used for PPVI, and hemodynamic monitoring of pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation should be strengthened during pulmonary valve implantation to maintain circulation stable.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907604

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the treasure of Chinese civilization. It embodies the characteristics and essence of the outstanding culture of China. As the indispensable platform, Chinese medicine museum plays an important role to spread the TCM culture and educate the public. This articl analyzes the difficulties and challenges of propagation and education of TCM in the museum field, explores the effective strategies from four aspects, covering the content construction, interpretation, education activities, and temporary exhibitions. Only in this way, the public education would be promoted effectively in the museum field.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906604

ABSTRACT

@#Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital heart disease that causes blood communication between the left and right ventricles due to partial atrial septal tissue defects, accounting for about 13% of all heart malformations. Secondary ASD is the most common type of ASD and can generally be treated with minimally invasive closure. At present, the commonly used minimally invasive methods in clinical practice mainly include X-ray-guided percutaneous occlusion, transesophageal ultrasound-guided transthoracic occlusion and ultrasound-guided percutaneous occlusion. This review focuses on the basic research process of occluder materials, and advantages and disadvantages of three different surgical methods.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906397

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the distribution characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes of abnormal uterine bleeding associated with ovulatory dysfunction (AUB-O). Method:A clinical and epidemiological investigation was conducted in 6 688 patients with AUB-O from the provincial, municipal, and county/district hospitals in 29 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities across China to identify the distribution characteristics of their TCM syndromes. Result:The AUB-O patients nationwide were mainly differentiated into the kidney Qi deficiency syndrome (17.34%), the spleen Qi deficiency syndrome (13.25%), the Qi and blood deficiency syndrome (12.62%), the Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome (8.45%), and the kidney Yin deficiency syndrome (6.88%). AUB-O resulted from Qi deficiency, Yin deficiency, and blood deficiency, often involving the kidney, spleen and liver. The analysis of the regional distribution of TCM syndromes in AUB-O patients revealed that kidney Qi deficiency, spleen Qi deficiency, and Qi and blood deficiency were the shared syndromes. However, due to regional discrepancy, the TCM syndrome varied widely from one geographic region to another. The kidney Qi deficiency syndrome was more frequently seen in North China, Northwest China, Southwest China, and East China, but less frequently in central China, Northeast China, and South China. The spleen Qi deficiency syndrome occurred most frequently in central China, while the East China had the highest frequency of Qi and blood deficiency syndrome. The spleen and kidney deficiency syndrome was mostly present in central China, North China, and Southwest China, the Qi deficiency (kidney deficiency) and blood stasis syndrome in Northwest China, South China, and North China, the kidney Yin deficiency syndrome in East China, Northwest China, and Northeast China, the deficiency-heat syndrome in Southwest China and East China, the kidney Yang deficiency syndrome in South China, the liver depression and blood heat syndrome in Northeast China, and the liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome in central China. The diagnostic criteria for the kidney Qi deficiency, spleen Qi deficiency, Qi and blood deficiency, Qi deficiency and blood stasis, and kidney Yin deficiency syndromes were not significantly different from the previous ones. The distinctive symptoms for the kidney Qi deficiency syndrome were irregular vaginal bleeding, heavy menstrual flow, or shortened menstrual cycle, back soreness and pain, and forgetfulness, while those for the spleen Qi deficiency syndrome mainly included the shortened menstrual cycle, mental fatigue, lack of strength, poor appetite, loose stool, and white tongue coating. The Qi and blood deficiency syndrome were mainly manifested as the shortness of breath, laziness to speak, pale complexion, dizziness, and palpitation. The Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome were mainly judged by the scanty menstrual flow frequently or occasionally accompanied by blood clots, mental fatigue, lack of strength, and dark purple tongue. The ovulatory bleeding, dizziness, tinnitus, vexing heat in chest, palms and soles, and night sweat were the characteristic signs for the kidney Yin deficiency syndrome. Conclusion:There exist certain rules in the geographical distribution of TCM syndromes of AUB-O patients, which has provided a reference for the clinical treatment of AUB-O in accordance with the local conditions.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906379

ABSTRACT

Six dimensional syndrome differentiation theory, put forward by professor GU Xiao-hong at Beijing University of Chinese Medicine based on her theoretical teaching and clinical experience, emphasizes that the syndrome differentiation should be carried out from six dimensions including etiology, disease location, disease stage, disease condition, pathology, and disease nature, which is conducive to clinical thinking training and formation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The differentiation and treatment of Baihutang syndrome frequently seen in cold damage and warm disease still need to be explored. Guided by the six dimensional syndrome differentiation theory coupled with diverse viewpoints of cold damage and warm disease schools, this paper summarized and reinterpreted the understandings and thoughts of GU Xiao-hong and YU He, warm disease specialists of two generations. Considering the lung-stomach dysfunction caused by the internal invasion of exogenous pathogens, Baihutang syndrome was staged into Qi aspect. In this stage, exuberant pathogens and sufficient healthy Qi allowed the prevailing of internal heat and the consumption of body fluid, manifested as high fever, profuse sweating, thirst, and the pulse corresponding to interior excess and heat syndrome. This paper also pointed out that the Baihutang syndrome involved both lung and stomach, and the adoption of Baihutang contributed to preventing tu from restricting shui in the case of extreme excess of Yang brightness and protecting the kidney Yin. As revealed by the dynamic analysis of prognosis of Baihutang syndrome based on the six dimensional syndrome differentiation theory, even though the Baihutang syndrome could be present in both cold damage and warm disease, the specific disease stage, transmission and change, condition, prognosis, pathology, and medication differed. On this basis, a series of prescriptions have been modified from Baihutang, which has expanded the application scope of Baihutang and enriched its research value, thus better promoting its clinical application.

7.
International Eye Science ; (12): 53-56, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837715

ABSTRACT

@#Neuromyelitis optica(NMO)is an inflammatory central nervous system(CNS)astrocytic disease with high incidence, neuro-ophthalmic intercross, and humoral immune-dominated in Asian population. It has attracted much attention due to its high pathogenicity, high risk of recurrence, and poor prognosis. It is difficult for patients with NMO-associated optic neuritis(NMO-ON)to benefit from routine treatment, and they are often left with different degrees of optic nerve atrophy. One limitation of the study of NMO-ON is the deficiency of the experimental model. Therefore, the progress and application of NMO and NMO-ON experimental model are reviewed in this paper, aiming to explore the pathological mechanism and possible treatment of NMO visual impairment.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the plasma components of frozen plasma (FP) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP).@*METHODS@#Twenty samples of FP and 20 samples of FFP from Beijing Red Cross Blood Center were randomly selected. Immediately after plasma melting, 12 plasma components including coagulation factor, fibrinolytic system and anticoagulation protein were detected, including activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), coagulation factor Ⅷ (FⅧ) activity, coagulation factor Ⅴ (FⅤ) activity, fibrinogen(FIB) level, ADAMTS-13 activity, von Willebrand factor(vWF) activity, D-dimer (D-dimer, DD), fibrin degradation products (FDP), antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC), and protein S (PS). All these coagulation components between the two types of plasma were compared and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with FFP, APTT in FP was significantly prolonged(t=3.428, P0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#FP can substitute FFP in the treatment of some diseases, although it is lack of some coagulation factors and anticoagulation protein.


Subject(s)
Beijing , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Factors , Blood Coagulation Tests , Humans , Plasma
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1941-1951, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) imposes a substantial burden on healthcare systems and confers considerable medical expenditures. We aimed to evaluate the global and regional burden in epidemiological trends and factors associated with the incidence and mortality of CRC.@*METHODS@#We used data from the GLOBOCAN database to estimate CRC incidence and mortality worldwide in 2020 and their association with the human development index (HDI). Trends of age-standardized rates of incidence and mortality in 60 countries (2000-2019) were evaluated by Joinpoint regression analysis using data of Global Burden of Disease 2019. The association between exposure to country-level lifestyle, metabolic and socioeconomic factors obtained from the World Health Organization Global Health Observatory and World Bank DataBank data and CRC incidence and mortality was determined by multivariable linear regression.@*RESULTS@#CRC incidence and mortality varied greatly in the 60 selected countries, and much higher incidence and mortality were observed in countries with higher HDIs, and vice versa. From 2000 to 2019, significant increases of incidence and mortality were observed for 33 countries (average annual percent changes [AAPCs], 0.24-3.82) and 18 countries (AAPCs, 0.41-2.22), respectively. A stronger increase in incidence was observed among males (AAPCs, 0.36-4.54) and individuals <50 years (AAPCs, 0.56-3.86). Notably, 15 countries showed significant decreases in both incidence (AAPCs, -0.24 to -2.19) and mortality (AAPCs, -0.84 to -2.74). A significant increase of incidence among individuals <50 years was observed in 30 countries (AAPCs, 0.28-3.62). Countries with higher incidence were more likely to have a higher prevalence of alcohol drinking, higher level of cholesterol level, higher level of unemployment, and a poorer healthcare system.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Some high-HDI countries showed decreasing trends in CRC incidence and mortality, whereas developing countries that previously had low disease burden showed significantly increased incidence and mortality trends, especially in males and populations ≥50 years, which require targeted preventive health programs.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Male , Risk Factors , World Health Organization
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2093-2101, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887058

ABSTRACT

At present, the research of Moutan cortex carbonisata (MCC) mainly focuses on the changes of chemical composition before and after charcoal production, and there is a lack of material basic research directly related to the efficacy at home and abroad. In this study, Moutan cortex, as a precursor, and was calcined to MCC at high temperature. The Moutan cortex carbonisata nano-components (MCC-NCs) were extracted and separated from MCC to explore its cooling-blood and hemostatic effects. In the experiment, the MCC was calcined at a high temperature in a muffle furnace (350 ℃, 1 h), and then MCC-NCs were extracted for MCC, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, the study evaluated the blood-cooling and hemostatic effects of MCC-NCs. The results showed that MCC-NCs have a size distribution of 0.80-2.8 nm, a lattice spacing of 0.26 nm. MCC-NCs are mainly composed of C, O and N elements and have abundant surface functional groups such as OH, C=O, C-N and C=C. The fluorescence yield of MCC-NCs was 7.18%. The experiments complied with the Animal Ethics Committee of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine. The result indicated that pretreatment MCC-NCs can significantly (P < 0.05) reduce the high, medium, and low viscosity of whole blood and plasma viscosity, and reduce hematocrit, red blood cell distribution width, hemoglobin and red blood cell level. In addition, MCC-NCs significantly reduced the levels of activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen (P < 0.05). The pathological examination results showed that MCC-NCs can significantly reduce lung tissue damage, reduce bleeding and inflammatory cell infiltration. At the same time, it can also significantly reduce the symptoms of gastric mucosal bleeding. In conclusion, the results indicated that MCC-NCs has significantly the effect of blood cooling and hemostasis, and its hemostatic effect is mainly related to the activation of endogenous coagulation pathway or fibrinogen system, which provided a novel strategy for exploring the material basis of traditional Chinese medicine for hemostasis.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921565

ABSTRACT

Liver metastasis is not rare during the course of neuroendocrine neoplasms.The methods for treating neuroendocrine neoplasm with liver metastasis(NENLM)are diversifying,which exposes the limitations of the early therapeutic response assessment based on only morphological changes.The emerging imaging biomarkers can sensitively describe changes in response to treatment from the functional level,providing new ideas for the therapeutic response evaluation of NENLM.In this paper,we reviewed the status quo and the latest research progress of imaging assessment for early therapeutic response of NENLM,aiming to provide reference for assessing the response and further exploring the treatment-related biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnostic imaging
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2475-2482, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There is growing evidence that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with therapeutic trauma can effectively induce skin repigmentation in vitiligo patients who are unresponsive to conventional treatments. Previous studies have mainly focused on identifying the antimitotic activity of 5-FU for the treatment of skin cancer, but few studies have investigated its extra-genotoxic actions favoring melanocyte recruitment.@*METHODS@#We utilized the full thickness excisional skin wound model in Dct-LacZ transgenic mice to dynamically assess the migration of melanocytes in the margins of wounds treated with or without 5-FU. The in-situ expression of CXCL12 was examined in the wound beds using immunofluorescence staining. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses were performed to detect the expression levels of CXCL12 mRNA and protein in primary mouse dermal fibroblasts treated with or without 5-FU. Transwell assays and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin staining were used to observe cell migration and filamentous actin (F-actin) changes of melan-a murine melanocytes.@*RESULTS@#Whole mount and cryosection X-gal staining showed that the cell numbers of LacZ-positive melanocytes were much higher in the margins of dorsal and tail skin wounds treated with 5-FU compared with the controls. Meanwhile, CXCL12 immunostaining was significantly increased in the dermal compartment of wounds treated with 5-FU (control vs. 5-FU, 22.47 ± 8.85 vs. 44.69 ± 5.97, P < 0.05). Moreover, 5-FU significantly upregulated the expression levels of CXCL12 mRNA (control vs. 5-FU, 1.00 ± 0.08 vs. 1.54 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) and protein (control vs. 5-FU, 1.00 ± 0.06 vs. 2.93 ± 0.10, P < 0.05) in cultured fibroblasts. Inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis suppressed melanocyte migration in vitro using a CXCL12 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or a CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100).@*CONCLUSION@#5-FU possesses a pro-pigmentary activity through activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis to drive the chemotactic migration of melanocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Chemokine CXCL12/genetics , Fibroblasts , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Humans , Mice , RNA, Messenger , Receptors, CXCR4
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920751

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode human infections in Jurong City from 2016 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the control strategy. Methods During the period from 2016 to 2020, the permanent residents at ages of over 3 years living in Jurong City were selected as the study subjects. Stool samples were collected for the detection of soil-transmitted nematode eggs using the modified Kato-Katz thick smear method (two detections for one stool sample), and the species of hookworm was identified in stool-positive stool samples using the culture method. The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematode infections were calculated, and the change of the infection prevalence among years was examined using the Cochran-Armitage test for trend. Results A total of 10 011 people-time populations were detected for soil-transmitted nematode infections in Jurong City from 2016 to 2020, and 56 egg-positives were identified, with mean prevalence of 0.56%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode human infections appeared a tendency towards a decline year by year in Jurong City (χ2trend = 5.15, P < 0.01). The mean prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections was 0.44%, 0.11% and 0.20% in Jurong City from 2016 to 2020, respectively, and individuals with hookworm infections accounted for 78.57% of all cases with soil-transmitted nematode infections. Single parasite (98.21%) and mild infection were pre-dominant in individuals with soil-transmitted nematode infections, and no multiple infections were seen after 2016. Conclusions The prevalence of human soil-transmitted nematodiasis is low in Jurong City. Based on reinforcement of soil-transmitted nematodiasis surveillance, an increase in the health education investment is required to consolidate the control achievements.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The effect of isoprenylcysteine carboxymethyltransferase (ICMT) silencing on the migration and invasion of tongue squamous cell carcinoma was investigated by constructing the small interfering RNA (siRNA) of ICMT.@*METHODS@#Through liposomal transfection, siRNA was transfected into human tongue squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 and SCC-4 cells (ICMT-siRNA group) with a negative control group (transfected with NC-siRNA) and a blank control group (transfected with a transfection reagent but not with siRNA). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the mRNA expression of ICMT and RhoA in each group of cells after transfection and to measure the silencing efficiency. Western blot was applied to examine the expression levels of ICMT, total RhoA, membrane RhoA, ROCK1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 proteins in each group. The migration and invasion abilities were evaluated via wound healing and Transwell motility assays.@*RESULTS@#After CAL-27 and SCC-4 cells were transfected with ICMT-siRNA, the expression levels of ICMT genes and proteins decreased significantly in the experimental group compared with those in the negative and blank control groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The migration and invasion abilities of CAL-27 and SCC-4 cells were reduced significantly after the transfection of ICMT-siRNA, and the involved mechanism might be related to the RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Protein Methyltransferases , RNA, Small Interfering , Tongue , Tongue Neoplasms , Transfection , rho-Associated Kinases
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to explore the effects of silencing isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransfe-rase (Icmt) through small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference on the proliferation and apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).@*METHODS@#Three siRNA were designed and constructed for the Icmt gene sequence and were then transfected into TSCC cells CAL-27 and SCC-4 to silence Icmt expression. The tested cells were divided as follows: RNA interference groups Icmt-siRNA-1, Icmt-siRNA-2, and Icmt-siRNA-3, negative control group, and blank control group. The transfection efficiency of siRNA was detected by the fluorescent group Cy3-labeled siRNA, and the expression of Icmt mRNA was screened by quantitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) selected the experimental group for subsequent experiments. The expression of Icmt, RhoA, Cyclin D1, p21, extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), and phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) were analyzed by Western blot. The proliferation abilities of TSCC cells were determined by cell counting kit-8 assay. The change in apoptosis was detected by AnnexinV-APC/propidium staining (PI) assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#The expression of Icmt mRNA and protein in TSCC cells significantly decreased after Icmt-siRNA transfection (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Silencing Icmt can effectively downregulate its expression in TSCC cells, reduce the RhoA membrane targeting localization and cell proliferation, and induce apoptosis. Thus, Icmt may be a potential gene therapy target for TSCC.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Protein Methyltransferases , RNA, Small Interfering , Tongue , Tongue Neoplasms
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1335-1344, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are the most widely used non-invasive tests in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. However, evidence about the direct comparison of the test performance of the self-administered qualitative a laboratory-based quantitative FITs in a CRC screening setting is sparse.@*METHODS@#Based on a CRC screening trial (TARGET-C), we included 3144 pre-colonoscopy fecal samples, including 24 CRCs, 230 advanced adenomas, 622 non-advanced adenomas, and 2268 participants without significant findings at colonoscopy. Three self-administered qualitative FITs (Pupu tube) with positivity thresholds of 8.0, 14.4, or 20.8 μg hemoglobin (Hb)/g preset by the manufacturer and one laboratory-based quantitative FIT (OC-Sensor) with a positivity threshold of 20 μg Hb/g recommended by the manufacturer were tested by trained staff in the central laboratory. The diagnostic performance of the FITs for detecting colorectal neoplasms was compared in the different scenarios using the preset and adjusted thresholds (for the quantitative FIT).@*RESULTS@#At the thresholds preset by the manufacturers, apart from the qualitative FIT-3, significantly higher sensitivities for detecting advanced adenoma were observed for the qualitative FIT-1 (33.9% [95% CI: 28.7-39.4%]) and qualitative FIT-2 (22.2% [95% CI: 17.7-27.2%]) compared to the quantitative FIT (11.7% [95% CI: 8.4-15.8%]), while at a cost of significantly lower specificities. However, such difference was not observed for detecting CRC. For scenarios of adjusting the positivity thresholds of the quantitative FIT to yield comparable specificity or comparable positivity rate to the three qualitative FITs accordingly, there were no significant differences in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values and positive/negative likelihood ratios for detecting CRC or advanced adenoma between the two types of FITs, which was further evidenced in ROC analysis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Although the self-administered qualitative and the laboratory-based quantitative FITs had varied test performance at the positivity thresholds preset by the manufacturer, such heterogeneity could be overcome by adjusting thresholds to yield comparable specificities or positivity rates. Future CRC screening programs should select appropriate types of FITs and define the thresholds based on the targeted specificities and manageable positivity rates.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Feces , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Laboratories , Occult Blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 598-604, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is an important therapeutic target for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In recent years, with the emergence of several ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), the overall survival (OS) of ALK fusion positive patients is gradually extended. This paper reports the treatment of a late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient with ALK fusion positive for more than 5 years, and analyzes the treatment process and effect evaluation, so as to provide experience for the follow-up treatment of patients.@*METHODS@#The diagnosis and treatment process of a patient with advanced ALK fusion mutation positive lung cancer admitted to the third ward of Department of oncology, Chifeng hospital, Inner Mongolia on July 3, 2015 was retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A 42 years old male patient was admitted to our department on July 3, 2015 for "intermittent cough, chest tightness for 2 months, diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma for 1 day". Imaging examination showed a space occupying lesion in the left lower lobe of the lung, accompanied by mediastinal lymphadenopathy and left encapsulated pleural effusion. Bronchoscopic pathology showed non-small cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma was tentatively suggested.@*DIAGNOSIS@#left lower lobe adenocarcinoma T1bN2M1a stage IV. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated the translocation of ALK (2p23) chromosome. After 2 cycles of docetaxel+cisplatin (DP) regimens chemotherapy, disease progression occurred, so we used 6 cycles of pemetrexed+carboplatin to apply combination chemotherapy, 4 cycles of pemetrexed monotherapy were used after that. The efficacy evaluation: PR. On April 9, 2016, the patient was treated with crizotinib. In August 2019, multiple intracranial metastases were found and whole brain radiotherapy was given. Since September 4, 2019, oral administration of nsatinib has been carried out. As of March 1, 2021, the patients were followed up well.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The advanced ALK fusion positive lung adenocarcinoma patients, though the first-line and the second-line chemotherapy, and the follwing application of ALK-TKI treatment, has procured a total OS has reached 68 months, and the current follow-up is good.

18.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 178-185, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799743

ABSTRACT

At present, total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the primary treatment for hip diseases such as femoral head necrosis and developmental dysplasia of the hip. It has good effects in reducing pain and improving joint function. The appearance of modular hip prosthesis facilitates adjustment of limb length and femoral offset. However, the wear between the interface of hip prosthesis can lead to inflammatory pseudotumor, osteolysis and other adverse reactions. To explore the risk factors of wear between hip prosthesis interface is helpful to improve the design and manufacturing concept of the product, improve the product performance, help surgeons optimize the operation technology and reduce the impact of human factors on the wear of the prosthesis. Many literatures have reported the mechanism of wear between the head-acetabula interface of prosthesis. The mechanism of wear between the interfaces has been described relatively clearly. In addition to the head-acetabula interface, the wear between the head-neck interface is another major cause of unexplained pain around the joint and prosthesis loosening after hip replacement. Many factors affect head-neck wear. The design of prosthesis (such as prosthesis material and prosthesis taper), surgical technology (such as impact strength and prosthesis mismatch) and patient factors (such as age, gender and activity) have important impact on head-neck wear. Adverse reactions caused by head-neck wear have also been widely concerned. However, there is no considerable solution for wear prevention. Thus, we should optimize the design of prosthesis, improve the surgical technology, and guide the rehabilitation of patients to prevent wear. In order to improve the attention of joint surgeons, the present paper reviews the literatures and analyzes the risk factors of head-neck interface wear and the clinical manifestations caused by head-neck wear.

19.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1522-1530, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869105

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the clinical effects of Zero-profile (Zero-p) intervertebral fusion and titanium plate combined with cage fusion in treating symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).Methods:Retrospective analysis was performed on 26 patients who underwent ACDF and readmission due to concurrent symptomatic ASD from October 2014 to June 2019. There were 17 males and 9 females, aged 54.15±8.60 (range 41-68) years. The index level included C 2, 3 1 case, C 3, 4 3 cases, C 4,5 9 cases, C 5, 6 6 cases, C 6, 7 7 cases. Twelve cases underwent anterior cervical decompression with Zero-p intervertebral fusion and fixation (Zero-p group), while 14 cases underwent anterior cervical decompression with titanium plate combined with cage fusion and fixation (titanium plate group). The following parameters, including operative duration, intraoperative blood loss, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, visual analogue score (VAS), neck disability index (NDI), dysphagia Bazaz grade, bone graft fusion Eck grade, C 2-C 7 Cobb angle, and related complications, were compared between the two groups. Results:The operation was performed successfully in all the patients. The patients were followed up for averagely 33.38±21.26 (range 12-71) months. The operation duration was 95.83±5.47 (range 89-105) min in the Zero-p group, which was shorter than 121.28±8.24 (range 106-131) min in the titanium plate group. The Bazaz classification of dysphagia in the Zero-p group was superior to the titanium plate group at 1 month after operation ( W=126.00, P=0.022). Neither group had dysphagia 3 months after surgery. The JOA score increased from preoperative 9.50±1.31 to 14.33±0.78, and VAS decreased from 5.33±1.67 to 0.83±0.72 in the Zero-p group. The NDI decreased from 43.62%±9.31% to 14.99%±3.26%, and C 2-C 7 Cobb changed from 8.26°±2.92° to 14.80°±4.18° in the Zero-p group. The JOA score increased from preoperative 9.14±1.79 to 14.71±0.73, and VAS decreased from 5.43±1.55 to 1.43±0.76 in the titanium plate group. The NDI decreased from 43.76%±8.47% to 14.22%±4.59%, and C 2-C 7 Cobb changed from 5.53°±9.04° to 14.68°±6.89° in the titanium plate group. No complication, such as screw loosening or breakage or esophageal injury, occurred during the follow-up. Conclusion:Both methods can achieve good clinical effects in treating symptomatic ASD and can restore the physiological curvature of the cervical spine to a certain extent. Furthermore, the advantages of Zero-p intervertebral fusion include shorter operation duration, reducing soft tissue injury and less postoperative dysphagia.

20.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 178-185, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-868961

ABSTRACT

At present,total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the primary treatment for hip diseases such as femoral head necrosis and developmental dysplasia of the hip.It has good effects in reducing pain and improving joint function.The appearance of modular hip prosthesis facilitates adjustment of limb length and femoral offset.However,the wear between the interface of hip prosthesis can lead to inflammatory pseudotumor,osteolysis and other adverse reactions.To explore the risk factors of wear between hip prosthesis interface is helpful to improve the design and manufacturing concept of the product,improve the product performance,help surgeons optimize the operation technology and reduce the impact of human factors on the wear of the prosthesis.Many literatures have reported the mechanism of wear between the head-acetabula interface of prosthesis.The mechanism of wear between the interfaces has been described relatively clearly.In addition to the head-acetabula interface,the wear between the head-neck interface is another major cause of unexplained pain around the joint and prosthesis loosening after hip replacement.Many factors affect head-neck wear.The design of prosthesis (such as prosthesis material and prosthesis taper),surgical technology (such as impact strength and prosthesis mismatch) and patient factors (such as age,gender and activity) have important impact on head-neck wear.Adverse reactions caused by head-neck wear have also been widely concerned.However,there is no considerable solution for wear prevention.Thus,we should optimize the design of prosthesis,improve the surgical technology,and guide the rehabilitation of patients to prevent wear.In order to improve the attention of joint surgeons,the present paper reviews the literatures and analyzes the risk factors of head-neck interface wear and the clinical manifestations caused by head-neck wear.

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