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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 204-211, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919554

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and ethanol ablation (EA) are effective and safe for benign symptomatic thyroid nodules (BSTNs). However, relatively little is known about the effects of these procedures on patients’ quality of life (QoL). This prospective, multicenter study evaluated the effects of RFA and EA on changes in thyroid-specific QoL in patients with BSTNs and assessed the volume reduction and safety of these procedures. @*Methods@#Eighty-six consecutive patients with 86 BSTNs were prospectively included from two medical centers. RFA was performed for 55 BSTNs with solidity ≥50% and EA was performed for 31 BSTNs with solidity <50%. QoL was evaluated using an 11-scale, multiple-choice thyroid-specific QoL questionnaire. Nodule characteristics and QoL were evaluated at diagnosis and 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Overall QoL was rated from 0 (good) to 4 (poor). @*Results@#The mean longest size and volume of the index nodule were 4.2±1.5 cm and 21.6±22.1 mL, respectively. Patients received 1.1 treatments on average (range, 1 to 2). Significant post-treatment volume reductions were noted; however, the EA group showed a higher volume reduction than the RFA group at 1 (78.7%-16.1% vs. 49.1%-15.8%), 6 (86.3%-21.7% vs. 73.0%-14.5%), and 12 (90.9%-14.9% vs. 80.3%-12.4%) months. The score for each scale of the QoL questionnaire improved significantly during follow-up (all P<0.001). Overall QoL improved significantly, from 1.7±0.9 at diagnosis to 0.6±0.7 at the 12-month follow-up (P<0.001). There were no major complications. @*Conclusion@#Both RFA and EA are safe and effective in reducing nodule volume and improving thyroid-specific QoL in patients with BSTNs.

2.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 592-604, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937419

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic exposure to low-dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can induce mitochondrial dysfunction. This study evaluated the association between serum POP concentrations and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) as a marker of mitochondrial function in humans and in vitro cells. @*Methods@#Serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 323 adults. The OCRs of platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were assessed in 20 mL of fresh blood using a Seahorse XF analyzer. Additionally, the in vitro effects of Arochlor-1254, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and p,p´-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane at concentrations of 0.1 pM to 100 nM were evaluated in human platelets, human PBMCs, and Jurkat T-cells. @*Results@#The association between serum POP concentrations and OCR differed depending on the cell type. As serum OCP concentrations increased, basal platelet OCR levels decreased significantly; according to the OCP quintiles of summary measure, they were 8.6, 9.6, 8.2, 8.0, and 7.1 pmol/min/μg (P trend=0.005). Notably, the basal PBMC OCR levels decreased remarkably as the serum PCB concentration increased. PBMC OCR levels were 46.5, 34.3, 29.1, 16.5, and 13.1 pmol/min/μg according to the PCB quintiles of summary measure (P trend <0.001), and this inverse association was consistently observed in all subgroups stratified by age, sex, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, respectively. In vitro experimental studies have also demonstrated that chronic exposure to low-dose POPs could decrease OCR levels. @*Conclusion@#The findings from human and in vitro studies suggest that chronic exposure to low-dose POPs can induce mitochondrial dysfunction by impairing oxidative phosphorylation.

3.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 369-382, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924938

ABSTRACT

Background@#Optimal management of primary aldosteronism (PA) is crucial due to the increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method for determining subtype but is technically challenging and invasive. Some PA patients do not benefit clinically from surgery. We sought to develop an algorithm to improve decision- making before engaging in AVS and surgery in clinical practice. @*Methods@#We conducted the ongoing Korean Primary Aldosteronism Study at two tertiary centers. Study A involved PA patients with successful catheterization and a unilateral nodule on computed tomography and aimed to predict unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (n=367). Study B involved similar patients who underwent adrenalectomy and aimed to predict postoperative outcome (n=330). In study A, we implemented important feature selection using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. @*Results@#We developed a unilateral PA prediction model using logistic regression analysis: lowest serum potassium level ≤3.4 mEq/L, aldosterone-to-renin ratio ≥150, plasma aldosterone concentration ≥30 ng/mL, and body mass index <25 kg/m2 (area under the curve, 0.819; 95% confidence interval, 0.774 to 0.865; sensitivity, 97.6%; specificity, 25.5%). In study B, we identified female, hypertension duration <5 years, anti-hypertension medication <2.5 daily defined dose, and the absence of coronary artery disease as predictors of clinical success, using stepwise logistic regression models (sensitivity, 94.2%; specificity, 49.3%). We validated our algorithm in the independent validation dataset (n=53). @*Conclusion@#We propose this new outcome-driven diagnostic algorithm, simultaneously considering unilateral aldosterone excess and clinical surgical benefits in PA patients.

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 312-322, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924934

ABSTRACT

Background@#Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is an entity that can involve the thyroid gland. The spectrum of IgG4-related thyroid disease (IgG4-RTD) includes Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and its fibrotic variant, Riedel thyroiditis, as well as Graves’ disease. The early diagnosis of IgG4-RTD is important because it is a medically treatable disease, and a delay in the diagnosis might result in unnecessary surgery. We present a case series of IgG4-RTD with a review of the literature. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentation and the radiological and pathological findings of patients diagnosed with IgG4-RTD between 2017 and 2021 at a tertiary medical center in Korea. We also conducted a literature review of IgG4-RTD. @*Results@#Five patients were diagnosed with IgG4-RTD during the study period. The patients’ age ranged from 31 to 76 years, and three patients were men. Most patients visited the clinic for a neck mass, and hypoechogenic nodular lesions were observed on neck ultrasonography. Three patients had IgG4 HT, and two patients had IgG4 Riedel thyroiditis. All patients developed hypothyroidism that necessitated L-thyroxine replacement. The diagnosis of IgG4-RTD was confirmed after a pathological examination of the surgical specimen in the first two cases. However, the early diagnosis was possible after a core needle biopsy in three clinically suspected patients. @*Conclusion@#The diagnosis of IgG4-RTD requires clinical suspicion combined with serology and histological analyses using IgG4 immunostaining. The early diagnosis of IgG4-RTD is difficult; thus, biopsy with IgG4 immunostaining and serum IgG4 measurements will help diagnose patients suspected of having IgG4-RTD.

5.
Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing ; : 25-33, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920343

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of rehabilitation motivation and medical staff support on the self-care activities of stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation therapy. @*Methods@#A total of 199 patients who were admitted at two rehabilitation hospitals located in B city participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to measure rehabilitation motivation, medical staff support, and self-care activities. @*Results@#Self-care activities had a positive correlation with rehabilitation motivation (r=.44, p<.001) and medical staff support (r=.18, p=.009). This means that higher rehabilitation motivation and medical staff support are associated with higher self-care activities. The most influencing factors on self-care activities were rehabilitation motivation (β=.41, p=.001), main caregiver (β=.19, p=.002), marital status (β=.12, p=.041), dysphagia (β=.12, p=.042), and region of hemiplegia (β=-.12, p=.046) in order. The explanatory power value of regression model was 28.7% and it was statistically significant (F=10.95, p<.001). @*Conclusion@#Rehabilitation motivation was identified as the major factors that affect self-care activities. The findings in this study suggest that an active intervention encouraging rehabilitation motivation is needed to improve the self-care activities of stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation therapy.

6.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 53-62, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890933

ABSTRACT

Background@#Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis, but differentiating between the diagnosis of TBM and viral meningitis (VM) is difficult. Thus, we have developed machine-learning modules for differentiating TBM from VM.Material and Methods: For the training data, confirmed or probable TBM and confirmed VM cases were retrospectively collected from five teaching hospitals in Korea between January 2000 - July 2018. Various machine-learning algorithms were used for training. The machinelearning algorithms were tested by the leave-one-out cross-validation. Four residents and two infectious disease specialists were tested using the summarized medical information. @*Results@#The training study comprised data from 60 patients with confirmed or probable TBM and 143 patients with confirmed VM. Older age, longer symptom duration before the visit, lower serum sodium, lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose, higher CSF protein, and CSF adenosine deaminase were found in the TBM patients. Among the various machinelearning algorithms, the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics of artificial neural network (ANN) with ImperativeImputer for matrix completion (0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.79 - 0.89) was found to be the highest. The AUC of the ANN model was statistically higher than those of all the residents (range 0.67 - 0.72, P <0.001) and an infectious disease specialist (AUC 0.76; P = 0.03). @*Conclusion@#The machine-learning techniques may play a role in differentiating between TBM and VM. Specifically, the ANN model seems to have better diagnostic performance than the non-expert clinician.

7.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021024-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak triggered by religious activities occurred in Daegu, Korea in February 2020. This outbreak spread rapidly to the community through high-risk groups. This study describes the characteristics of COVID-19 cases based on S religious group membership and summarizes the Daegu municipal government’s processes and responses to control the outbreak. @*METHODS@#The epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases were obtained through basic and in-depth epidemiological surveys. General characteristics, the proportion of asymptomatic cases, the case-fatality rate, and the time-to-event within each group were presented after stratifying confirmed cases according to S religious group membership. @*RESULTS@#Overall, 7,008 COVID-19 cases were confirmed in Daegu from February 18, 2020 to June 30, 2020, and 61.5% (n= 4,309) were S religious group members. Compared with non-members, members had a higher proportion of female (p< 0.001) and younger age (p< 0.001), as well as lower disease prevalence. At the time of the investigation, 38.4% of cases in members were asymptomatic versus 23.7% of cases in non-members (p< 0.001). The case-fatality rate of non-members aged ≥ 60 years was significantly higher than that of members (p< 0.001). Compared with non-members, members had longer intervals from symptom onset to diagnosis (p< 0.001) and from diagnosis to admission (p< 0.001), and a shorter interval from admission to discharge (p< 0.001). @*CONCLUSIONS@#The epidemiological features of S religious group members, including the proportion of asymptomatic cases, case-fatality rate, and time-to-event, differed from non-members. The Daegu authorities prevented further COVID-19 spread through immediate isolation and active screening tests of all S religious group members.

8.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 53-62, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898637

ABSTRACT

Background@#Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis, but differentiating between the diagnosis of TBM and viral meningitis (VM) is difficult. Thus, we have developed machine-learning modules for differentiating TBM from VM.Material and Methods: For the training data, confirmed or probable TBM and confirmed VM cases were retrospectively collected from five teaching hospitals in Korea between January 2000 - July 2018. Various machine-learning algorithms were used for training. The machinelearning algorithms were tested by the leave-one-out cross-validation. Four residents and two infectious disease specialists were tested using the summarized medical information. @*Results@#The training study comprised data from 60 patients with confirmed or probable TBM and 143 patients with confirmed VM. Older age, longer symptom duration before the visit, lower serum sodium, lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose, higher CSF protein, and CSF adenosine deaminase were found in the TBM patients. Among the various machinelearning algorithms, the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics of artificial neural network (ANN) with ImperativeImputer for matrix completion (0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.79 - 0.89) was found to be the highest. The AUC of the ANN model was statistically higher than those of all the residents (range 0.67 - 0.72, P <0.001) and an infectious disease specialist (AUC 0.76; P = 0.03). @*Conclusion@#The machine-learning techniques may play a role in differentiating between TBM and VM. Specifically, the ANN model seems to have better diagnostic performance than the non-expert clinician.

9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021024-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak triggered by religious activities occurred in Daegu, Korea in February 2020. This outbreak spread rapidly to the community through high-risk groups. This study describes the characteristics of COVID-19 cases based on S religious group membership and summarizes the Daegu municipal government’s processes and responses to control the outbreak. @*METHODS@#The epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases were obtained through basic and in-depth epidemiological surveys. General characteristics, the proportion of asymptomatic cases, the case-fatality rate, and the time-to-event within each group were presented after stratifying confirmed cases according to S religious group membership. @*RESULTS@#Overall, 7,008 COVID-19 cases were confirmed in Daegu from February 18, 2020 to June 30, 2020, and 61.5% (n= 4,309) were S religious group members. Compared with non-members, members had a higher proportion of female (p< 0.001) and younger age (p< 0.001), as well as lower disease prevalence. At the time of the investigation, 38.4% of cases in members were asymptomatic versus 23.7% of cases in non-members (p< 0.001). The case-fatality rate of non-members aged ≥ 60 years was significantly higher than that of members (p< 0.001). Compared with non-members, members had longer intervals from symptom onset to diagnosis (p< 0.001) and from diagnosis to admission (p< 0.001), and a shorter interval from admission to discharge (p< 0.001). @*CONCLUSIONS@#The epidemiological features of S religious group members, including the proportion of asymptomatic cases, case-fatality rate, and time-to-event, differed from non-members. The Daegu authorities prevented further COVID-19 spread through immediate isolation and active screening tests of all S religious group members.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e12-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874745

ABSTRACT

Background@#A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in February 2020 and was controlled at the end of March 2020 in Daegu, the epicenter of the coronavirus outbreak in Korea. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical course and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in Daegu. @*Methods@#In collaboration with Daegu Metropolitan City and Korean Center for Diseases Control, we conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including viral RNA detection, were obtained from the electronic medical records and cohort database and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariate and multi-variable logistic regression methods and Cox regression model and performed Kaplan–Meier analysis to determine the risk factors associated with the 28-day mortality and release from isolation among the patients. @*Results@#In this study, 7,057 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 (total cohort) who had been diagnosed from February 18 to July 10, 2020 were included. Of the total cohort, 5,467 were asymptomatic to mild patients (77.4%) (asymptomatic 30.6% and mild 46.8%), 985 moderate (14.0%), 380 severe (5.4%), and 225 critical (3.2%). The mortality of the patients was 2.5% (179/7,057). The Cox regression hazard model for the patients with available clinical information (core cohort) (n = 2,254) showed the risk factors for 28-day mortality: age > 70 (hazard ratio [HR], 4.219, P = 0.002), need for O 2 supply at admission (HR, 2.995; P = 0.001), fever (> 37.5°C) (HR, 2.808; P = 0.001), diabetes (HR, 2.119; P = 0.008), cancer (HR, 3.043; P = 0.011), dementia (HR, 5.252; P = 0.008), neurological disease (HR, 2.084; P = 0.039), heart failure (HR, 3.234;P = 0.012), and hypertension (HR, 2.160; P = 0.017). The median duration for release from isolation was 33 days (interquartile range, 24.0–46.0) in survivors. The Cox proportional hazard model for the long duration of isolation included severity, age > 70, and dementia. @*Conclusion@#Overall, asymptomatic to mild patients were approximately 77% of the total cohort (asymptomatic, 30.6%). The case fatality rate was 2.5%. Risk factors, including older age, need for O 2 supply, dementia, and neurological disorder at admission, could help clinicians to identify COVID-19 patients with poor prognosis at an early stage.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e50-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lack of sunlight exposure is the primary reason for the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency. Although recommended sunlight exposure guidelines exist, there is no evidence regarding whether current guidelines are optimal for increasing vitamin D levels among individuals with vitamin D deficiency.@*METHODS@#Sixty Korean adults aged 20–49 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels of < 20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to three groups: sunlight exposure (n = 20), vitamin D supplementation groups (n = 20), and daily living (n = 20) for 1 month. The sunlight exposure group had sunlight exposure on 20% to 30% of their body surface areas for 30–60 minutes per day, 3 times a week during the summer season. Vitamin D supplementation was prescribed with 800 IU/day of vitamin D. The serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured at baseline and at 1-month follow-up examinations.@*RESULTS@#The largest change in serum 25(OH)D was observed among the vitamin D supplementation group (+3.5 ng/mL, P < 0.001). The sunlight exposure group showed a slight increase in serum 25(OH)D level, but the absolute increase was less than one-third that of the vitamin D supplementation group (+0.9 ng/mL, P = 0.043). Only two participants in the sunlight exposure reached serum concentrations of 25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL at follow-up. The daily living group showed no difference in vitamin D levels (−0.7 ng/mL, P = 0.516).@*CONCLUSION@#Sunlight exposure was not sufficient to overcome vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the current study subjects. Effectiveness of current sunlight exposure guidelines among various populations should be reassessed in larger clinical studies.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0002671

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e50-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lack of sunlight exposure is the primary reason for the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency. Although recommended sunlight exposure guidelines exist, there is no evidence regarding whether current guidelines are optimal for increasing vitamin D levels among individuals with vitamin D deficiency.@*METHODS@#Sixty Korean adults aged 20–49 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels of < 20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to three groups: sunlight exposure (n = 20), vitamin D supplementation groups (n = 20), and daily living (n = 20) for 1 month. The sunlight exposure group had sunlight exposure on 20% to 30% of their body surface areas for 30–60 minutes per day, 3 times a week during the summer season. Vitamin D supplementation was prescribed with 800 IU/day of vitamin D. The serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured at baseline and at 1-month follow-up examinations.@*RESULTS@#The largest change in serum 25(OH)D was observed among the vitamin D supplementation group (+3.5 ng/mL, P < 0.001). The sunlight exposure group showed a slight increase in serum 25(OH)D level, but the absolute increase was less than one-third that of the vitamin D supplementation group (+0.9 ng/mL, P = 0.043). Only two participants in the sunlight exposure reached serum concentrations of 25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL at follow-up. The daily living group showed no difference in vitamin D levels (−0.7 ng/mL, P = 0.516).@*CONCLUSION@#Sunlight exposure was not sufficient to overcome vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the current study subjects. Effectiveness of current sunlight exposure guidelines among various populations should be reassessed in larger clinical studies.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0002671

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 50-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lack of sunlight exposure is the primary reason for the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency. Although recommended sunlight exposure guidelines exist, there is no evidence regarding whether current guidelines are optimal for increasing vitamin D levels among individuals with vitamin D deficiency.METHODS: Sixty Korean adults aged 20–49 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels of < 20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to three groups: sunlight exposure (n = 20), vitamin D supplementation groups (n = 20), and daily living (n = 20) for 1 month. The sunlight exposure group had sunlight exposure on 20% to 30% of their body surface areas for 30–60 minutes per day, 3 times a week during the summer season. Vitamin D supplementation was prescribed with 800 IU/day of vitamin D. The serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured at baseline and at 1-month follow-up examinations.RESULTS: The largest change in serum 25(OH)D was observed among the vitamin D supplementation group (+3.5 ng/mL, P < 0.001). The sunlight exposure group showed a slight increase in serum 25(OH)D level, but the absolute increase was less than one-third that of the vitamin D supplementation group (+0.9 ng/mL, P = 0.043). Only two participants in the sunlight exposure reached serum concentrations of 25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL at follow-up. The daily living group showed no difference in vitamin D levels (−0.7 ng/mL, P = 0.516).CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure was not sufficient to overcome vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the current study subjects. Effectiveness of current sunlight exposure guidelines among various populations should be reassessed in larger clinical studies.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0002671


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Body Surface Area , Follow-Up Studies , Information Services , Seasons , Solar System , Sunlight , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
14.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 45-55, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834582

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study was conducted to explore recent trends in the prevalence of pediatric elevated blood pressure and hypertension (HTN) in Korea and the United States, applying the new HTN reference values for adolescents. @*Methods@#This study analyzed 17 339 (8755 Korean and 8584 American) adolescents aged 10 to 17 who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, respectively, between 2005 and 2016. HTN was defined using percentile-based reference values for non-overweight adolescents from 7 nations, and obesity was defined by body mass index (BMI) based on country-specific growth charts. All analyses were stratified by sex and year-over-year changes were evaluated by calculating the p for trend. @*Results@#Systolic blood pressure showed a statistically meaningful upward trend in Korean boys and girls, while diastolic blood pressure did not show any significant changes. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels declined among United States boys and girls. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure and HTN remained similar in Korean adolescents, but declined in both sexes among United States adolescents. BMI increased in both sexes among Korean adolescents, although the overweight and obesity rates stayed the same. No significant trends were found in any obesity indices among United States adolescents. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure and HTN by obesity level was higher among Korean adolescents than among their United States peers in both sexes, and the gap became higher at more severe levels of obesity. @*Conclusions@#Despite the strong correlation between obesity and HTN, recent trends in the prevalence of HTN and obesity among Korean and United States adolescents were strikingly different. Follow-up studies are necessary to determine why the prevalence of HTN was more than twice as high among Korean adolescents than among their United States counterparts.

15.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 602-609, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832419

ABSTRACT

Background@#The optimal dose of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for N1b papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is controversial. We evaluated the clinical outcome of N1b PTC patients treated with either 100 or 150 mCi of RAI. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed N1b PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and postoperative RAI therapy at a tertiary referral center between 2012 and 2017. As the baseline characteristics differed between treatment groups, we performed exact matching for various pathological factors according to RAI dose. We evaluated the response to therapy and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the matched patients. Structural recurrent/persistent disease was defined as new structural disease detected after initial therapy, which was confirmed by cytology or pathology. @*Results@#Of the total 436 patients, 37 (8.5%) received 100 mCi of RAI and 399 (91.5%) received 150 mCi of RAI. After an exact 1:3 matching, 34 patients in the 100 mCi group and 100 patients in the 150 mCi group remained. There was no significant difference in response to therapy between the groups in the matched population (P=0.63). An excellent response was achieved in 70.6% (n=24) of patients in the 100 mCi group and 76.0% (n=76) in the 150 mCi group. Two (5.9%) patients in the 100 mCi group and four (4.0%) in the 150 mCi group had recurrence and there was no significant difference in RFS between the groups in the matched population (P=0.351). @*Conclusion@#There were no differences in response to therapy and RFS in N1b PTC patients according to RAI dose.

16.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 407-415, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832392

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a safe treatment for thyroid tumors, nerve damage is a frequent complication. A previous retrospective study suggested that an injection of cold 5% dextrose in water (5% DW) can reduce nerve damage during RFA. This study validated the efficacy of injecting cold 5% DW for management of nerve damage during RFA. @*Methods@#Between November 2017 and December 2018, 242 patients underwent 291 RFA sessions for treatment of benign thyroid nodules or recurrent thyroid cancers. Using a standardized technique, cold (0°C to 4°C) 5% DW was immediately injected around the damaged nerve into patients with any symptoms suggesting nerve damage. The incidence of nerve damage, the volume of 5% DW injected, symptom recovery time and the incidence of permanent nerve damage were evaluated. @*Results@#Nineteen patients experienced nerve damage symptoms related to 21 RFA sessions, including 17 patients during 19 sessions and two patients on the day after two sessions. Patients with nerve damage symptoms detected during RFA were treated by injection of a mean 41 mL (range, 3 to 260) cold 5% DW, but the two patients who experienced symptoms the next day did not receive cold 5% DW injections. Immediate recovery was observed after 15 RFA sessions in 14 patients. No patient experienced permanent nerve damage. @*Conclusion@#Injection of cold 5% DW is effective in managing nerve damage during RFA of thyroid lesions.

17.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 764-774, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832377

ABSTRACT

Background@#Low-dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), have emerged as a new risk factor of many chronic diseases. As serum concentrations of POPs in humans are mainly determined by both their release from adipose tissue to circulation and their elimination from circulation, management of these internal pathways may be important in controlling the serum concentrations of POPs. As habitual physical activity can increase the elimination of POPs from circulation, we evaluated whether chronic physical activity is related to low serum POP concentrations. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional study of 1,850 healthy adults (age ≥20 years) without cardio-metabolic diseases who participated in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004 was conducted. Information on moderate or vigorous leisure-time physical activity was obtained based on questionnaires. Serum concentrations of OCPs and polychlorinated biphenyls were investigated as typical POPs. @*Results@#Serum concentrations of OCPs among physically active subjects were significantly lower than those among physically inactive subjects (312.8 ng/g lipid vs. 538.0 ng/g lipid, P<0.001). This difference was maintained after adjustment for potential confounders. When analyses were restricted to physically active subjects, there were small decreases in the serum concentrations of OCPs with increasing duration of physical activity, showing a curvilinear relationship over the whole range of physical activity (Pquadratic <0.001). In analyses stratified by age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status, a strong inverse association was similarly observed among all subgroups. @*Conclusion@#Physical activity may assist in decreasing serum concentrations of lipophilic chemical mixtures such as OCPs.

18.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 568-577, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763689

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial function is crucial for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis under physiological and stress conditions. Thus, chronic exposure to environmental chemicals that affect mitochondrial function can have harmful effects on humans. We argue that the concept of hormesis should be revisited to explain the non-linear responses to mitochondrial toxins at a low-dose range and develop practical methods to protect humans from the negative effects of mitochondrial toxins. Of the most concern to humans are lipophilic chemical mixtures and heavy metals, owing to their physical properties. Even though these chemicals tend to demonstrate no safe level in humans, a non-linear dose-response has been also observed. Stress response activation, i.e., hormesis, can explain this non-linearity. Recently, hormesis has reemerged as a unifying concept because diverse stressors can induce similar stress responses. Besides potentially harmful environmental chemicals, healthy lifestyle interventions such as exercise, calorie restriction (especially glucose), cognitive stimulation, and phytochemical intake also activate stress responses. This conceptual link can lead to the development of practical methods that counterbalance the harm of mitochondrial toxins. Unlike chemical hormesis with its safety issues, the activation of stress responses via lifestyle modification can be safely used to combat the negative effects of mitochondrial toxins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dementia , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Homeostasis , Hormesis , Life Style , Metals, Heavy , Mitochondria , Nonlinear Dynamics , Organic Chemicals
19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e256-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infection is associated with high mortality. One of the strategies to reduce the mortality in patients with CRAB infections is to use intravenous colistin early but the effect of this strategy has not been proven. Therefore, we investigated the association of early colistin therapy with 28-day mortality in patients with CRAB bacteremia. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter propensity score-matching analysis was conducted in the Korea by reviewing the medical records of adult patients with CRAB bacteremia between January 2012 and March 2015. Early colistin therapy was defined as intravenous colistin administration for > 48 hours within five days after the blood culture collection. To identify the risk factors associated with the 28-day mortality in CRAB bacteremia, the clinical variables of the surviving patients were compared to those of the deceased patients. RESULTS: Of 303 enrolled patients, seventy-six (25.1%) patients received early colistin therapy. The 28-day mortality was 61.4% (186/303). Fatal or rapidly-fatal McCabe classifications, intensive care unit admission, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores ≥ 8, vasopressor use, and acute kidney injury were statistically independent poor prognostic factors. Catheter-related infection and early colistin therapy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21–0.94) were independent favorable prognostic factors associated with 28-day mortality in patients with CRAB bacteremia. Early colistin therapy was still significantly associated with lower 28-day mortality in the propensity score-matching analysis (aOR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11–0.88). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that early colistin therapy might help reduce the mortality of patients with CRAB bacteremia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Acute Kidney Injury , Bacteremia , Catheter-Related Infections , Classification , Colistin , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Medical Records , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 171-175, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of percutaneous and endonasal lateral osteotomy for the correction of deviated nose.SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Medical records of 60 patients who underwent rhinoplasty to correct deviated nose were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with unilateral osteotomy, revision rhinoplasty, spreader graft, or who had no preoperative or postoperative photos were excluded from the study. The patients were categorized into two groups, which either had C-shaped deviation or I-shaped deviation. Preoperative and postoperative deviation angles were measured and their differences were analyzed according to the approach methods.@*RESULTS@#In the percutaneous approach group, 26 patients had C-shaped deviation and 10 patients had I-shaped deviation, whereas in the endonasal approach group, 17 patients had C-shaped deviation and 7 patients had I-shaped deviation. In the percutaneous approach, the deviation angle was statistically improved in the C-shaped deviation, but in the endonasal approach, it was statistically improved in the C-shaped and I-shaped deviation after surgery. In the C-shaped deviation, the average degrees of improvement of percutaneous and endonasal approach were 5.2°±3.6° and 7.9°±5.3°, respectively, which showed significant difference. However, in the I-shaped deviation, the average degrees of improvement of percutaneous and endonasal approach were 2.9°±1.3° and 2.9°±1.0°, respectively, with no significant difference.@*CONCLUSION@#The improvement of deviation angle following osteotomy may be different according to the approach methods for deviated nose. Endonasal approach was more suitable than percutaneous approach in the correction of I-shaped deviated nose.

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