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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773597

ABSTRACT

Saposhnikovia divaricata is a valuable Chinese medicinal herb; the transformation from vegetative growth to reproductive growth may lead to the decrease of its pharmacological activities. Therefore, the study of bolting and flowering for Saposhnikovia divaricata is warranted. The present study aimed to reveal differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and regularity of expression during the bolting and flowering process, and the results of this study might provide a theoretical foundation for the suppression of early bolting for future research and practical application. Three sample groups, early flowering, flower bud differentiation, and late flowering (groups A, B, and C, respectively) were selected. Transcriptomic analysis identified 67, 010 annotated unigenes, among which 50, 165 were differentially expressed including 16, 108 in A vs B, and 17, 459 in B vs C, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway functional classification analysis were performed on these differentially expressed genes, and five important pathways were significantly impacted (P ≤ 0.01): plant circadian rhythm, other glycan degradation, oxidative phosphorylation, plant hormone signal transduction, and starch and sucrose metabolism. Plant hormone signal transduction might play an important role in the bolting and flowering process. The differentially expressed indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) gene showed significant down-regulation during bolting and flowering, while the transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1) gene showed no significant change during the bolting process. The expression of flowering related genes FLC, LYF, and AP1 also showed a greater difference at different development stages. In conclusion, we speculate that the decrease in auxin concentration is not caused by the degrading effect of TIR1 but by an alternative mechanism.


Subject(s)
Apiaceae , Genetics , Flowers , Genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genes, Plant , RNA, Plant , Genetics , Reproducibility of Results
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-692300

ABSTRACT

The structure of fibrauretin made by our lab was modified. Fibrauretin was demethylated at 9-site under high temperature pyrolysis at 160℃-180℃ and was reacted with a series of acid chlorides. Twele derivatives of fibrauretin were obtained. The structure of each derivative was determined by1H-NMR and13C-NMR. The derivatives were 9-O-benzoyl-fibrauretin, 9-O-( 2-methylbenzoyl)-fibrauretin, 9-O-( 4-methylbenzoyl)-fibrauretin, 9-O-(3, 5-dimethylbenzoyl)-fibrauretin, 9-O-(4-(chloromethyl) benzoyl)-fibrauretin and other derivatives. The 12 derivatives are all new chemical compounds. Taking ATCI as substrate,the inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the head of flies of the fibrauretin and its derivatives were screened. The results showed that most of the derivatives had improved their inhibitory activity on AChE through esterification reaction. Compounds 9-O-(4-methylbenzoyl)-fibrauretin, 9-O-(3,5-dimethylbenzoyl)-fibrauretinand 9-O-(4-(chloromethyl)benzoyl)-fibrauretin had significant inhibitory effect on AChE,and the inhibitory activity was stronger than the that of donepezil.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812386

ABSTRACT

Saposhnikovia divaricata is a valuable Chinese medicinal herb; the transformation from vegetative growth to reproductive growth may lead to the decrease of its pharmacological activities. Therefore, the study of bolting and flowering for Saposhnikovia divaricata is warranted. The present study aimed to reveal differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and regularity of expression during the bolting and flowering process, and the results of this study might provide a theoretical foundation for the suppression of early bolting for future research and practical application. Three sample groups, early flowering, flower bud differentiation, and late flowering (groups A, B, and C, respectively) were selected. Transcriptomic analysis identified 67, 010 annotated unigenes, among which 50, 165 were differentially expressed including 16, 108 in A vs B, and 17, 459 in B vs C, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway functional classification analysis were performed on these differentially expressed genes, and five important pathways were significantly impacted (P ≤ 0.01): plant circadian rhythm, other glycan degradation, oxidative phosphorylation, plant hormone signal transduction, and starch and sucrose metabolism. Plant hormone signal transduction might play an important role in the bolting and flowering process. The differentially expressed indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) gene showed significant down-regulation during bolting and flowering, while the transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1) gene showed no significant change during the bolting process. The expression of flowering related genes FLC, LYF, and AP1 also showed a greater difference at different development stages. In conclusion, we speculate that the decrease in auxin concentration is not caused by the degrading effect of TIR1 but by an alternative mechanism.


Subject(s)
Apiaceae , Genetics , Flowers , Genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genes, Plant , RNA, Plant , Genetics , Reproducibility of Results
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852726

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the quality of Maiweishen, a simple and accurate HPLC method for determining the contents of 20 active constituents from Maiweishen was established. Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase made up of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength and column temperature were set as 203 nm and 35 ℃, respectively. Results: Sixteen ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rg2, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, F1, Rd, F2, Rg3, protopanaxatriol, compounds K, Rh2, and protopanaxadiol), three kinds of lignan in Schisandra chinensis (schizandrol A, schizandrin A, B), and ophiopogonin D were separated at baseline with good linearity (r ≥ 0.999 6). The recovery rates were 96%-102% (RSD < 2%). Conclusion: The method is simple, fast, accurate, and could be applied to the quality control of Maiweishen.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338203

ABSTRACT

The study aims at screening the specific bands by PCR, quickly and accurately evaluating the quality of ginseng seeding, accelerating the process of ginseng breeding. Based on the correlation of genetic differences and saponin content between individuals, a pair of specific primer GC1 was screened by PCR. According to the experiment by L16 (45) orthogonal test, a PCR system most suitable for GC1 was established, which came out total 25 μL reaction system containing DNA 2.60 mg•L⁻¹, Mg²⁺ 1.44 mmol•L⁻¹, dNTP 0.19 mmol•L⁻¹, primer 0.32 μmol•L⁻¹ and Taq enzyme concentration 0.076 U•μL⁻¹. By comparing the saponin content and the GC1 PCR electrophoretogram of samples, the ginseng, with 1 200 bp specific band by PCR of GC1, the contents of 9 monosodium saponins and their additions were higher than others, which provided a reliable method for accelerating the process of ginseng breeding. The sequence was sequenced and 99% homologous to glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256068

ABSTRACT

The experiment was aimed to investigate the difference of plasma concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters between liposome and aqueous solution of toatal ginsenoside of ginseng stems and leaves in rats, such as ginsenosides Rg₁, Re, Rf, Rb₁, Rg₂, Rc, Rb₂, Rb₃, Rd. After intravenous injection of liposome and aqueous solution in rats, the blood was taken from the femoral vein to detect the plasma concentration of the above 9 ginsenoside monomers in different time points by using HPLC. The concentration-time curve was obtained and 3p97 pharmacokinetic software was used to get the pharmacokinetic parameters. After the intravenous injection of ginsenosides to rats, nine ginsenosides were detected in plasma. In general, among these ginsenosides, the peak time of the aqueous solution was between 0.05 to 0.083 3 h, and the serum concentration peak of liposome usually appeared after 0.5 h. After software fitting, the aqueous solution of ginsenoside monomers Rg₁, Re, Rf, Rg₂, Rc, Rd, Rb₃ was two-compartment model, and the liposomes were one-compartment model; aqueous solution and liposome of ginsenoside monomers Rb₁ were three-compartment model; aqueous solution of ginsenoside monomers Rb₂ was three-compartment model, and its liposome was one-compartment model. Area under the drug time curve (AUC) of these 9 kinds of saponin liposomes was larger than that of aqueous solution, and the retention time of the liposomes was longer than that of the aqueous solution; the removal rate was slower than that of the aqueous solution, and the half-life was longer than that of the water solution. The results from the experiment showed that by intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters of two formulations were significantly different from each other; the liposomes could not only remain the drug for a longer time in vivo, but also reduce the elimination rate and increase the treatment efficacy. As compared with the traditional dosage forms, the total ginsenoside of ginseng stems and leaves can improve the sustained release of the drug, which is of great significance for the research and development of new dosage forms of ginsenosides in the future.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256035

ABSTRACT

In this study, the total alkaloids of Huangteng were given to the rats by the methods of intragastric administration and tail vein. After the concentration changes of palmatine and jatrorrhizine in the plasma of rats were determined by RP-HPLC, pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability were calculated by 3P97 software. After the rats were pre-treated with total alkaloid 60 mg•kg⁻¹ by the methods of intragastric administration and tail vein, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were determined as follows: in the intragastric administration group, the Cmax of palmatine and jatrorrhizine were (0.91±0.06), (0.70±0.08) mg•L⁻¹; tmax of palmatine and jatrorrhizine were (35.24±0.83), (47.76±1.24) min; t1/2 of palmatine and jatrorrhizine were (187.03±1.53), (105.64±16.99) min, AUC of palmatine and jatrorrhizine were (280.30±18.69), (144.36±1.06) mg•min•L⁻¹; in the intravenous injection group, the t1/2 of palmatine and jatrorrhizine were (172.18±12.38), (147.26±1.82) min; AUC of palmatine and jatrorrhizine were (2 553.14±214.91), (328.83±10.81) mg•min•L⁻¹. The oral bioavailability of palmatine was 10.98% and jatrorrhizine was 43.90%.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-686058

ABSTRACT

As a model terpenoid,the ginsenoside is one of Panax ginseng’s main effective components.An overview of biosynthetic pathway of terpenoids and the HMG-CoA reductases was presented.The massive research materials indicated that the HMG-CoA reductases is the first key enzyme of the regulation of the mevalonic acid way,which has some reference value to promote the research on the biosynthetic pathway and the regulation of ginsenoside.

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