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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 831-843, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003034

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Metachronous gastric cancer (MGC) can occur after endoscopic resection for gastric cancer. Further studies on factors other than Helicobacter pylori infection are needed. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate risk factors for metachronous recurrence of endoscopically resected gastric cancer. @*Methods@#We searched medical literature published by February 2023 and identified patients with MGC after endoscopic resection for gastric cancer. The occurrence of MGC and the presence of intestinal metaplasia (IM), severe atrophic gastritis (AG), and H. pylori infection were quantitatively analyzed. @*Results@#We identified 2,755 patients from nine cohort studies who underwent endoscopic resection for gastric cancer by 2018. Those with severe AG or presence of IM had a significantly higher incidence of MGC than those without (RR 2.00, 95% CI 1.35–2.98, I2 = 52% for severe atrophy on antrum; RR 7.08, 95% CI 3.63–13.80, I2 = 0% for antral IM). Absolute risk difference of MGC occurrence was 7.1% in those with severe AG and 9.2% in those with IM. The difference in incidence rate per 1,000 person-years was 17.5 person-years for those with severe AG and 24.7 person-years for those with IM. However, H. pylori eradication did not significantly affect the occurrence of MGC (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.88–1.59, I2 = 10%). @*Conclusions@#Gastric cancer patients with severe AG or presence of IM had a 2.0-fold or 7.0-fold higher risk of MGC occurrence after endoscopic resection than those without, respectively. They need more stringent follow-up to monitor MGC occurrences (CRD42023410940).

2.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 167-173, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003024

ABSTRACT

Owing to their superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs) score over proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the treatment of gastric acid-related disorders and may provide clinical benefit in the management of these conditions. Previous studies have compared P-CABs with PPIs for treatment of gastric acid-related disorders, and current data show that P-CABs are non-inferior to PPIs in the treatment of erosive esophagitis and as maintenance therapy. P-CABs are useful for effective healing and as maintenance medications in patients with severe esophagitis. These drugs also aid with healing of peptic ulcers and artificial ulcers secondary to gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Few studies have discussed prevention of delayed ulcer bleeding after gastric ESD and ulcers associated with long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. Well-controlled, large-scale prospective studies are warranted in future to compare P-CABs with PPIs.

3.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 283-293, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002994

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) and CD133 are recognized stem cell markers of gastric cancer. Extensive research has examined the significance of these markers in different types of cancers and their impact on prognoses, linking them to unfavorable clinical outcomes in various tumors. However, the prognostic value of these markers for gastric cancer remains unclear. We investigated the expression of ABCG2 and CD133 and their relationship with clinical outcomes in gastric cancer. @*Methods@#ABCG2 and CD133 expression levels were analyzed, using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays, in tumor samples from 459 patients who underwent surgical resections due to gastric cancer. ABCG2 and CD133 expression levels were defined by intensity and dichotomized as medians. The associations among the expression levels of these markers, disease severity, and patient survival were also determined. @*Results@#In the 411 patients for whom we analyzed the expression levels of these markers, 74.9% and 80.5% were found to have high levels of ABCG2 and CD133, respectively. High expression levels of ABCG2 and CD133 were more commonly observed in well-differentiated (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) and intestinal lesions (p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). High ABCG2 expression correlated with improved survival outcomes, whereas high CD133 expression was associated with poorer outcomes. Cox regression analysis confirmed that stage, high ABCG2 (overall survival [OS]: hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41–0.91; p=0.015; recurrencefree survival [RFS]: HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34–0.88; p=0.012), and CD133 expression (OS: HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.00–2.51; p=0.049; RFS: HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.21–4.34; p=0.011) were predictors of survival. A subgroup analysis indicated that ABCG2 expression was also associated with an improved RFS rate in patients who received systemic chemotherapy. @*Conclusions@#High ABCG2 expression and low CD133 expression in tumors correlated with improved survival outcomes in post-resection patients with gastric cancer, suggesting their potential utility as prognostic biomarkers.

4.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 168-172, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002920

ABSTRACT

Benign mediastinal cysts are challenging to diagnose. Although Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) and EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) can accurately diagnose mediastinal foregut cysts, little is known about their complications. This paper reports a rare case in which EUS-FNA performed on mediastinal hemangioma resulted in an aortic hematoma. A 29-year-old female patient was commissioned for EUS of an asymptomatic accidental mediastinal lesion. Chest CT revealed a 4.9×2.9×10.1 cm thin-walled cystic mass in the posterior mediastinum. EUS revealed a large, anechoic cystic lesion with a regular thin wall with negative Doppler. EUS-guided FNA was performed using a single-use 19-gauge aspiration needle (EZ Shot 3; Olympus, Tokyo, Japan), and approximately 70 cc of serous pinkish fluid was aspirated. The patient was in a stable condition with no signs of acute complication. One day after EUS-FNA, thoracoscopic resection for mediastinal mass was conducted. The purple and multi-loculated large cyst was removed. Upon removal, however, an aortic hematoma caused by a focal descending aortic wall injury was observed. After a few days of close observation, the patient was discharged upon stable 3D aorta angio CT findings. This paper reports a rare and severe complication of EUS-FNA, in which an aspiration needle caused a direct injury to the aorta. The injection must be performed carefully to avoid damaging the adjacent organs or digestive tract walls.

5.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 460-469, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001439

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#It remains unclear which maintenance treatment modality is most appropriate for mild gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).We aimed to compare on-demand treatment with continuous treatment using a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in the maintenance treatment for patients with non-erosive GERD or mild erosive esophagitis. @*Methods@#Patients whose GERD symptoms improved after 4 weeks of standard dose PPI treatment were prospectively enrolled at 25 hospitals.Subsequently, the enrolled patients were randomly assigned to either an on-demand or a continuous maintenance treatment group, and followed in an 8-week interval for up to 24 weeks. @*Results@#A total of 304 patients were randomized to maintenance treatment (continuous, n = 151 vs on-demand, n = 153). The primary outcome, the overall proportion of unwillingness to continue the assigned maintenance treatment modality, failed to confirm the noninferiority of on-demand treatment (45.9%) compared to continuous treatment (36.1%). Compared with the on-demand group, the GERD symptom and health-related quality of life scores significantly more improved and the overall satisfaction score was significantly higher in the continuous treatment group, particularly at week 8 and week 16 of maintenance treatment. Work impairment scores were not different in the 2 groups, but the prescription cost was less in the on-demand group. Serum gastrin levels significantly elevated in the continuous treatment group, but not in the on-demand group. @*Conclusions@#Continuous treatment seems to be more appropriate for the initial maintenance treatment of non-erosive GERD or mild erosive esophagitis than on-demand treatment. Stepping down to on-demand treatment needs to be considered after a sufficient period of continuous treatment.

6.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 166-173, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001412

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypercontractile esophagus (HE) is a heterogeneous disorder with variable clinical presentations and a natural course, leading to management challenges. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of HE and evaluate its treatment outcomes. @*Methods@#Four Korean referral centers recruited subjects with at least 1 hypercontractile swallow (distal contraction integral > 8000 mmHg·s·cm) in this retrospective observational study. Subjects were classified according to the Chicago classification version 2.0 (CC v2.0), CC v3.0, and CC v4.0. criteria. The clinical and manometric features were also investigated. The treatment modalities and outcomes of subjects with CC v4.0 were evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 59 subjects with at least 1 hypercontractile swallow were analyzed. Among them, 30 (50.8%) had increased integrated relaxation pressure values without meeting the criteria for achalasia. Among the remaining 29 patients, 6 (20.7%) had only 1 hypercontractile swallowing symptom (CC v2.0) and 23 (79.3%) met both the CC v3.0 and v4.0 criteria for HE. Dysphagia (91.3%) was the most prevalent symptom, followed by chest pain (56.5%), regurgitation (52.2%), globus (34.8%), heartburn (21.7%), and belching (8.7%). Twenty (87.0%) patients received medical treatment, and 8 (47.1%) and 5 (29.4%) showed moderate and significant improvements, respectively. Proton pump inhibitors were the most common option (n = 15, 65.2%), followed by calcium channel blockers (n = 6, 26.1%). One patient received peroral endoscopic myotomy and showed significant symptom improvement. @*Conclusions@#Sixty-one percent of patients who meet the diagnostic criteria for the high-resolution manometry are diagnosed with symptomatic HE based CC v4.0. Chest pain and regurgitation were also observed in over half of them. The overall medical treatment efficacy was moderate.

7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 744-753, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000061

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and natural progression of subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients with UGI SELs who underwent endoscopic screening at eight university hospitals between January and December 2010 were retrospectively investigated. The follow-up evaluations were performed until December 2016. @*Results@#UGI SELs were found in 1,044 of the 65,233 participants screened (endoscopic prevalence, 1.60%; the total number of lesions, 1,062; mean age, 55.1±11.2 years; men, 53.6%). The median follow-up period was 48 (range, 8–74) months. SELs were most frequently found in the stomach (63.8%) and had a mean size of 9.9±6.1 mm. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was performed in 293 patients (28.1%). The most common lesions were leiomyomas, followed by gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and ectopic pancreas. The proportions of SELs with malignant potential according to size were 3% (<1 cm), 22% (1–2 cm), 27% (2–3 cm), and 38% (≥3 cm). In gastric SELs larger than 1 cm, resections were performed in 20 patients because of an increase in size, of which 12 were found to be GISTs. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence of UGI SELs was 1.60%. Further, 23% of gastric SELs ≥1 cm were precancerous lesions, most followed by EUS and clinical decisions without initial pathological confirmation.

8.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 325-332, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000049

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Administrative databases provide valuable information for large-cohort studies. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an administrative database for resected gastric adenomas. @*Methods@#Data of patients who underwent endoscopic resection for benign gastric lesions were collected from three hospitals. Gastric adenoma cases were identified in the hospital database using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10-codes. The non-adenoma group included patients without gastric adenoma codes. The diagnostic accuracy for gastric adenoma was analyzed based on the pathological reports of the resected specimen. @*Results@#Among 5,095 endoscopic resections with codes for benign gastric lesions, 3,909 patients were included in the analysis. Among them, 2,831 and 1,078 patients were allocated to the adenoma and non-adenoma groups, respectively. Regarding the overall diagnosis of gastric adenoma with ICD-10 codes, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 98.7%, 88.5%, 95.2%, and 96.8%, respectively. There were no significant differences in these parameters between the tertiary and secondary centers. @*Conclusions@#Administrative codes of gastric adenoma, according to ICD-10 codes, showed good accuracy and can serve as a useful tool to study prognosis of these patients in real-world data studies in the future.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e24-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915548

ABSTRACT

Background@#Attention should be paid to endoscopy-related complications and safety-related accidents that may occur in the endoscopy unit. This study investigated the current status of complications associated with diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy in Korea. @*Methods@#A questionnaire survey on endoscopy-related complications was conducted in a total of 50 tertiary or general hospitals in Korea. The results were compared to the population-level claims data from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (HIRA), which analyzed endoscopy procedures conducted in 2017 in Korea. @*Results@#The incidences of bleeding associated with diagnostic and therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and with diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy were 0.224% and 3.155% and 0.198% and 0.356%, respectively, in the 2017 HIRA claims data, compared to 0.012% and 1.857%, and 0.024% and 0.717%, in the 50 hospitals surveyed.The incidences of perforation associated with diagnostic and therapeutic EGD and with diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy were 0.023% and 0.613%, and 0.007% and 0.013%, respectively, in the 2017 HIRA claims data compared to 0.001% and 0.325%, and 0.017% and 0.206%, in the 50 hospitals surveyed. In the HIRA claims data, the incidence of bleeding/perforation after diagnostic colonoscopy in clinics, community hospitals, general hospitals, and tertiary hospitals was 0.129%/0.000%, 0.088%/0.004%, 0.262%/0.009%, and 0.479%/0.030% respectively, and the corresponding incidence of bleeding/perforation after therapeutic colonoscopy was 0.258%/0.004%, 0.401%/0.007%, 0.408%/0.024%, and 0.731%/0.055%. @*Conclusion@#The incidences of complications associated with diagnostic and therapeutic EGD or colonoscopy tended to increase with the hospital volume in Korea.

10.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 347-353, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900412

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) enables the comprehensive evaluation of the esophageal motor function. However, protocols are not uniform and clinical practices vary widely among institutions. This study aims to understand the current HRM practice in Korea. @*Methods@#The survey was sent via email through the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. The questions covered descriptive information, preparation, techniques, analysis, and reporting of esophageal HRM. @*Results@#The survey was completed in 32 (74.4%) out of 43 centers, including 24 tertiary and 8 secondary referral centers. Of the 32 centers, 25 (78.1%) performed HRM in a sitting position, while 7 centers (21.9%) reported performing HRM in a supine position. All the centers utilized single wet swallows as a standard, but the volume, frequency, and interval between swallows varied widely. Sixteen centers (50.0%) applied adjunctive tests, including multiple rapid swallows (n = 16) and rapid drink challenges (n = 9). Parameters assessed and documented in the report were similar. In addition to the assessment of the esophagogastric junction and esophageal body, 27 centers (84.8%) and 18 centers (56.3%) included measurements for the upper esophageal sphincter and the pharynx, respectively, in the HRM protocol. @*Conclusions@#We found a variation in the available HRM practice among centers, even though they broadly agreed in the data analysis. Efforts are needed to develop a standardized protocol for HRM measurement.

11.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 223-230, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900385

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#S-isomer (S) pantoprazole is more bioavailable and less dependent on cytochrome 2C19 than is racemic pantoprazole. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 10 mg S-pantoprazole for treatment of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). @*Methods@#In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled, multicenter study, 174 NERD patients were randomized to one of both treatment groups: 10 mg S-pantoprazole, or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Symptoms and safety were assessed. The efficacy endpoints were complete relief of symptoms, > 50% improvement of all reflux symptoms and recurrence. @*Results@#Eighty-eight patients were assigned to the S-pantoprazole group (25 males, mean 43.7 years old) and 86 to the placebo group (32 males, mean 43.0 years old), and 163 patients were subjected to full Analysis Set. A higher proportion of patients in the S-pantoprazole group had complete symptom relief (42.0 % [34/81] vs 17.1% [14/82], P 50% symptom responses (66.0% vs 50.0%, P = 0.010 for heartburn; 64.2% vs 28.0%, P = 0.010 for acid regurgitation; and 51.9% vs 30.5%, P = 0.03 for epigastric discomfort) compared to the placebo group. The factors associated with poor responsiveness to PPI were older age, female, greater body mass index, and severe baseline symptoms. @*Conclusions@#Low dose of S-pantoprazole (10 mg) for 4 weeks was more efficacious than placebo in providing reflux symptom relief in patients with NERD, especially acid regurgitation. More doses or longer periods of treatment with S-pantoprazole would be needed to completely eliminate symptoms.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 528-536, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898438

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Point mutations in the 23S ribosomal RNA gene have been associated with Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin resistance. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of these point mutations and to investigate the role of different point mutations in the success of eradication therapy. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated a total of 464 consecutive patients who underwent an endoscopic examination and dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction for H. pylori between June 2014 and October 2019. For 289 patients with negative point mutations, standard triple therapy was used in 287 patients, and the bismuth-quadruple regimen was used in two patients. For 175 patients with positive point mutations (A2142G, A2143G, and both mutations), standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies were used in 37 patients and 138 patients, respectively. @*Results@#The eradication rates of standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies showed no significant difference in mutation-negative patients or those with the A2142G point mutation.However, the eradication rate with bismuth-quadruple therapy was significantly higher than that with standard triple therapy in the group with the A2143G mutation or with the double mutation.The eradication rates for standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies, respectively, were 25.8% and 92.1% in the per-protocol group (p<0.001) and 24.2% and 85.2% in the intention-totreat analysis (p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The A2143G point mutation is the most prevalent cause of clarithromycin resistance. Bismuth-quadruple therapy is superior to standard triple therapy in patients with the A2143G or double point mutation.

13.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 71-76, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875408

ABSTRACT

Patients with esophageal dysphagia need a step-by-step approach for diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopic with biopsy and barium esophagogram are the essential tests evaluating anatomical abnormality and esophageal bolus stasis. Further imaging or esophageal function tests such as high-resolution esophageal manometry, functional endoluminal imaging probe, CT or endoscopic ultrasound are required. In the case of dysphagia due to esophageal motility disorder, whether it is the major motility disorder or minor motility disorder should be identified in high resolution manometry. Major motility disorders show esophagogastric junction obstruction or major peristaltic defects. In this case, the severity of the symptoms should be assessed and patients who need endoscopic or surgical treatment targeting lower esophageal sphincter should be screened. Impaired lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (achalasia, esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction, esophageal spasm or abnormal hypercontraction (jackhammer esophagus), hypotensive contraction (ineffective esophageal motility, failed peristalsis), esophageal hypersensitivity (noncardiac chest pain), gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal bolus stasis are the possible mechanisms causing dysphagia symptoms. The proper medical treatment depends on underlying mechanisms.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 528-536, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890734

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Point mutations in the 23S ribosomal RNA gene have been associated with Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin resistance. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of these point mutations and to investigate the role of different point mutations in the success of eradication therapy. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated a total of 464 consecutive patients who underwent an endoscopic examination and dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction for H. pylori between June 2014 and October 2019. For 289 patients with negative point mutations, standard triple therapy was used in 287 patients, and the bismuth-quadruple regimen was used in two patients. For 175 patients with positive point mutations (A2142G, A2143G, and both mutations), standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies were used in 37 patients and 138 patients, respectively. @*Results@#The eradication rates of standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies showed no significant difference in mutation-negative patients or those with the A2142G point mutation.However, the eradication rate with bismuth-quadruple therapy was significantly higher than that with standard triple therapy in the group with the A2143G mutation or with the double mutation.The eradication rates for standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies, respectively, were 25.8% and 92.1% in the per-protocol group (p<0.001) and 24.2% and 85.2% in the intention-totreat analysis (p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The A2143G point mutation is the most prevalent cause of clarithromycin resistance. Bismuth-quadruple therapy is superior to standard triple therapy in patients with the A2143G or double point mutation.

15.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 347-353, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892708

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) enables the comprehensive evaluation of the esophageal motor function. However, protocols are not uniform and clinical practices vary widely among institutions. This study aims to understand the current HRM practice in Korea. @*Methods@#The survey was sent via email through the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. The questions covered descriptive information, preparation, techniques, analysis, and reporting of esophageal HRM. @*Results@#The survey was completed in 32 (74.4%) out of 43 centers, including 24 tertiary and 8 secondary referral centers. Of the 32 centers, 25 (78.1%) performed HRM in a sitting position, while 7 centers (21.9%) reported performing HRM in a supine position. All the centers utilized single wet swallows as a standard, but the volume, frequency, and interval between swallows varied widely. Sixteen centers (50.0%) applied adjunctive tests, including multiple rapid swallows (n = 16) and rapid drink challenges (n = 9). Parameters assessed and documented in the report were similar. In addition to the assessment of the esophagogastric junction and esophageal body, 27 centers (84.8%) and 18 centers (56.3%) included measurements for the upper esophageal sphincter and the pharynx, respectively, in the HRM protocol. @*Conclusions@#We found a variation in the available HRM practice among centers, even though they broadly agreed in the data analysis. Efforts are needed to develop a standardized protocol for HRM measurement.

16.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 223-230, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892681

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#S-isomer (S) pantoprazole is more bioavailable and less dependent on cytochrome 2C19 than is racemic pantoprazole. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 10 mg S-pantoprazole for treatment of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). @*Methods@#In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled, multicenter study, 174 NERD patients were randomized to one of both treatment groups: 10 mg S-pantoprazole, or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Symptoms and safety were assessed. The efficacy endpoints were complete relief of symptoms, > 50% improvement of all reflux symptoms and recurrence. @*Results@#Eighty-eight patients were assigned to the S-pantoprazole group (25 males, mean 43.7 years old) and 86 to the placebo group (32 males, mean 43.0 years old), and 163 patients were subjected to full Analysis Set. A higher proportion of patients in the S-pantoprazole group had complete symptom relief (42.0 % [34/81] vs 17.1% [14/82], P 50% symptom responses (66.0% vs 50.0%, P = 0.010 for heartburn; 64.2% vs 28.0%, P = 0.010 for acid regurgitation; and 51.9% vs 30.5%, P = 0.03 for epigastric discomfort) compared to the placebo group. The factors associated with poor responsiveness to PPI were older age, female, greater body mass index, and severe baseline symptoms. @*Conclusions@#Low dose of S-pantoprazole (10 mg) for 4 weeks was more efficacious than placebo in providing reflux symptom relief in patients with NERD, especially acid regurgitation. More doses or longer periods of treatment with S-pantoprazole would be needed to completely eliminate symptoms.

17.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 108-133, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834120

ABSTRACT

The Korean guidelines for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced peptic ulcers were previously developed under co-work with the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research and Korean Society of Gastroenterology at 2009. On the other hand, the previous guidelines were based mainly on a literature review and expert opinions. Therefore, the guidelines need to be revised. In this study, a guideline development committee for drug-induced peptic ulcers was organized under the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research in 2017. Nine statements were developed, including four for NSAID, three for aspirin and other antiplatelet agents, and two for anticoagulants through de novo processes based on evidence-based medicine, such as a literature search, meta-analysis, and the consensus was established using the modified Delphi method. The primary target of this guideline was adult patients taking long-term NSAIDs, aspirin, or other antiplatelet agent and anticoagulants. The revised guidelines reflect the consensus of expert opinions and are intended to assist relevant clinicians in the management and prevention of drug-induced peptic ulcers and associated conditions.

18.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 179-184, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834110

ABSTRACT

Esophageal manometry is the gold standard test for diagnosing primary esophageal motility disorder. With the various metrics of the high-resolution esophageal manometry, the Chicago classification provides a standard approach for the manometric diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. In the Chicago classification, the esophagogastric junction dysfunction is an important major motor disorder, which includes achalasia subtypes and esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction. Esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction is defined manometrically as normal or weak esophageal peristalsis with incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. It is a heterogeneous disorder and usually has a benign clinical course. The small portion of an esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction is early or variant achalasia. In such cases, treatments directing the lower esophageal sphincter, such as balloon dilatation or per oral endoscopic myotomy, may be necessary. An adjunctive high-resolution manometry provocation test or other esophageal function tests, such as timed barium esophagogram, can help select those patients and predict the treatment outcomes.

19.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 299-310, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833871

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, practices of gastrointestinal procedures within the digestive tract require special precautions due to the risk of contraction of severe acute respiratoy syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Many procedures in the gastrointestinal motility laboratory may be considered moderate to high-risk for viral transmission. Healthcare staff working in gastrointestinal motility laboratories are frequently exposed to splashes, air droplets, mucus, or saliva during the procedures. Moreover, some are aerosol-generating and thus have a high risk of viral transmission. There are multiple guidelines on the practices of gastrointestinal endoscopy during this pandemic. However, such guidelines are still lacking and urgently needed for the practice of gastrointestinal motility laboratories. Hence, the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association had organized a group of gastrointestinal motility experts and infectious disease specialists to produce a position statement paper based-on current available evidence and consensus opinion with aims to provide a clear guidance on the practices of gastrointestinal motility laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. This guideline covers a wide range of topics on gastrointestinal motility activities from scheduling a motility test, the precautions at different steps of the procedure to disinfection for the safety and well-being of the patients and the healthcare workers. These practices may vary in different countries depending on the stages of the pandemic, local or institutional policy, and the availability of healthcare resources. This guideline is useful when the transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 is high. It may change rapidly depending on the situation of the epidemic and when new evidence becomes available.

20.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 180-203, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

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