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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926339

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To describe successful treatment of cytomegalovirus immune recovery retinitis, with similarity to acute retinal necrosis, in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the immune recovery stage.Case summary: A 37-year-old man, diagnosed with AIDS 5 years prior, visited our clinic with a chief complaint of visual disturbance in his right eye for 1 week. Slit lamp examination revealed severe inflammation; a light gray retinal lesion with a clear border was present in the inferotemporal area of the peripheral retina. Antiviral (ganciclovir) and oral steroid treatments were initiated. Blood test results indicated that the CD4+ T-cell count was 222/μL. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of anterior puncture findings showed a positive result for cytomegalovirus. Clinical findings were suggestive of acute retinal necrosis, but the patient's condition and examination were also suggestive of cytomegalovirus retinitis in the immune recovery stage. One month after treatment, retinal detachment was observed; surgery was performed. There was no recurrence for 3 years after the second operation and the patient remained in stable condition. @*Conclusions@#In the immune recovery stage, non-specific cytomegalovirus retinitis accompanied by inflammation may exhibit fundus findings similar to acute retinal necrosis. We report a rare case of cytomegalovirus immune recovery retinitis where normal vision was restored via systemic drug treatment and surgery.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874684

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1) are known to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). These mutations are very rare in most countries, but not in certain Mediterranean countries. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of Korean CMT patients with GDAP1 mutations. @*Methods@#Gene sequencing was applied to 1,143 families in whom CMT had been diagnosed from 2005 to 2020. PMP22 duplication was found in 344 families, and whole-exome sequencing was performed in 699 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained using either a 1.5-T or 3.0-T MRI system. @*Results@#We found ten patients from eight families with GDAP1 mutations: five with autosomal dominant (AD) CMT type 2K (three families with p.R120W and two families with p.Q218E) and three with autosomal recessive (AR) intermediate CMT type A (two families with homozygous p.H256R and one family with p.P111H and p.V219G mutations). The frequency was about 1.0% exclusive of the PMP22 duplication, which is similar to that in other Asian countries. There were clinical differences among AD GDAP1 patients according to mutation sites. Surprisingly, fat infiltrations evident in lower-limb MRI differed between AD and AR patients. The posterior-compartment muscles in the calf were affected early and predominantly in AD patients, whereas AR patients showed fat infiltration predominantly in the anterolateral-compartment muscles. @*Conclusions@#This is the first cohort report on Korean patients with GDAP1 mutations. The patients with AD and AR inheritance routes exhibited different clinical and neuroimaging features in the lower extremities. We believe that these results will help to expand the knowledge of the clinical, genetic, and neuroimaging features of CMT.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901131

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the results of treatment according to the method of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). @*Methods@#The clinical records of macular edema patients were analyzed retrospectively for a total of 62 eyes of 62 patients who were injected with bevacizumab into the vitreous as the first treatment for BRVO. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the findings of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography before and after injection, and prognosis-related factors were evaluated for 21 eyes that received the initial three monthly loading treatments and the 41 eyes that did not. @*Results@#Significant improvement in BCVA was observed in the group having received the initial three injections compared with the group who did not receive the injections at 3, 6, and 12 months (p = 0.025, p = 0.019, and p = 0.008, respectively). The central macular thickness (CMT) showed greater improvement in the initial three injections group than the group without at 6 months (p = 0.034). Multivariate regression showed that the duration from the onset, the three loadings, BCVA, disorganization of the retinal inner layer (DRIL), and choroidal thickness were predictors related to visual gain (p = 0.044, p = 0.047, p = 0.004, p = 0.045, and p = 0.034, respectively). Age, three loadings, BCVA, and DRIL were predictors related to final visual acuity (p = 0.045, p = 0.046, p = 0.002, and p = 0.034, respectively). Duration from the onset, CMT, and choroidal thickness were predictors related to CMT improvement (p = 0.042, p = 0.009, and p = 0.015, respectively). @*Conclusions@#In macular edema of BRVO, the initial three monthly intravitreal injections of bevacizumab provided superior treatment outcomes regarding short-term functional and anatomical improvements and long-term functional improvement, compared with methods that did not treat with the initial three monthly injections.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901049

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the 1-year outcomes of a treat-and-extend regimen of ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration and examined the clinical results when drug treatment was changed within the same period. @*Methods@#This retrospective analysis included 32 eyes first diagnosed with wet age-related macular degeneration and treated for more than 1 year with a treat-and-extend regimen of ranibizumab, as well as 24 eyes treated by changing from ranibizumab to aflibercept within the same period. The injection number, maximum injection interval, change in central retinal thickness, and best-corrected visual acuity were assessed in all eyes. @*Results@#In 32 eyes that received a treat-and-extend regimen of ranibizumab, the mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 59.46 ± 15.13 to 68.00 ± 12.48 at 12 months (p < 0.0001). The mean central retinal thickness decreased from 409 ± 141 μm to 273 ± 89 μm at 12 months (p < 0.0001). The average number of injections per year was 7.2 ± 0.85. One complication related to the 12 months of injections was a tear in the retinal pigment epithelium; no systemic complications were observed. Of 24 eyes that underwent a change in medication, the rate of maintenance or improvement in initial visual acuity was 83% (10 eyes). The central retinal thickness was initially 371.58 ± 109.96 μm, but improved to 290.33 ± 58.66 μm in 12 eyes that received three injections of aflibercept. @*Conclusions@#At 1 year, good outcomes were obtained using treat-and-extend ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration. When the treatment was changed to aflibercept within the same period, vision was often maintained and short-term anatomical improvement was evident.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901000

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report a case of acute angle-closure attack resulting from hemorrhagic retinal detachment after a double retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tear in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with large pigment epithelial detachment (PED).Case summary: A 66-year-old female visited with a complaint of poor vision in left eye, which began 1 month prior. She was diagnosed with exudative AMD with a large PED using optical coherence tomography and indocyanine green angiography. Intravitreal aflibercept injection was performed. The RPE tear occurred at 2 weeks after the intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection for AMD, after which the range of the RPE tear expanded and included the macular area at 4 weeks after the second injection. At 3 months after the third injection, massive submacular hemorrhage occurred; aflibercept injection was repeated. At 3 days after the fourth injection, the patient’s intraocular pressure (IOP) was 60 mmHg, and massive hemorrhagic serous retinal detachment and anterior movement of the lens with total angle closure were observed. Therefore, we performed a sclerotomy; a large amount of dark blood and subretinal fluid was drained. The IOP decreased, and the retinal detachment improved somewhat. The patient was kept under observation for careful monitoring of her condition. @*Conclusions@#It is very rare to experience a double RPE rupture after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection in AMD. We report on our experience and treatment of acute angle-closure attack. The IOP increased due to hemorrhagic retinal detachment after a double RPE tear over the treatment course.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893427

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the results of treatment according to the method of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). @*Methods@#The clinical records of macular edema patients were analyzed retrospectively for a total of 62 eyes of 62 patients who were injected with bevacizumab into the vitreous as the first treatment for BRVO. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the findings of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography before and after injection, and prognosis-related factors were evaluated for 21 eyes that received the initial three monthly loading treatments and the 41 eyes that did not. @*Results@#Significant improvement in BCVA was observed in the group having received the initial three injections compared with the group who did not receive the injections at 3, 6, and 12 months (p = 0.025, p = 0.019, and p = 0.008, respectively). The central macular thickness (CMT) showed greater improvement in the initial three injections group than the group without at 6 months (p = 0.034). Multivariate regression showed that the duration from the onset, the three loadings, BCVA, disorganization of the retinal inner layer (DRIL), and choroidal thickness were predictors related to visual gain (p = 0.044, p = 0.047, p = 0.004, p = 0.045, and p = 0.034, respectively). Age, three loadings, BCVA, and DRIL were predictors related to final visual acuity (p = 0.045, p = 0.046, p = 0.002, and p = 0.034, respectively). Duration from the onset, CMT, and choroidal thickness were predictors related to CMT improvement (p = 0.042, p = 0.009, and p = 0.015, respectively). @*Conclusions@#In macular edema of BRVO, the initial three monthly intravitreal injections of bevacizumab provided superior treatment outcomes regarding short-term functional and anatomical improvements and long-term functional improvement, compared with methods that did not treat with the initial three monthly injections.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893345

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the 1-year outcomes of a treat-and-extend regimen of ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration and examined the clinical results when drug treatment was changed within the same period. @*Methods@#This retrospective analysis included 32 eyes first diagnosed with wet age-related macular degeneration and treated for more than 1 year with a treat-and-extend regimen of ranibizumab, as well as 24 eyes treated by changing from ranibizumab to aflibercept within the same period. The injection number, maximum injection interval, change in central retinal thickness, and best-corrected visual acuity were assessed in all eyes. @*Results@#In 32 eyes that received a treat-and-extend regimen of ranibizumab, the mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 59.46 ± 15.13 to 68.00 ± 12.48 at 12 months (p < 0.0001). The mean central retinal thickness decreased from 409 ± 141 μm to 273 ± 89 μm at 12 months (p < 0.0001). The average number of injections per year was 7.2 ± 0.85. One complication related to the 12 months of injections was a tear in the retinal pigment epithelium; no systemic complications were observed. Of 24 eyes that underwent a change in medication, the rate of maintenance or improvement in initial visual acuity was 83% (10 eyes). The central retinal thickness was initially 371.58 ± 109.96 μm, but improved to 290.33 ± 58.66 μm in 12 eyes that received three injections of aflibercept. @*Conclusions@#At 1 year, good outcomes were obtained using treat-and-extend ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration. When the treatment was changed to aflibercept within the same period, vision was often maintained and short-term anatomical improvement was evident.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893296

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report a case of acute angle-closure attack resulting from hemorrhagic retinal detachment after a double retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tear in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with large pigment epithelial detachment (PED).Case summary: A 66-year-old female visited with a complaint of poor vision in left eye, which began 1 month prior. She was diagnosed with exudative AMD with a large PED using optical coherence tomography and indocyanine green angiography. Intravitreal aflibercept injection was performed. The RPE tear occurred at 2 weeks after the intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection for AMD, after which the range of the RPE tear expanded and included the macular area at 4 weeks after the second injection. At 3 months after the third injection, massive submacular hemorrhage occurred; aflibercept injection was repeated. At 3 days after the fourth injection, the patient’s intraocular pressure (IOP) was 60 mmHg, and massive hemorrhagic serous retinal detachment and anterior movement of the lens with total angle closure were observed. Therefore, we performed a sclerotomy; a large amount of dark blood and subretinal fluid was drained. The IOP decreased, and the retinal detachment improved somewhat. The patient was kept under observation for careful monitoring of her condition. @*Conclusions@#It is very rare to experience a double RPE rupture after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection in AMD. We report on our experience and treatment of acute angle-closure attack. The IOP increased due to hemorrhagic retinal detachment after a double RPE tear over the treatment course.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900951

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the bacterial culture, clinical characteristics, and prognosis associated with infectious endophthalmitis in western Gyeongsangnam-do. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective review of the medical records of 98 eyes that presented with infectious endophthalmitis from 2010 to 2019. All patients were analyzed for the type of causative bacteria, treatment method, and the visual prognosis. @*Results@#The bacterial cultures (n = 98 eyes) revealed bacterial growth in 67 eyes (68.4%). The most commonly isolated causative microorganism was Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.3%). As a result of analyzing the best corrected visual acuity (VA) based on 1.0 (logMAR), baseline VA was worse than counting fingers, and whether pars plana vitrectomy was undertaken showed a difference in the final visual acuity (p < 0.001, p = 0.021). @*Conclusions@#Exogenous endophthalmitis occurs frequently after cataract surgery, and S. epidermidis is the most common causative agent, but a good visual prognosis resulted. Liver abscess was a common extraocular source of endogenous endophthalmitis and Klebsiella pneumonia was the most common causative agent for a poor visual prognosis.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893247

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the bacterial culture, clinical characteristics, and prognosis associated with infectious endophthalmitis in western Gyeongsangnam-do. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective review of the medical records of 98 eyes that presented with infectious endophthalmitis from 2010 to 2019. All patients were analyzed for the type of causative bacteria, treatment method, and the visual prognosis. @*Results@#The bacterial cultures (n = 98 eyes) revealed bacterial growth in 67 eyes (68.4%). The most commonly isolated causative microorganism was Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.3%). As a result of analyzing the best corrected visual acuity (VA) based on 1.0 (logMAR), baseline VA was worse than counting fingers, and whether pars plana vitrectomy was undertaken showed a difference in the final visual acuity (p < 0.001, p = 0.021). @*Conclusions@#Exogenous endophthalmitis occurs frequently after cataract surgery, and S. epidermidis is the most common causative agent, but a good visual prognosis resulted. Liver abscess was a common extraocular source of endogenous endophthalmitis and Klebsiella pneumonia was the most common causative agent for a poor visual prognosis.

11.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 222-227, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760569

ABSTRACT

Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a well-established method adopted by international pharmacopoeia for quantitative and purity analyses. Emodin is a type of anthraquinone, well known as the main active component of Fabaceae, Polygonaceae and Rhamnaceae. Purity analysis of emodin is usually performed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. However, it cannot detect impurities such as salts, volatile matter, and trace elements. Using the qNMR method, it is possible to determine the compound content as well as the nature of the impurities. Several experimental parameters were optimized for the quantification, such as relaxation delay, spectral width, number of scans, temperature, pulse width, and acquisition time. The method was validated, and the results of the qNMR method were compared with those obtained by the HPLC and mass balance analysis methods. The qNMR method is specific, rapid, simple, and therefore, a valuable and reliable method for the purity analysis of emodin.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Emodin , Fabaceae , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methods , Polygonaceae , Relaxation , Rhamnaceae , Salts , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738565

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the first case of cystoid macular edema in a retinitis pigmentosa patient with pars plana vitrectomy. CASE SUMMARY: A 43-year-old female visited our hospital with visual disturbances of both eyes. Corrected visual acuity was 20/22 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye. Peripheral depigmentation and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, pigmentary retinal degeneration, and attenuated arterioles were observed in both eyes. Cystoid macular edema was observed on optical coherence tomography which showed that the central macular thickness was 308 µm in the right eye and 422 µm in left eye. Intravitreal aflibercept was injected into the left eye. One month after injection, the central macular thickness showed no response with a thickness of 449 µm. An intravitreal dexamethasone implant was then injected, 1 month after injection, the central macular thickness was 367 µm. Six months after injection, the patient again complained of visual disturbance of the left eye with a corrected visual acuity of 20/70. Vitreous opacity was observed and the central macular thickness was 501 µm. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy. Three days after surgery, the central macular thickness was 320 µm. One year after surgery, the corrected visual acuity was 20/33 and the central macular thickness was 311 µm. CONCLUSIONS: Pars plana vitrectomy due to cystoid macular edema in a retinitis pigmentosa patient has not been previously reported in the Republic of Korea. Pars plana vitrectomy can therefore be an effective treatment for cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arterioles , Atrophy , Dexamethasone , Female , Humans , Macular Edema , Republic of Korea , Retinal Degeneration , Retinal Pigment Epithelium , Retinitis Pigmentosa , Retinitis , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waist circumference is one of the key components of metabolic syndrome. Recent studies demonstrated that the reproductive profile was associated with metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. This study focused on the association between central obesity and age at first childbirth. It also considered other factors associated with central obesity in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study was based on the 2013–2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and involved 3,143 naturally postmenopausal women. These women were divided into three groups according to their age at first childbirth: 19 years or younger (n=252), 20–29 years (n=2,695), and 30 years or older (n=196). Multivariate analysis using logistic regression was performed to evaluate the effects of various reproductive factors, including other confounding factors. RESULTS: During adjustment for confounding factors, in the early age at first childbirth group, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for central obesity decreased. In the final model, younger age at first childbirth was not significantly related to central obesity (waist circumference more than 85 cm) in naturally postmenopausal women after adjusting for other confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Younger age at first childbirth was not significantly associated with central obesity after adjustment for confounding factors.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Menopause , Multivariate Analysis , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity, Abdominal , Odds Ratio , Parturition , Waist Circumference
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759665

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to analyze the effects of beverages on tooth corrosion by selecting drinks that are enjoyed by modern people. Drinks were selected for carbonated beverages (Coca Cola), energy drinks (Red Bull), orange juice, beer (Hite) and water (Evian). Bovine tooth was immersed for 1 hour, 24 hours and 48 hours. The root mean square (RMS) values were obtained by scanning the bovine tooth at pre-immersion and immersion time after impression making. Two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey-test were used to compare differences between groups (α=0.05). The RMS value tended to increase with longer immersion times in all beverages, and there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between before immersion-1hr and before immersion-48 hr. The mean of RMS according to the type of beverage was significantly different and there was a significant difference according to the change of immersion time (p < 0.05). In order to prevent tooth corrosion, it is necessary to change the method of ingestion or to reduce the time of ingestion.


Subject(s)
Beer , Beverages , Carbonated Beverages , Citrus sinensis , Corrosion , Eating , Energy Drinks , Immersion , Methods , Tooth , Water
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65575

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To measure the enophthalmos corrective effect after inferior orbital wall reconstruction, we compared preoperative and intraoperative exophthalmometric values with postoperative exophthalmometric values. METHODS: From January 2014 to April 2016, 60 eyes of 60 patients who underwent surgery for inferior orbital wall fracture were included. In Group 1, the exophthalmometric value was measured before surgery, during the operation, and 6 months after surgery using the Naugle exophthalmometer. In Group 2, the value was measured before surgery and 6 months after surgery using the Hertel exophthalmometer. The thickness of implants was determined by preoperative exophthalmometric values and overcorrection of 0.5 mm was performed in Group 1 patients with relatively large fractures. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 32.4 years in Group 1 and 34.3 years in Group 2. The mean duration between injury and surgery was 4.2 weeks in Group 1 and 2.3 weeks in Group 2. There was no statistically significant difference between preoperative exophthalmometric values in Group 1 (−1.78 ± 0.31 mm) and Group 2 (−1.81 ± 0.26 mm), but postoperative exophthalmometric values between Group 1 (−0.25 ± 0.78 mm) and Group 2 (−0.53 ± 0.46 mm) were statistically different (p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: The exophthalmometric values and wall fracture size are important factors for determining implant thickness of inferior orbital wall reconstruction. Intraoperative measurement of exophthalmometric values should be considered in inferior orbital wall reconstruction for enophthalmos correction.


Subject(s)
Enophthalmos , Humans , Orbit
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218281

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the short- and long-term outcomes between stent placement as a bridge to surgery and emergency surgery for obstructive colon cancer. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for left colon cancer and rectal cancer with total obstruction from September 2006 to October 2014 were enrolled. Data for the stent placement and emergency surgery groups were compared. RESULTS: Of the 67 patients with total obstruction, 53 patients were treated with stent placement and 14 patients were treated with emergency surgery. Significant differences were observed for surgical approach, type of operation, and combined resection. Use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) was higher (88.6 vs. 42.9%, p<0.001) in the stent placement (SP) group, and combined resection (5.9 vs. 37.5%, p<0.001) was higher in the emergency surgery (EM) group. In the SP group, resection and anastomosis accounted for the largest proportion (92.5%) and in the EM group, Hartmann's procedure was most common (57.1%) (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in other operative outcomes or in postoperative courses. Five-year overall survival was 96.0 and 77.8% (p=0.311) in the SP and EM groups, respectively. Five-year disease-free survival for local recurrence in the SP and EM groups was 90.0 and 88.9% (p=0.904). CONCLUSION: Stent placement as a bridge to surgery can be performed safely and represents an alternative to emergency surgery with good short-term results. Stent placement as a bridge to surgery is also comparable to emergency surgery in long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Emergencies , Humans , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Stents , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
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