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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874362

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to validate the Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral to Care (SPARC) as an effective tool for screening palliative care needs among Korean cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#The English version of the SPARC was translated by four Korean oncologists and reconciled by a Korean language specialist and a medical oncologist fluent in English. After the first version of the Korean SPARC (K-SPARC) was developed, back-translation into English was performed by a professional translator and bilingual oncologist. The back-translated version was reviewed by the original author (S.H.A.), and modifications were made (ver. 2). The second version of the K-SPARC was tested against other questionnaires, including the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). @*Results@#Thirty patients were enrolled in the pilot trial. Fifteen were male, and the median age was 64.5 years. Six patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or more. All patients except one were receiving chemotherapy. Regarding internal consistency, the Cronbach’s α scores for physical symptoms, psychological issues, religious and spiritual issues, independency and activity, family and social issues, and treatment issues were 0.812, 0.804, 0.589, 0.843, 0.754, and 0.822, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the SPARC and FACT-G were 0.479 (p=0.007) for the physical domain and –0.130 (p=0.493) for the social domain. @*Conclusion@#This pilot study indicates that the K-SPARC could be a reliable tool to screen for palliative care needs among Korean cancer patients. A further study to validate our findings is ongoing.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833788

ABSTRACT

Majority of the imported malaria cases in Korea is attributed to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections, whereas P. malariae and P. ovale infections are very rare. Falciparum and ovale malaria are mostly imported from Africa, while most of the vivax malaria cases are imported from Southeast Asia. Here, we report 6 Korean imported ovale malaria cases (4 males and 2 females) who had visited in Africa during 2013-2016. These subjects were diagnosed with P. ovale based on microscopic findings, Plasmodium species-specific nested-PCR, and phylogenetic clade using 18S rRNA gene sequences. We identified 2 P. ovale subtypes, 1 P. ovale curtisi (classic type) and 5 P. ovale wallikeri (variant type). All patients were treated with chloroquine and primaquine, and no relapse or recrudescence was reported for 1 year after treatment. With increase of travelers to the countries where existing Plasmodium species, the risk of Plasmodium infection is also increasing. Molecular monitoring for imported malaria parasites should be rigorously and continuously performed to enable diagnosis and certification of Plasmodium spp.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810945

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831604

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the survival rate of cancer patients increases, the clinical importance of rehabilitation provided by healthcare professionals also increases. However, the evidence supporting the relevance of rehabilitation programs is insufficient. This study aimed to review the literature on effectiveness in physical function, quality of life (QOL) or fatigue of supervised physical rehabilitation in patients with advanced cancer. @*Methods@#A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted following the Cochrane guidelines. We narratively described the results when meta-analysis was not applicable or appropriate. Literature databases including Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, as well as several Korean domestic databases, were searched up to June 2017 for studies that investigated the effectiveness of supervised physical rehabilitation programs on physical function, QOL or fatigue in patients with advanced cancer. The quality of the selected studies was evaluated independently by paired reviewers. @*Results@#Eleven studies with 922 participants were finally selected among 2,459 articles. The meta-analysis revealed that after physical exercise, the physical activity level and strength of patients with advanced cancer increased significantly. The QOL showed a statistically significant improvement after physical rehabilitation according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer version C30. Though some of measurements about cardiovascular endurance or strength in several studies were not able to be synthesized, each study reported that they were significantly improved after receiving rehabilitation. @*Conclusion@#Supervised physical rehabilitation for patients with advanced cancer is effective in improving physical activity, strength, and QOL. However, more trials are needed to prove the effectiveness of supervised exercise and to strengthen the evidence.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831048

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the efficacy of temozolomide during and after radiotherapy in Korean adultswith anaplastic gliomas without 1p/19q co-deletion. @*Materials and Methods@#This was a randomized, open-label, phase 2 study and notably the first multicenter trial forKorean grade III glioma patients. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and hadnewly diagnosed non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma with an Eastern Cooperative OncologyGroup performance status of 0-2. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive radiotherapyalone (60 Gy in 30 fractions of 2 Gy) (control group, n=44) or to receive radiotherapy withconcurrent temozolomide (75 mg/m2/day) followed by adjuvant temozolomide (150-200mg/m2/day for 5 days during six 28-day cycles) (treatment group, n=40). The primary endpointwas 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Seventy patients (83.3%) were availablefor the analysis of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) mutation status. @*Results@#The two-year PFS was 42.2% in the treatment group and 37.2% in the control group. Overallsurvival (OS) did not reach to significant difference between the groups. In multivariableanalysis, age was a significant risk factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidenceinterval [CI], 1.04 to 4.16). The IDH1mutation was the only significant prognostic factor forPFS (HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.59) and OS (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.50). Adverseevents over grade 3 were seen in 16 patients (40.0%) in the treatment group and werereversible. @*Conclusion@#Concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide in Korean adults with newly diagnosed nonco-deleted anaplastic gliomas showed improved 2-year PFS. The survival benefit of this regimenneeds further analysis with long-term follow-up at least more than 10 years.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831027

ABSTRACT

Background@#High-grade glioma (HGG) with primary leptomeningeal seeding (PLS) at initial diagnosis is rare. The purpose of this study was to identify its clinical features and to describe the clinical treatment outcomes. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with HGG (World Health Organization grade III or IV) at our institution between 2004 and 2019, and patients with PLS at the initial diagnosis were enrolled in the study. Clinical features, such as the location of leptomeningeal seeding, surgical methods, and degree of resection, were sorted based on electronic medical records also containing performance scale, and hematological and serological evaluations. Radiological findings and immunohistochemical categories were confirmed. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether controlling intracranial pressure (ICP) via early cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion increases overall survival (OS) after the initial diagnosis. @*Results@#Of the 469 patients with HGG in our institution, less than 2% had PLS at the initial diagnosis. Most patients suffered from headache, diplopia, and dizziness. Pathological findings included 7 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic astrocytomas. Seven of the 9 patients underwent CSF diversion. All patients were administered concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with temozolomide, 89% of which started adjuvant temozolomide and 33% of which completed the six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide.The OS of patients with HGG and PLS was 8.7 months (range, 4-37), an extremely poor result compared to that of other studies. Also, the 1-year and 2-year OS rates were 44.4% and 16.7%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Diagnosis and treatment of HGG with PLS are challenging. Aggressive control of ICP followed by early initiation of standard CCRT seems to be helpful in improving symptoms. However, despite aggressive treatment, the prognosis is poor. A multicenter trial and research may be necessary to create a standardized protocol for this disease.

7.
Blood Research ; : 151-158, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831008

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients usually experience mucositis, musculoskeletal pain associated with high-dose chemotherapy, radiation, post-HSCT infection, or graft-versus-host disease. Pain management is important for the patients’ quality of life. We evaluated appropriate opioid analgesic use in HSCT patients to propose effective pain management strategies. @*Methods@#A retrospective analysis was conducted using electronic medical records of adult patients with HSCT treated with opioids for moderate to severe pain at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The numeric rating scale (NRS) was used in pain management. NRS scores of 4‒10 correspond to moderate to severe pain. Appropriate opioid analgesic use was evaluated following published cancer pain management guidelines. @*Results@#In total, 119 cases were evaluated, including 369 episodes of moderate to severe pain.Mucositis-related, musculoskeletal, and headache pain occurred in 62.6%, 25.8%, and 6.0% of episodes, respectively. Frequently used opioids were intravenous tramadol (84.9%), fentanyl patch (73.9%), and intravenous morphine sulfate (68.9%). Intravenous and topical administrations were used for mucosal pain. In total, 95.0% of patients received appropriate short-acting opioids for initial pain management, 80.5% received appropriate doses of short-acting opioids, appropriate opioids dose adjustment was done after first assessment in 95.5% of patients, and 85.6% were converted to appropriate long-acting opioids. @*Conclusion@#Short-acting opioid analgesic use for initial pain management and dose adjustment after assessment were appropriate. However, initial and conversion dosages recommended by guidelines may be difficult to implement considering the severity of HSCT patients.Pain management guidelines specific for HSCT patients should be developed in the future.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 176-184, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761012

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is unclear whether adding concurrent chemotherapy (CT) to definitive radiotherapy (RT) following induction CT is a tolerable and cost effective treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients aged 70 years or older with comorbidities. This study evaluated the actual clinical outcomes between concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and RT alone following induction CT or not in patients (≥70 years) in a single institution’s clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 82 patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC between 2004 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Their treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes such as overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), treatment toxicities and distant metastasis (DM) were evaluated. Early mortality rates were also evaluated as 4-month mortality after RT. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients received CCRT and 28 patients received RT alone. Induction CT before RT was performed for 68.5% and 50.0% in CCRT and RT alone groups. Treatment tolerance was significantly worse in CCRT (p = 0.046). The median survival was 21.1 and 18.1 months for CCRT and RT alone, which was not statistically significant. LRR and DM were also not different. Most early deaths after CCRT were attributed to non-cancer-related mortality. Acute esophagitis of grade ≥2 occurred more following CCRT (p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of ≥5 and a weight loss of ≥5% after RT were associated with poor OS. The factors adversely affecting 4-month survival were a CCI of ≥5 and CCRT. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in OS, LRR, and DM between CCRT and RT alone treatment in elderly patients. However, there was a poorer tolerance and higher incidence of acute esophagitis in the CCRT group. Specifically, when the patients had a CCI of ≥5, RT alone seems to be reasonable with a low probability of early death.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy , Esophagitis , Humans , Incidence , Induction Chemotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Weight Loss
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1578-1588, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763203

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Temsirolimus is effective in the treatment for metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC) with poor prognosis. We aim to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of temsirolimus in treatment of naïve Asian patients with metastatic/recurrent nccRCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2008 to July 2017, data of treatment-naïve, metastatic/recurrent nccRCC patients, who were treated with temsirolimus according to the standard protocol, were collected. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points were overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and tolerability of temsirolimus. RESULTS: Forty-four metastatic/recurrent nccRCC patients, 10 from prospective and 34 from retrospective groups, were enrolled; 24 patients (54%) were papillary type, and other histology subtypes included 11 chromophobes (25%), two collecting ducts (5%), one Xp11.2 translocation (2%), and six others (14%). The median PFS and OS were 7.6 months and 17.6 months, res-pectively. ORR was 11% and disease control rate was 83%. Patients with prior nephrectomy had longer PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.42; p < 0.001) and OS (HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.45; p < 0.001). Compared to favorable/intermediate prognosis group, poor prognosis group had shorter median PFS (4.7 months vs. 7.6 months [HR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.39 to 6.12; p=0.005]) and median OS (9.2 months vs. 17.6 months [HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.23 to 6.56; p=0.015]). CONCLUSION: Temsirolimus not only benefits poor-risk nccRCC patients, but it is also effective in favorable or intermediate-risk group in Asians. Temsirolimus was well-tolerated with manageable adverse events.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Nephrectomy , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore the current awareness and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as well as attitudes toward CAM, in patients with cancer and their family members in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 21 and October 31, 2017, a 25-item questionnaire regarding CAM experiences among cancer patients and their family members was conducted in 10 oncology clinics in South Korea after institutional review board approval at each institution. RESULTS: In total, 283/310 patients were analyzed. The median age was 60 years, and 60% were male. Most of the patients were actively receiving anticancer treatment at the time of the survey. A total of 106 patients (37%) had experienced a median of two types (interquartile range, 1 to 3) of CAM. Belief in CAM (odds ratio [OR], 3.015; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.611 to 5.640) and duration of disease (OR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.020) were independent factors for using CAM in multivariable analysis. Belief in CAM was significantly associated with current use of CAM (OR, 3.633; 95% CI, 1.567 to 8.424). Lay referral was the most common reason for deciding to use CAM, and only 25% of patients (72/283) discussed CAM with their physicians. CONCLUSION: Patient attitudes toward and confidence in CAM modalities were strongly associated with their CAM experiences, and only a small number of patients had an open discussion about CAM with their physicians. A patient education program for CAM is needed.


Subject(s)
Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethics Committees, Research , Humans , Korea , Male , Patient Education as Topic , Referral and Consultation
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1086-1097, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763171

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) axis blockades have revolutionized the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed the effect of platinum-based chemotherapy on tumor PD-L1 expression and its clinical implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to retrospectively evaluate the percentage of tumor cells with membranous PD-L1 staining (tumor proportion score) in paired tumor specimens obtained before and after platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in 86 patients with NSCLC. We analyzed the correlation between the change in PD-L1 tumor proportion score and clinicopathologic characteristics, response to NACT, and survival. RESULTS: The PD-L1 tumor proportion score increased in a significant proportion of patients with NSCLC after platinum-based NACT (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p=0.002). That pattern was consistent across clinically defined subgroups except for patients with partial response to NACT. Tumors from 26 patients (30.2%) were PD-L1‒negative before NACT but PD-L1-positive after NACT, whereas the reverse pattern occurred in six patients (7%) (McNemar’s test, p < 0.001). Increase in PD-L1 tumor proportion score was significantly associated with lack of response to NACT (Fisher exact test, p=0.015). There was a tendency, albeit not statistically significant, for patients with an increase in PD-L1 tumor proportion score to have shorter survival. CONCLUSION: Tumor PD-L1 expression increased after platinum-based NACT in a significant proportion of patients with NSCLC. Increase in tumor PD-L1 expression may predict poor clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Platinum , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766524

ABSTRACT

In Korea, the Hospice, Palliative Care, and Life-sustaining Treatment Decision-making Act was enacted in February 2016 in order to ensure that the patient's self-determination in end-of-life care processes is respected. To enhance physicians' understanding of this act and to provide proper criteria for medical judgment in variety of clinical settings, consensus guidelines were published in November 2016. In this article, the characteristics of these guidelines and related issues regarding the definitions of ‘the end stage of disease’ and ‘last days of life’ and the criteria for medical judgment are presented and summarized. According to the guidelines, the term ‘end stage of disease’ refers to a state in which there is no possibility of a fundamental recovery and the symptoms are expected to worsen within months. The terms ‘the last days of life’ and ‘the final days of life’ refer to a state in which, despite treatment, the patient's condition is worsening and death is impending, with no possibility of recovery. The attending physician and another relevant specialist should both judge a patient's medical condition as either ‘end stage of disease’ for hospice/palliative care or ‘the last days of life’ for dying patient care according to the law. Caregivers should provide appropriate medical information to eligible patients for palliative or ‘end stage of disease’ care through advance care planning. Therefore, it is critically necessary that caregivers understand the legitimate process of hospice/palliative and dying patient care based on the patient's wishes and best interests. Physicians should apply these consensus guidelines to eligible patients considering their clinical course and the patients' wishes.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning , Caregivers , Consensus , Hospices , Humans , Judgment , Jurisprudence , Korea , Palliative Care , Patient Care , Specialization
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1140-1148, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717753

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify predictors for distant metastatic behavior and build a related prognostic nomogram in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,181 patients with non-metastatic breast cancer between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed. To predict the probability of distant metastasis, a nomogram was constructed based on prognostic factors identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The 7-year overall survival and 5-year post-progression survival of locoregional versus distant recurrence groups were 67.6% versus 39.1% (p=0.027) and 54.2% versus 33.5% (p=0.043), respectively. Patients who developed distant metastasis showed early and late mortality risk peaks within 3 and after 5 years of follow-up, respectively, but a broad and low risk increment was observed in other patients with locoregional relapse. In multivariate analysis of distant metastasis-free interval, age (≥ 45 years vs. < 45 years), molecular subtypes (luminal A vs. luminal B, human epidermal growth receptor 2, and triple negative), T category (T1 vs. T2-3 and T4), and N category (N0 vs. N1 and N2-3) were independently associated (p < 0.05 for all). Regarding the significant factors, a well-validated nomogram was established (concordance index, 0.812). The risk score level of patients with initial brain failure was higher than those of non-brain sites (p=0.029). CONCLUSION: The nomogram could be useful for predicting the individual probability of distant recurrence in breast cancer. In high-risk patients based on the risk scores, more aggressive systemic therapy and closer surveillance for metastatic failure should be considered.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nomograms , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 202-210, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Previous retrospective studies suggest that anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation-positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are sensitive to pemetrexed. To determine its efficacy, we retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in patients with ALK+ NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 126 patients with advanced, ALK+ NSCLC who received first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy. We compared response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates according to chemotherapy regimens. Furthermore, we evaluated intracranial time to tumor progression (TTP) and proportion of ALK+ cells as prognostic factors. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients received pemetrexed-based chemotherapy, while 78 received other regimens as first-line treatment. The pemetrexed-based chemotherapy group showed superior overall response (44.7% vs. 14.3%, p < 0.001) and disease control (85.1% vs. 62.3%, p=0.008) rates. The pemetrexed-based chemotherapy group also exhibited longer PFS (6.6 months vs. 3.8 months, p < 0.001); OS rates were not significantly different. The lack of exposure to second-generation ALK inhibitors and intracranial metastasis on initial diagnosis were independent negative prognostic factors of OS. Intracranial TTP was similar between the treatment groups (32.7 months vs. 35.7 months, p=0.733). Patients who harbored a greater number of ALK+ tumor cells (≥70%) showed prolonged OS on univariate analysis (not reached vs. 44.8 months, p=0.041), but not on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio: 0.19, 95% confidence interval: 0.03–1.42; p=0.106). CONCLUSION: Pemetrexed-based regimens may prolong PFS in patients with ALK+ NSCLC as a first-line treatment, but are not associated with prolonged OS. Exposure to second-generation ALK inhibitors may improve OS rates in patients with ALK+ NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 197-205, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714860

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although microinvasive carcinoma is distinct from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the clinical significance of microinvasion in DCIS remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes of microinvasive carcinoma compared with pure DCIS. METHODS: We assessed 613 cases of DCIS and microinvasive carcinoma that were consecutively resected from 2003 to 2014 and analyzed clinicopathological variables, expression of standard biomarkers such as the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), p53, and Ki-67, and tumor recurrence. RESULTS: Among the 613 cases, 136 (22.2%) were classified as microinvasive carcinoma. Microinvasive carcinoma was significantly associated with DCIS with a large extent, high nuclear grade, necrosis, and comedotype architectural pattern. ER and PR expressions were dominantly observed in pure DCIS, whereas positive HER2 status, p53 overexpression, and high Ki-67 proliferation indices were more frequently observed in microinvasive carcinoma. Lymph node metastasis was found in only four cases of microinvasive carcinoma with multifocal microinvasion. In the multivariate analysis, DCIS with a large extent, comedo-type architectural pattern, and negative ER status were found to be independent predictors of microinvasion. During follow-up, 12 patients had ipsilateral breast recurrence, and no differences in recurrence rates were observed between patients with DCIS and those with microinvasive carcinoma. The triple-negative subtype was the only factor that was associated with tumor recurrence. CONCLUSION: Microinvasive carcinomas are distinct from DCIS in terms of clinicopathological features and biomarker expressions but are similar to DCIS in terms of clinical outcomes. Our results suggest that microinvasive carcinoma can be treated and followed up as pure DCIS.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Necrosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Recurrence , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1418-1432, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Alteration of biomarker status after primary systemic therapy (PST) is occasionally found in breast cancer. This study was conducted to clarify the clinical implications of change of biomarker status in breast cancer patients treated with PST. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pre-chemotherapeutic biopsy and post-chemotherapeutic resection specimens of 442 breast cancer patients who had residual disease after PST were included in this study. The association between changes of biomarker status after PST and clinicopathologic features of tumors, and survival of the patients, were analyzed. RESULTS: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status changed after PST in 18 (4.1%), 80 (18.1%), and 15 (3.4%) patients,respectively. ER and PR mainly underwent positive to negative conversion,whereas HER2 status underwent negative to positive conversion. Negative conversion of ER and PR status after PST was associated with reduced disease-free survival. Moreover, a decline in the Allred score for PR in post-PST specimens was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome of the patients. HER2 change did not have prognostic significance. In multivariate analyses, negative PR status after PST was found to be an independent adverse prognostic factor in the whole patient group, in the adjuvant endocrine therapy-treated subgroup, and also in pre-PST PR positive subgroup. CONCLUSION: ER and HER2 status changed little after PST, whereas PR status changed significantly. In particular, negative conversion of PR status was revealed as a poor prognostic indicator, suggesting that re-evaluation of basic biomarkers is mandatory in breast cancer after PST for proper management and prognostication of patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Progesterone , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone
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