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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e169-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976951

ABSTRACT

Background@#Healthcare professionals often experience moral distress while providing endof-life care. This study explored how physicians and nurses experienced moral distress when they cared for critically and terminally ill patients in tertiary hospitals in South Korea. @*Methods@#This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews. A total of 22 people in two tertiary hospitals were interviewed, nine (40.9%) of which were physicians and 13 (59.1%) were nurses. The recorded interview files and memos were analyzed using grounded theory. @*Results@#Most physicians and nurses encountered similar feelings of anger, helplessness, and burden owing to a lack of appropriate resources for end-of-life care. However, the factors and contexts of their moral distress differed. Nurses mainly addressed poorly organized end-of-life care, intensive labor conditions without support for nurses, and providing care without participation in decision-making. Meanwhile, physicians addressed the prevailing misperceptions on end-of-life care, communication failure between physicians owing to hierarchy and fragmented disciplines, the burden of responsibility in making difficult decisions, and the burden of resource allocation. @*Conclusion@#Differences in moral distress between physicians and nurses leave them isolated and can affect communication regarding healthcare. Mutual understanding between job disciplines will enhance their communication and help resolve conflicts in end-of-life care.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 396-405, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925685

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The KNOG-1101 study showed improved 2-year PFS with temozolomide during and after radiotherapy compared to radiotherapy alone for patients with anaplastic gliomas. This trial investigates the effect of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). @*Materials and Methods@#In this randomized, open-label, phase II trial, 90 patients with World Health Organization grade III glioma were enrolled across multiple centers in South Korea between March 2012 to February 2015 and followed up through 2017. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and 20-item EORTC QLQ-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) were used to compare HRQoL between patients assigned to concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (arm A) and radiotherapy (RT) alone (arm B). @*Results@#Of the 90 patients in the study, 84 patients (93.3%) completed the baseline HRQoL questionnaire. Emotional functioning, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, constipation, appetite loss, diarrhea, seizures, itchy skin, drowsiness, hair loss, and bladder control were not affected by the addition of temozolomide. All other items did not differ significantly between arm A and arm B throughout treatment. Global health status particularly stayed consistent at the end of adjuvant temozolomide (p=0.47) and at the end of RT (p=0.33). @*Conclusion@#The addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide did not show negative influence on HRQoL with improvement of progression-free survival for patients with anaplastic gliomas. The absence of systematic and clinically relevant changes in HRQoL suggests that an overall long-term net clinical benefit exists for concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 424-433, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925683

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Since tumor mutational burden (TMB) and gene expression profiling (GEP) have complementary effects, they may have improved predictive power when used in combination. Here, we investigated the ability of TMB and GEP to predict the immunotherapy response in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and assessed if this combination can improve predictive power compared to that when used individually. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included 30 patients with NSCLC who received immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) therapy at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. programmed cell death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry, and TMB was measured by targeted deep sequencing. Gene expression was determined using NanoString nCounter analysis for the PanCancer IO360 panel, and enrichment analysis were performed. @*Results@#Eleven patients (36.7%) showed a durable clinical benefit (DCB), whereas 19 (63.3%) showed no durable benefit (NDB). TMB and enrichment scores (ES) showed significant differences between the DCB and NDB groups (p=0.044 and p=0.017, respectively); however, no significant correlations were observed among TMB, ES, and PD-L1. ES was the best single biomarker for predicting DCB (area under the curve [AUC], 0.794), followed by TMB (AUC, 0.679) and PD-L1 (AUC, 0.622). TMB and ES showed the highest AUC (0.837) among other combinations (AUC [TMB and PD-L1], 0.777; AUC [PD-L1 and ES], 0.763) and was similar to that of all biomarkers used together (0.832). @*Conclusion@#The combination of TMB and ES may be an effective predictive tool to identify patients with NSCLC patients who would possibly benefit from ICI therapies.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 621-629, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925681

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a prognostic model to assist palliative care referral at least 3 months before death in advanced cancer patients treated at an outpatient medical oncology clinic. @*Materials and Methods@#In this prospective cohort study, a total of 200 patients were enrolled at a tertiary cancer center in South Korea. The major eligibility criterion was an expected survival of less than a year as estimated by their oncologists. We analyzed the influences of known prognostic factors along with chemotherapy status, mid-arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness on survival time. @*Results@#The mean age of the patients was 64.5 years, 36% were female, and the median survival time was 7.6 months. In the multivariate analysis, we found 6 significant factors related to poor survival: a poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (≥2), not undergoing chemotherapy, anorexia, a low lymphocyte level (<12%), a high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (≥300 IU/L), and a low mid-arm circumference (<23 cm). We developed a prognostic model (score, 0-8.0) to predict 3-month survival based on the multivariate analysis. Patients who scored ≥4.0 points had a short survival of less than 3 months (p<0.001). The discriminating ability of the prognostic model using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.88. @*Conclusion@#The prognostic model using ECOG performance status, chemotherapy status, anorexia, lymphocytes, LDH, and mid-arm circumference can predict 3-month survival in medical oncology outpatients. It can alert oncologists to refer patients to palliative care specialists before it is too late.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 30-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#K-MASTER project is a Korean national precision medicine platform that screened actionable mutations by analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) of solid tumor patients. We compared gene analyses between NGS panel from the K-MASTER project and orthogonal methods. @*Materials and Methods@#Colorectal, breast, non–small cell lung, and gastric cancer patients were included. We compared NGS results from K-MASTER projects with those of non-NGS orthogonal methods (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer [CRC]; epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] fusion, and reactive oxygen species 1 [ROS1] fusion in non–small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) positivity in breast and gastric cancers). @*Results@#In the CRC cohort (n=225), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 87.4% and 79.3% (KRAS); 88.9% and 98.9% (NRAS); and 77.8% and 100.0% (BRAF), respectively. In the NSCLC cohort (n=109), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS for EGFR were 86.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The concordance rate for ALK fusion was 100%, but ROS1 fusion was positive in only one of three cases that were positive in orthogonal tests. In the breast cancer cohort (n=260), ERBB2 amplification was detected in 45 by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods that integrated immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 99.4%, respectively. In the gastric cancer cohort (n=64), ERBB2 amplification was detected in six by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods, sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 98.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results of the K-MASTER NGS panel and orthogonal methods showed a different degree of agreement for each genetic alteration, but generally showed a high agreement rate.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 25-31, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874362

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to validate the Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral to Care (SPARC) as an effective tool for screening palliative care needs among Korean cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#The English version of the SPARC was translated by four Korean oncologists and reconciled by a Korean language specialist and a medical oncologist fluent in English. After the first version of the Korean SPARC (K-SPARC) was developed, back-translation into English was performed by a professional translator and bilingual oncologist. The back-translated version was reviewed by the original author (S.H.A.), and modifications were made (ver. 2). The second version of the K-SPARC was tested against other questionnaires, including the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). @*Results@#Thirty patients were enrolled in the pilot trial. Fifteen were male, and the median age was 64.5 years. Six patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or more. All patients except one were receiving chemotherapy. Regarding internal consistency, the Cronbach’s α scores for physical symptoms, psychological issues, religious and spiritual issues, independency and activity, family and social issues, and treatment issues were 0.812, 0.804, 0.589, 0.843, 0.754, and 0.822, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the SPARC and FACT-G were 0.479 (p=0.007) for the physical domain and –0.130 (p=0.493) for the social domain. @*Conclusion@#This pilot study indicates that the K-SPARC could be a reliable tool to screen for palliative care needs among Korean cancer patients. A further study to validate our findings is ongoing.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e304-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915483

ABSTRACT

Background@#Advanced cancers are associated with more severe symptoms and greater impairment. Although most patients with metastatic cancer would benefit from rehabilitation, few patients receive appropriate rehabilitation therapy. We explored the use of rehabilitation therapy by cancer patients. Our data represented the entire population of Korea. The analyses were performed according to cancer type and stage. @*Methods@#We extracted rehabilitation utilization data of patients newly diagnosed with cancer in the period of 2011–2015 from the Korea Central Cancer Registry, which is linked to the claims database of the National Health Insurance Service (n = 958,928). @*Results@#The utilisation rate increased during the study period, from 6.0% (11,504) of 192,835 newly diagnosed patients in 2011 to 6.8% (12,455) of 183,084 newly diagnosed patients in 2015. Patients with central nervous system (28.4%) and bone (27.8%) cancer were most likely to undergo physical rehabilitation. The rehabilitation rate was higher in patients with metastatic than localised or regional cancer (8.7% vs. 5.3% vs. 5.5%). @*Conclusion@#This claims-based study revealed that rehabilitation therapy for cancer patients is underutilised in Korea. Although patients with metastasis underwent more intensive rehabilitation than patients with early stage cancer, those without brain and bone tumours (the treatment of which is covered by insurance) were less likely to use rehabilitation services. Further efforts to improve the use of rehabilitation would improve the outcomes of cancer patients.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1195-1203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913804

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Angiosarcoma is a highly aggressive mesenchymal tumor. Although systemic chemotherapy is often considered for the inoperable or metastatic angiosarcoma, the outcome of such treatment is unsatisfactory and poorly delineated. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed electronic medical records of 75 patients with angiosarcoma who were treated with systemic chemotherapy for inoperable or metastatic disease. Patients were classified as having liver involvement if they had either primary or metastatic hepatic lesions. @*Results@#Among the patients evaluated, 51 patients were male (68%) and 24 patients (32%) had primary cutaneous angiosarcoma. Liver involvement was present in 28 patients (37.3%). A total of 59 patients received first-line weekly paclitaxel (wPac) and showed an objective response rate (ORR) of 23.7% (n=14), a median progression free survival (mPFS) of 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0–6.1), and a median overall survival (mOS) of 10.2 months (95% CI 7.0–14.6). Among patients without liver involvement, patients receiving wPac (n=35) had significantly prolonged mPFS (5.8 vs. 3.2 months, respectively, p=0.014) with a tendency for prolonged mOS (13.8 vs. 11.6 months, respectively, p=0.13) than those receiving other regimens (n=12). A total of 24 patients received second- or later-line pazopanib monotherapy and showed an ORR of 16.7% (n=4), a mPFS of 2.4 months (95% CI 1.8–4.3) and a mOS of 5.4 months (95% CI 3.5–NA). @*Conclusion@#Treatment with first-line wPac and later-line pazopanib seems to provide survival benefit, especially for patients with advanced angiosarcoma without liver involvement.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 897-907, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913790

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The “Act on Hospice and Palliative Care and Decisions on Life-Sustaining Treatment for Patients at the End-of-Life” was enacted on February 3, 2016 and went into effect on February 4, 2018 in Korea. This study reviewed the first year of determination to life-sustaining treatment (LST) through data analysis of the National Agency for Management of Life-Sustaining Treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#The National Agency for Management of LST provided data between February 4, 2018 and January 31, 2019 anonymously from 33,549 patients. According to the forms patients were defined as either elf-determinants or family-determinants. @*Results@#The median age of the patient was 73 and the majority was male (59.9%). Cancer patients were 59% and self-determinants were 32.1%. Cancer patients had a higher rate of self-determinants than non-cancer (47.3% vs. 10.1%). Plan for hospice service was high in cancer patients among self-determinants (81.0% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.001). In comparison to family-determinants, self-determinants were younger (median age, 67 years vs. 75 years; p < 0.001) and had more cancer diagnosis (87.1% vs. 45.9%, p < 0.001). Decision of withholding or withdrawing of LSTs in cancer patients was higher than non-cancer patients in four items. @*Conclusion@#Cancer patients had a higher rate in self-determination and withholding or withdrawing of LSTs than non-cancer patients. Continued revision of the law and education of the public will be able to promote withdrawing or withholding the futile LSTs in patients at end-of-life. Further study following the revision of the law should be evaluated to change of end-of-life care.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 908-916, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913789

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In Korea, the “Act on Hospice and Palliative Care and Decisions on Life-sustaining Treatment for Patients at the End of Life” was enacted on February 4, 2018. This study was conducted to analyze the current state of life-sustaining treatment decisions based on National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data after the law came into force. @*Materials and Methods@#The data of 173,028 cancer deaths were extracted from NHIS qualification data between November 2015 and January 2019. @*Results@#The number of cancer deaths complied with the law process was 14,438 of 54,635 cases (26.4%). The rate of patient self-determination was 49.0%. The patients complying with the law process have used a hospice center more frequently (28% vs. 14%). However, the rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission was similar between the patients who complied with and without the law process (ICU admission, 23% vs. 21%). There was no difference in the proportion of patients who had undergone mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis in the comparative analysis before and after the enforcement of the law and the analysis according to the compliance with the law. The patients who complied with the law process received cardiopulmonary resuscitation at a lower rate. @*Conclusion@#The law has positive effects on the rate of life-sustaining treatment decision by patient’s determination. However, there was no sufficient effect on the withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining treatment, which could protect the patient from unnecessary or harmful interventions.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 917-925, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913788

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The main purpose of the Life-Sustaining Treatment Decisions Act recently enacted in Korea is to respect the patient’s self-determination. We aimed to investigate the current status and features of patient self-determination after implementation of the law. @*Materials and Methods@#Between February 2018 and January 2019, 54,635 cancer deaths were identified from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. We analyzed the characteristics of decedents who complied with the law process by self-determination compared with decedents with family determination and with decedents who did not comply with the law process. @*Results@#In multivariable analysis, patients with self-determination were younger, were less likely to live in rural areas, were less likely to belong to the highest income quintile, were less likely to be treated in general hospitals, and were more likely to show a longer time from cancer diagnosis compared with patients with family determination. Compared with patients who did not comply with the law process, patients with self-determination were younger, lived in Seoul or capital area, were less likely to belong to the highest income quintile, were treated in general hospitals, were less likely to have genitourinary or hematologic malignancies, scored higher on the Charlson comorbidity index, and showed a longer time from cancer diagnosis. Patients with self-determination were more likely to use hospice and less likely to use intensive care units (ICUs) at the end-of-life (EOL). @*Conclusion@#Decedents with self-determination were more likely to be younger, reside in the Seoul or capital area, show a longer time from cancer diagnosis, and were less likely to belong to the highest income quintile. They utilized hospice more frequently, and received less ICU care at the EOL.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 926-934, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913787

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Six forms relating to decisions on life-sustaining treatment (LST) for patients at the end-of-life (EOL) in hospital are required by the “Act on Decision of LST for Patients at the EOL.” We investigated the preparation and creation status of these documents from the database of the National Agency for Management of LST. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed the contents and details of each document necessary for decisions on LST, and the creation status of forms. We defined patients completing form 1 as “self-determined” of LST, and those whose family members had completed form 11/12 as “family decision” of LST. According to the determination subject, we compared the four items of LST on form 13 (the paper of implementation of LST) and the documentation time interval between forms. @*Results@#The six forms require information about the patient, doctor, specialized doctor, family members, institution, decision for LST, and intention to use hospice services. Of 44,381 who had completed at least one document, 36,693 patients had form 13. Among them, 11,531, 10,976, and 12,551 people completed forms 1, 11, and 12, respectively. The documentation time interval from forms 1, 11, or 12 to form 13 was 8.6±13.6 days, 1.0±9.5 days, and 1.5±9.7 days, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The self-determination rate of LST was 31% and the mean time interval from self-determination to implementation of LST was 8.6 days. The creation of these forms still takes place when the patients are close to death.

13.
Blood Research ; : 285-292, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913725

ABSTRACT

Background@#High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC-ASCT) as a consolidation treatment is a promising approach for eligible patients with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Methods@#In this retrospective analysis, 22 patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL received chemotherapy with rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine, and vincristine. Those who showed complete or partial response subsequently received consolidation HDC-ASCT with a thiotepa-based conditioning regimen but did not undergo radiotherapy. @*Results@#The PCNSL patients had a median age of 57 years (range, 49‒67 yr); of the total patients, 9.1% had a performance status of 2 or higher, and 72.1% had multiple lesions.Approximately 82% of patients received six cycles of induction chemotherapy, which was well tolerated with excellent disease control. The rate of confirmed or unconfirmed complete response increased from 45.5% at the period of interim analysis to 81.8% prior to the initiation of HDC-ASCT. With a median follow-up of 19.6 months (range, 7.5‒56.5 mo), the 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival estimates were 84% and 88%, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Grade 3 toxicity was recorded in 90.9% of the patients after undergoing the HDC-ASCT, and the most common grade 3 adverse event was febrile neutropenia without sepsis. @*Conclusion@#The discussed treatment approach is feasible in patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL, yielding encouraging results.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e74-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899762

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e401-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899715

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although international guidelines recommend palliative care approaches for many serious illnesses, the palliative needs of patients with serious illnesses other than cancer are often unmet, mainly due to insufficient prognosis-related discussion. We investigated physicians' and the general public's respective attitudes toward prognostic disclosure for several serious illnesses. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 928 physicians, sourced from 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association, and 1,005 members of the general public, sourced from all 17 administrative divisions in Korea. @*Results@#For most illnesses, most physicians (adjusted proportions – end-organ failure, 99.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 98.5%; acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS], 98.4%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 96.0%; and dementia, 89.6%) and members of the general public (end-organ failure, 92.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 92.5%; AIDS, 91.5%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 92.1%; and dementia, 86.9%) wanted to be informed if they had a terminal prognosis. For physicians and the general public, the primary factor to consider when disclosing terminal status was “the patient's right to know his/her condition” (31.0%). Yet, the general public was less likely to prefer prognostic disclosure than physicians. Particularly, when their family members were patients, more than 10% of the general public did not want patients to be informed of their terminal prognosis. For the general public, the main reason for not disclosing prognosis was “psychological burden such as anxiety and depression” (35.8%), while for the physicians it was “disclosure would have no beneficial effect” (42.4%). @*Conclusion@#Most Physicians and the general public agreed that disclosure of a terminal prognosis respects patient autonomy for several serious illnesses. The low response rate of physicians might limit the generalizability of the results.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 74-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810945

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e74-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892058

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e401-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892011

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although international guidelines recommend palliative care approaches for many serious illnesses, the palliative needs of patients with serious illnesses other than cancer are often unmet, mainly due to insufficient prognosis-related discussion. We investigated physicians' and the general public's respective attitudes toward prognostic disclosure for several serious illnesses. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 928 physicians, sourced from 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association, and 1,005 members of the general public, sourced from all 17 administrative divisions in Korea. @*Results@#For most illnesses, most physicians (adjusted proportions – end-organ failure, 99.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 98.5%; acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS], 98.4%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 96.0%; and dementia, 89.6%) and members of the general public (end-organ failure, 92.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 92.5%; AIDS, 91.5%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 92.1%; and dementia, 86.9%) wanted to be informed if they had a terminal prognosis. For physicians and the general public, the primary factor to consider when disclosing terminal status was “the patient's right to know his/her condition” (31.0%). Yet, the general public was less likely to prefer prognostic disclosure than physicians. Particularly, when their family members were patients, more than 10% of the general public did not want patients to be informed of their terminal prognosis. For the general public, the main reason for not disclosing prognosis was “psychological burden such as anxiety and depression” (35.8%), while for the physicians it was “disclosure would have no beneficial effect” (42.4%). @*Conclusion@#Most Physicians and the general public agreed that disclosure of a terminal prognosis respects patient autonomy for several serious illnesses. The low response rate of physicians might limit the generalizability of the results.

19.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 61-65, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833788

ABSTRACT

Majority of the imported malaria cases in Korea is attributed to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections, whereas P. malariae and P. ovale infections are very rare. Falciparum and ovale malaria are mostly imported from Africa, while most of the vivax malaria cases are imported from Southeast Asia. Here, we report 6 Korean imported ovale malaria cases (4 males and 2 females) who had visited in Africa during 2013-2016. These subjects were diagnosed with P. ovale based on microscopic findings, Plasmodium species-specific nested-PCR, and phylogenetic clade using 18S rRNA gene sequences. We identified 2 P. ovale subtypes, 1 P. ovale curtisi (classic type) and 5 P. ovale wallikeri (variant type). All patients were treated with chloroquine and primaquine, and no relapse or recrudescence was reported for 1 year after treatment. With increase of travelers to the countries where existing Plasmodium species, the risk of Plasmodium infection is also increasing. Molecular monitoring for imported malaria parasites should be rigorously and continuously performed to enable diagnosis and certification of Plasmodium spp.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e242-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831604

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the survival rate of cancer patients increases, the clinical importance of rehabilitation provided by healthcare professionals also increases. However, the evidence supporting the relevance of rehabilitation programs is insufficient. This study aimed to review the literature on effectiveness in physical function, quality of life (QOL) or fatigue of supervised physical rehabilitation in patients with advanced cancer. @*Methods@#A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted following the Cochrane guidelines. We narratively described the results when meta-analysis was not applicable or appropriate. Literature databases including Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, as well as several Korean domestic databases, were searched up to June 2017 for studies that investigated the effectiveness of supervised physical rehabilitation programs on physical function, QOL or fatigue in patients with advanced cancer. The quality of the selected studies was evaluated independently by paired reviewers. @*Results@#Eleven studies with 922 participants were finally selected among 2,459 articles. The meta-analysis revealed that after physical exercise, the physical activity level and strength of patients with advanced cancer increased significantly. The QOL showed a statistically significant improvement after physical rehabilitation according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer version C30. Though some of measurements about cardiovascular endurance or strength in several studies were not able to be synthesized, each study reported that they were significantly improved after receiving rehabilitation. @*Conclusion@#Supervised physical rehabilitation for patients with advanced cancer is effective in improving physical activity, strength, and QOL. However, more trials are needed to prove the effectiveness of supervised exercise and to strengthen the evidence.

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