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1.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 122-127, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913882

ABSTRACT

C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerulopathy that typically presents with nephrotic syndrome in children. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents renders patients vulnerable to infection and its complications. Gastroenteritis is common in children, and rotavirus is a leading cause. Extraintestinal manifestations of rotavirus have recently been reported; however, there is a paucity of cases exploring the involvement of a rotavirus on the respiratory system. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapid onset respiratory failure characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia. Causes of ARDS include sepsis, pneumonia, pancreatitis, aspiration, and trauma. In this paper, we report a case of ARDS after rotavirus infection in a child with C1q nephropathy who had been treated with immunosuppressive agents.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903134

ABSTRACT

Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) is a common disease in the pediatric population, and it is rarely caused by a fungal infection. Acute respiratory failure caused by fungal LTB mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients, and early diagnosis is closely associated with morbidity and mortality. However, an appropriate diagnosis is challenging for pediatricians because symptoms and signs of LTB caused by Aspergillus spp. are nonspecific. Here, we report a case of progressive respiratory failure caused by pseudomembranous LTB in a child with a suspicion of primary immunodeficiency and highlight the importance of an early investigation, especially in immunocompromised patients.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895430

ABSTRACT

Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) is a common disease in the pediatric population, and it is rarely caused by a fungal infection. Acute respiratory failure caused by fungal LTB mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients, and early diagnosis is closely associated with morbidity and mortality. However, an appropriate diagnosis is challenging for pediatricians because symptoms and signs of LTB caused by Aspergillus spp. are nonspecific. Here, we report a case of progressive respiratory failure caused by pseudomembranous LTB in a child with a suspicion of primary immunodeficiency and highlight the importance of an early investigation, especially in immunocompromised patients.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fentanyl for sedation therapy in mechanically ventilated children. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of mechanically ventilated patients between 2 months and 18 years of age. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the control group with midazolam alone, and the combination group with both fentanyl and midazolam. The sedation level was evaluated using the Comfort Behavior Scale (CBS), and the infusion rates were adjusted according to the difference between the measured and the target CBS score. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were recruited and randomly allocated, with 22 patients in both groups. The time ratio of cumulative hours with a difference in CBS score (measured CBS–target CBS) of ≥ 4 points (i.e., under-sedation) was lower in the combination group (median, 0.06; interquartile range [IQR], 0–0.2) than in the control group (median, 0.15; IQR, 0.04–0.29) (P < 0.001). The time ratio of cumulative hours with a difference in CBS score of ≥ 8 points (serious under-sedation) was also lower in the combination group (P < 0.001). The cumulative amount of midazolam used in the control group (0.11 mg/kg/hr; 0.07–0.14 mg/kg/hr) was greater than in the combination group (0.07 mg/kg/hr; 0.06–0.11 mg/kg/hr) (P < 0.001). Two cases of hypotension in each group were detected but coma and ileus, the major known adverse reactions to fentanyl, did not occur. CONCLUSION: Fentanyl combined with midazolam is safe and more effective than midazolam alone for sedation therapy in mechanically ventilated children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02172014


Subject(s)
Child , Coma , Fentanyl , Humans , Hypotension , Ileus , Midazolam , Respiration, Artificial
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the structure, organization, management, and staffing of pediatric critical care (PCC) in Korea. METHODS: We directed a questionnaire survey for all Upper Grade General Hospitals (n = 43) in Korea in 2015. The first questionnaire was mainly about structure, organization, and staffing and responses were obtained from 32 hospitals. The second questionnaire was mainly about patients and management. Responses to second questionnaire were obtained from 18 hospitals. RESULTS: Twelve from 32 Upper Grade General Hospitals had pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and 11 of them had the PICU which was exclusive for children. Total number of PICU beds in Korea was 113. The ratio of the number of PICU beds to the number of children was 1:77,460 in Korea and this ratio is lower than that of other developed countries. The mean number of beds in the PICUs was 9.4 ± 9.3 (range, 2–30). There were 16 medical doctors who were assigned for PCC and only 5 of them were full time pediatric intensivists. In the 18 Upper Grade General Hospitals that responded to the second questionnaire survey, there were 97 patients in the PICUs with an average number of 5.7 ± 7.2 (range, 0–22) on the survey day. The mean age of the patients was 3.4 ± 5.6 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 82 ± 271 days. The mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality score III was 9.4 ± 7.8 at the time of admission to the PICUs. CONCLUSION: There is a considerable shortage of PICU beds compared to those in developed countries. In addition, the proportion of PICUs with PCC specialists is much lower than those in the US and European countries.


Subject(s)
Child , Critical Care , Developed Countries , Hospitals, General , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Korea , Length of Stay , Mortality , Specialization
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741854

ABSTRACT

A 6-year-old boy with underlying hemolytic anemia of unknown etiology, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent urticaria visited our hospital because of acute respiratory failure induced by influenza A. Despite mechanical ventilation after endotracheal intubation along with inhalation of nitric oxide, respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia persisted. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) insertion was performed to provide respiratory support. After performing flexible bronchoscopy, we found that thick mucus plugs were obstructing the right bronchus intermedius and the upper lobe orifice. After bronchial washing and removal of the plugs, we were able to wean the patient off VV ECMO and transfer him to the general ward. He was discharged without any neurologic or pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Respiratory , Anemia, Hemolytic , Hypoxia , Bronchi , Bronchitis , Bronchoscopy , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Inhalation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Mucus , Nitric Oxide , Patients' Rooms , Plastics , Pneumonia , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency , Urticaria
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770988

ABSTRACT

Acute cerebral infarctions are rare in children, however, they can occur as a complication of a Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection due to direct invasion, vasculitis, or a hypercoagulable state. We report on the case of a 5-year-old boy who had an extensive stroke in multiple cerebrovascular territories 10 days after the diagnosis of MP infection. Based on the suspicion that the cerebral infarction was associated with a macrolide-resistant MP infection, the patient was treated with levofloxacin, methyl-prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and enoxaparin. Despite this medical management, cerebral vascular narrowing progressed and a decompressive craniectomy became necessary for the patient's survival. According to laboratory tests, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical manifestations, the cerebral infarction in this case appeared to be due to the combined effects of hypercoagulability and cytokineinduced vascular inflammation.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebral Infarction , Child , Child, Preschool , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diagnosis , Enoxaparin , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Levofloxacin , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Stroke , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Vasculitis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200975

ABSTRACT

Acute cerebral infarctions are rare in children, however, they can occur as a complication of a Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection due to direct invasion, vasculitis, or a hypercoagulable state. We report on the case of a 5-year-old boy who had an extensive stroke in multiple cerebrovascular territories 10 days after the diagnosis of MP infection. Based on the suspicion that the cerebral infarction was associated with a macrolide-resistant MP infection, the patient was treated with levofloxacin, methyl-prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and enoxaparin. Despite this medical management, cerebral vascular narrowing progressed and a decompressive craniectomy became necessary for the patient's survival. According to laboratory tests, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical manifestations, the cerebral infarction in this case appeared to be due to the combined effects of hypercoagulability and cytokineinduced vascular inflammation.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebral Infarction , Child , Child, Preschool , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diagnosis , Enoxaparin , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Levofloxacin , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Stroke , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Vasculitis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770897

ABSTRACT

Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a rare syndrome characterized by concurrent nevus flammeus (capillary malformation) and pigmentary nevus. According to current research, the major pathophysiologic mechanism in PPV is venous dysplasia with resultant compensatory collateral channels and venous hypertension. Arterial involvement is rare. We herein report our experience on renovascular hypertension, intermittent claudication, and severe rhabdomyolysis due to diffuse stenosis of multiple arteries in a patient with PPV type IIb associated with SWS.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Renovascular , Intermittent Claudication , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neurocutaneous Syndromes , Nevus , Port-Wine Stain , Rhabdomyolysis , Sturge-Weber Syndrome , Vascular Diseases
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25373

ABSTRACT

Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a rare syndrome characterized by concurrent nevus flammeus (capillary malformation) and pigmentary nevus. According to current research, the major pathophysiologic mechanism in PPV is venous dysplasia with resultant compensatory collateral channels and venous hypertension. Arterial involvement is rare. We herein report our experience on renovascular hypertension, intermittent claudication, and severe rhabdomyolysis due to diffuse stenosis of multiple arteries in a patient with PPV type IIb associated with SWS.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Renovascular , Intermittent Claudication , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neurocutaneous Syndromes , Nevus , Port-Wine Stain , Rhabdomyolysis , Sturge-Weber Syndrome , Vascular Diseases
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various tools for the acute response system (ARS) predict and prevent acute deterioration in pediatric patients. However, detailed criteria have not been clarified. Thus we evaluated the effectiveness of bradycardia as a single parameter in pediatric ARS. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients who had visited a tertiary care children's hospital from January 2012 to June 2013, in whom ARS was activated because of bradycardia. Patient's medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics, cardiologic evaluations, and reversible causes that affect heart rate. RESULTS: Of 271 cases, 261 (96%) had ARS activation by bradycardia alone with favorable outcomes. Evaluations and interventions were performed in 165 (64.5%) and 13 cases (6.6%) respectively. All patients in whom ARS was activated owing to bradycardia and another criteria underwent evaluation, unlike those with bradycardia alone (100.0% vs. 63.2%, p = 0.016). Electrocardiograms were evaluated in 233 (86%) cases: arrhythmias were due to borderline QT prolongation and atrioventricular block (1st and 2nd-degree) in 25 cases (9.2%). Bradycardia-related causes were reversible in 202 patients (74.5%). Specific causes were different in departments at admission. Patients admitted to the hemato-oncology department required ARS activation during the night (69.3%, p = 0.03), those to the endocrinology department required ARS activation because of medication (72.4%, p < 0.001), and those to the gastroenterology department had low body mass indexes (32%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Using bradycardia alone in pediatric ARS is not useful, because of its low specificity and poor predictive ability for deterioration. However, bradycardia can be applied to ARS concurrently with other parameters.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrioventricular Block , Body Mass Index , Bradycardia , Electrocardiography , Endocrinology , Gastroenterology , Heart Arrest , Heart Rate , Hospital Rapid Response Team , Humans , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Healthcare
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770830

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. We report a case of KD with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion. Lung manifestations associated with KD have previously been reported in the literature. Although IVIG infusion is an effective therapy for acute KD, there are some reported complications related to IVIG infusion: hypotension, aseptic meningitis, acute renal failure, hemolytic anemia, etc. The case of KD reported here was treated with IVIG and aspirin. A few days after recovery from KD, the patient developed fever and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of relapse KD was made and retreated with IVIG infusion. However, the patient developed ARDS four days after the second IVIG infusion. The patient recovered from ARDS after nine days of ICU care, which included high frequency oscillation ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide, steroid treatment and other supportive care.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Anemia, Hemolytic , Aspirin , Diagnosis , Exanthema , Fever , High-Frequency Ventilation , Humans , Hypotension , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Lung , Meningitis, Aseptic , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Nitric Oxide , Recurrence , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Systemic Vasculitis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various tools for the acute response system (ARS) predict and prevent acute deterioration in pediatric patients. However, detailed criteria have not been clarified. Thus we evaluated the effectiveness of bradycardia as a single parameter in pediatric ARS. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients who had visited a tertiary care children's hospital from January 2012 to June 2013, in whom ARS was activated because of bradycardia. Patient's medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics, cardiologic evaluations, and reversible causes that affect heart rate. RESULTS: Of 271 cases, 261 (96%) had ARS activation by bradycardia alone with favorable outcomes. Evaluations and interventions were performed in 165 (64.5%) and 13 cases (6.6%) respectively. All patients in whom ARS was activated owing to bradycardia and another criteria underwent evaluation, unlike those with bradycardia alone (100.0% vs. 63.2%, p = 0.016). Electrocardiograms were evaluated in 233 (86%) cases: arrhythmias were due to borderline QT prolongation and atrioventricular block (1st and 2nd-degree) in 25 cases (9.2%). Bradycardia-related causes were reversible in 202 patients (74.5%). Specific causes were different in departments at admission. Patients admitted to the hemato-oncology department required ARS activation during the night (69.3%, p = 0.03), those to the endocrinology department required ARS activation because of medication (72.4%, p < 0.001), and those to the gastroenterology department had low body mass indexes (32%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Using bradycardia alone in pediatric ARS is not useful, because of its low specificity and poor predictive ability for deterioration. However, bradycardia can be applied to ARS concurrently with other parameters.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrioventricular Block , Body Mass Index , Bradycardia , Electrocardiography , Endocrinology , Gastroenterology , Heart Arrest , Heart Rate , Hospital Rapid Response Team , Humans , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Healthcare
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145396

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. We report a case of KD with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion. Lung manifestations associated with KD have previously been reported in the literature. Although IVIG infusion is an effective therapy for acute KD, there are some reported complications related to IVIG infusion: hypotension, aseptic meningitis, acute renal failure, hemolytic anemia, etc. The case of KD reported here was treated with IVIG and aspirin. A few days after recovery from KD, the patient developed fever and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of relapse KD was made and retreated with IVIG infusion. However, the patient developed ARDS four days after the second IVIG infusion. The patient recovered from ARDS after nine days of ICU care, which included high frequency oscillation ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide, steroid treatment and other supportive care.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Anemia, Hemolytic , Aspirin , Diagnosis , Exanthema , Fever , High-Frequency Ventilation , Humans , Hypotension , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Lung , Meningitis, Aseptic , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Nitric Oxide , Recurrence , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Systemic Vasculitis
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-645114

ABSTRACT

Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most severe neonatal infections, and can have devastating consequences without early proper treatment. However, the administration of acyclovir can often be delayed because the symptoms and signs of HSV infection are non-specific and because HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results may be negative early in the course of HSV infection. We report a case of disseminated neonatal HSV infection that was diagnosed by type 1 HSV PCR on day 8 of admission. Despite delayed administration of acyclovir, the patient was cured and subsequently discharged after 30 days of admission. Fortunately, this patient was treated successfully, but delayed administration of acyclovir has the potential to lead to significant problems. Considering the seriousness of neonatal HSV infection, empirical acyclovir therapy should be considered if HSV infection is suspected.


Subject(s)
Acyclovir , Herpes Simplex , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Methylmethacrylates , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polystyrenes , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Simplexvirus
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