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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921685

ABSTRACT

To investigate the changes of bile acid(BA) levels in mice with sleep deprivation and the regulatory effect of Jiaotai Pills(JTP) on bile acid metabolism, this study established an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of 23 BAs in mice. A total of 24 ICR mice were randomized into normal group, model group, and JTP group. Mice in the model group and JTP group were deprived of sleep at 20 h·d~(-1) by sleep deprivation apparatus for 8 consecutive days. Mice in the JTP group were given(ig, qd) JTP 3.3 g·kg~(-1) and those in the normal group and model group received(ig) the same volume of purified water. UPLC conditions are as follows: Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), gradient elution with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water-methanol. MS conditions are as below: negative-ion electrospray ionization, multiple reaction monitoring(MRM). Thereby, the content of 23 BAs in serum, liver, and ileum was determined and methodological investigation of the method was performed. The results showed that 23 BAs could be accurately determined within 15 min and the correlation coefficients were all higher than 0.99. The precision, accuracy, specificity, reproducibility, matrix effect, and recovery of BAs all met the requirement. The levels of BAs were significantly increased in the serum, liver, and ileum of sleep-deprived mice, but JTP can significantly reduce the levels. The UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid, and accurate, which can be used for the determination of 23 BAs in biological samples, and JTP can adjust the elevated BA levels of sleep-deprived mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Reproducibility of Results , Sleep , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 821-827, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921285

ABSTRACT

β3-adrenergic agonists induce adaptive thermogenesis and promote beiging of white fat. However, it remains unclear which metabolites mediate the stimulatory effects of β3-adrenergic agonists on thermogenesis of brown and beige fat. In this study, adipose tissue was isolated from 8-week-old C57/BL6J male mice by intraperitoneal administration of β3-adrenergic agonist CL316,243 for RNA-Seq, which revealed that histidine decarboxylase, a key enzyme in histamine synthesis, was strongly induced in adipose by CL316,243. Therefore, we speculated that histamine might be involved in the process of thermogenesis in adipose tissue. We determined the physiological role and mechanism by which histamine promotes fat thermogenesis by intravenous administering histamine to C57BL/6J mice fed a normal or a high-fat diet. The results showed that intravenous injection of histamine into C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet stimulated the expression of thermogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). H&E staining also suggested that histamine treatment decreased the size of lipid droplets in adipocytes. Moreover, histamine treatment also enhanced thermogenesis of fat in high-fat diet induced obese mice, and improved glucose intolerance and fatty liver phenotype. Finally, we demonstrated that the effects of histamine on the thermogenic program were cell autonomous. Our data suggest that histamine may mediate the effects of β3-adrenergic agonists on thermogenesis of fat.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, Beige , Adipose Tissue, Brown , Animals , Histamine , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Thermogenesis , Uncoupling Protein 1/genetics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878962

ABSTRACT

This study is to provide the basis of establishing a quality evaluation system, based on the differences in appearance and internal components of Astragali Radix from different sources. The diameter of 18 batches of Astragali Radix, the content of alcohol(water) extract and 7 kinds of flavonoids were determined. The peak area ratio of flavonoid aglycon to aglycone was calculated. PCA and CA were carried out by synthesizing various indexes. The results of PCA and CA showed that Astragali Radix was obviously clustered into three types. Alcohol extract, formononetin/formosan glycosides,(pilose isoflavones+astragalus flavonoid A)/pilose isoflavone glucoside are the most significant differences in the variable importance projection index(VIP) of Astragali Radix. Combining the diameter, alcohol(water) extract, flavonoid aglycon to aglycone peak area ratio can provide an analysis method for the establishment of the grade evaluation system of Astragali Radix.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glucosides , Glycosides , Plant Roots
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the effect and mechanism of Jiaotai Pill (, JTP) on insomniac rats.@*METHODS@#The insomniac model was established by intraperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). In behavioral experiments, rats were divided into control, insomniac model, JTP [3.3 g/(kg•d)], and diazepam [4 mg/(kg•d)] groups. The treatment effect of JTP was evaluated by weight measurement (increasement of body weight), open field test (number of crossings) and forced swimming test (immobility time). A high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method was built to determine the concentration of monoamine transmitters in hypothalamus and peripheral organs from normal, model, JTP, citalopram [30 mg/(kg•d)], maprotiline [40 mg/(kg•d)] and bupropion [40 mg/(kg•d)] groups. Expressions of serotonin transporter (SERT), dopamine transporter (DAT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot in normal, model and JTP groups. A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was established to determine the pharmacokinetics, urine cumulative excretion of metformin in vivo, and tissue slice uptake in vitro, which were applied to assess the activity of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in hypothalamus and peripheral organs.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the insomniac model group, the body weight and spontaneous locomotor were increased, and the immobility time was decreased after treatment with JTP (P<0.01). Both serotonin and dopamine contents in hypothalamus and peripheral organs were increased (P<0.01). The norepinephrine content was increased in peripheral organs and decreased in hypothalamus (P<0.05 or P<0.01). At the same time, SERT, DAT, OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 were down-regulated in hypothalamus and peripheral organs (P<0.05). NET was down-regulated in peripheral organs and up-regulated in hypothalamus (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, the activity of OCTs in hypothalamus and peripheral organs was inhibited (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#JTP alleviates insomnia through regulation of monoaminergic system and OCTs in hypothalamus and peripheral organs.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873325

ABSTRACT

Objective::To investigate in vivo and in vitro metabolites of coptisine and their metabolic pathways. Method::SD rats were given coptisine by single gavage (dose of 25 mg·kg-1). Urine and feces from 0 h to 48 h, bile from 0 h to 24 h, and plasma and brain tissue samples at 0.25, 1, 2 h after administration were collected.In vitro metabolism was incubated with rat liver microsomes and intestinal flora.The metabolites were analyzed and identified by the high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS technique.The liquid chromatography separation was carried out on ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution as the mobile phase for gradient elution, the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, and column temperature was 25 ℃.The mass spectra were obtained in positive and negative ion mode with electrospray ionization (ESI), the scanning range was m/z 50-1 200.The relative molecular weight was determined according to the quasi-molecular ion peaks.The structures of metabolites were elucidated by comparing the data with literature data, including main ion peaks, UV spectrum and HPLC retention time information. Result::A total of 17 metabolites were identified in each sample, including 11 phase Ⅰ metabolites and 6 phase Ⅱ metabolites.The pathways to these metabolites were hydroxylation, demethylation, dehydrogenation, sulfation and glucuronide conjugation. Conclusion::Coptisine can produce metabolic reaction of phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ in rat, and metabolites are predominantly present in urine, and the main metabolic site is liver.Coptisine is poorly absorbed and rarely metabolized in gastrointestinal tract, so it is mostly excreted through feces by prototype.This experiment can provide material basis for the pharmacodynamics and pharmacology of coptisine.

6.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 570-576, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821827

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThe role of human tumor-related calcium signal transductor 2 (TACSTD2) in promoting tumorigenesis has been noticed recently. We predicted the molecular structure and biological function of TACSTD2 by bioinformatic methods, in order to provide reference for further study of TACSTD2.MethodsThe homo sapiens TACSTD2 mRNA and protein amino acid sequences were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. The bioinformatic methods were used to analyze the open reading frame(ORF) of TACSTD2, physicochemical properties, signal peptide and protein localization, subcellular localization, and prediction of transmembrane structure and secondary structure, tertiary structure, potential protein modification sites, domains, protein modification sites proteins, protein interacting with TACSTD2, biological functions of TACSTD2, and expression of TACSTD2 in human normal tissues and certain tumor types.ResultsAccording to the mRNA sequence of TACSTD2, there are 12 ORFs, and the longest is ORF1, with a total of 972bp, encoding 323 amino acids. The hydrophilic amino acid of TACSTD2 is more than that of hydrophobic amino acid, indicating that TACSTD2 belongs to hydrophilic protein. TACSTD2 is a highly conserved alkaline secreted protein with a transmembrane region both inside and outside the cytoplasm. The presence of nuclear localization signal(NLS) in the amino acid sequence of TACSTD2 suggests that TACSTD2 can locate in cell nucleus. TACSTD2 mainly distribute in cytoplasmic membrane, extracellular, nucleus and cytoplasm. The secondary structure prediction results showed that the main structure of TACSTD2 was random coil, followed by a α helix. TACSTD2 has 15 serine modification sites, 17 threonine modification sites, and 8 tyrosine modification sites. The TACSTD2 has protein interactions with Claudin(CLDN) protein family; and participating in signaling pathway such as cell surface receptor, cell proliferation, negative regulation of epithelial cell migration, and so on. Comparing with normal human tissues, its mRNA expression is up-regulated in most tumor types such as cervical cancer, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, uterine cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer.ConclusionAccording to the analysis of the structure and function of TACSTD2, TACSTD2 is highly-expression in multiple malignancies. It can participate in the process of proliferation, migration and adhesion of malignant tumor cells through cell surface receptor signaling pathways. This study provide reference for the further research about the function of TACSTD2.

7.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 570-576, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821810

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThe role of human tumor-related calcium signal transductor 2 (TACSTD2) in promoting tumorigenesis has been noticed recently. We predicted the molecular structure and biological function of TACSTD2 by bioinformatic methods, in order to provide reference for further study of TACSTD2.MethodsThe homo sapiens TACSTD2 mRNA and protein amino acid sequences were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. The bioinformatic methods were used to analyze the open reading frame(ORF) of TACSTD2, physicochemical properties, signal peptide and protein localization, subcellular localization, and prediction of transmembrane structure and secondary structure, tertiary structure, potential protein modification sites, domains, protein modification sites proteins, protein interacting with TACSTD2, biological functions of TACSTD2, and expression of TACSTD2 in human normal tissues and certain tumor types.ResultsAccording to the mRNA sequence of TACSTD2, there are 12 ORFs, and the longest is ORF1, with a total of 972bp, encoding 323 amino acids. The hydrophilic amino acid of TACSTD2 is more than that of hydrophobic amino acid, indicating that TACSTD2 belongs to hydrophilic protein. TACSTD2 is a highly conserved alkaline secreted protein with a transmembrane region both inside and outside the cytoplasm. The presence of nuclear localization signal(NLS) in the amino acid sequence of TACSTD2 suggests that TACSTD2 can locate in cell nucleus. TACSTD2 mainly distribute in cytoplasmic membrane, extracellular, nucleus and cytoplasm. The secondary structure prediction results showed that the main structure of TACSTD2 was random coil, followed by a α helix. TACSTD2 has 15 serine modification sites, 17 threonine modification sites, and 8 tyrosine modification sites. The TACSTD2 has protein interactions with Claudin(CLDN) protein family; and participating in signaling pathway such as cell surface receptor, cell proliferation, negative regulation of epithelial cell migration, and so on. Comparing with normal human tissues, its mRNA expression is up-regulated in most tumor types such as cervical cancer, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, uterine cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer.ConclusionAccording to the analysis of the structure and function of TACSTD2, TACSTD2 is highly-expression in multiple malignancies. It can participate in the process of proliferation, migration and adhesion of malignant tumor cells through cell surface receptor signaling pathways. This study provide reference for the further research about the function of TACSTD2.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827965

ABSTRACT

To explore the pathogenesis of heart and kidney imbalance insomnia and the regulatory effect of Jiaotai Pills, in order to study the changes of central and peripheral neurotransmitters in rat. Insomnia rats with heart and kidney imbalance were induced through intraperitoneal injection with p-chlorophenylalanine(PCPA, 400 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and the model rats were intragastrically administrated with Jiaotai Pills(3.3 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) for 7 days. Nine neurotransmitters were determined by UPLC-MS/MS and principal component analysis(PCA) method in serum, urine, brain, heart, liver, kidney and adrenal gland of rats. The results showed that the ratio of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in platelet of insomnia rats was significantly lower than that in the normal group, and Jiaotai Pills had a significant up-regulatory or down-regulatory effect. Compared with the normal group, the changed neurotransmitters in blood of insomnia rats were 5-HIAA, E, NE, DA, Glu and ACH, and except ACH, the changes of 7 kinds of neurotransmitters in urine were more significant, Jiaotai Pills had a significant up-regulatory or down-regulatory effect. Compared with the normal group, all of the 8 neurotransmitters in insomnia rats except HVA were changed. Jiaotai Pills could regulate the neurotransmitters in each tissue of insomnia rats, especially in brain, liver and adrenal gland. In conclusion, insomnia is caused by not only a change of neurotransmitters in brain, but also a series of changes in peripheral tissues. It indicates that insomnia is a systematic imbalance of neurotransmitters. Jiaotai Pills not only regulates the central nervous system, but also has a certain protective effect on other organs, reflecting the multi-target and systematic effect of Jiaotai Pills in the treatment of insomnia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Neurotransmitter Agents , Rats , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1461-1466, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Low handgrip strength (HS) and declining gait speed (GS) are increasingly obvious with aging, requiring effective, and safe medication for treatment. Trimetazidine (TMZ) modified release tablets, a common anti-angina drug, has potential benefits for alleviating the condition, but this has not yet been fully studied and therefore is the aim of this study.@*METHODS@#This is a prospective randomized controlled study. Fifty-eight eligible patients will be randomly assigned to one of two study groups: TMZ group or control group. For the TMZ group, a dose of 35 mg of oral TMZ will be administered with a meal twice a day for 3 months, in addition to any conventional treatments for angina. Only conventional treatments for angina will be administrated in the control group. The primary outcome will be the 6-min walking distance and the secondary outcomes will be: muscle strength (HS and pinch strength), GS, muscle endurance (five times sit-to-stand test), balance maintenance (tandem standing test), and the frequency of angina per week. Additionally, body mass index, circumferences (biceps, waist, hip, and calf), albumin levels, and the score on a five-question scale for sarcopenia will be obtained during the study.@*DISCUSSION@#This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of TMZ in a population with poor muscle function. The results may provide an effective and safe medical treatment to people with low muscle strength or physical performance.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1800015000; www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=25445.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angina, Stable , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Trimetazidine , Therapeutic Uses , Vasodilator Agents , Therapeutic Uses
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772943

ABSTRACT

N-methyladenosine (mA), catalyzed by the methyltransferase complex consisting of Mettl3 and Mettl14, is the most abundant RNA modification in mRNAs and participates in diverse biological processes. However, the roles and precise mechanisms of mA modification in regulating neuronal development and adult neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we examined the function of Mettl3, the key component of the complex, in neuronal development and adult neurogenesis of mice. We found that the depletion of Mettl3 significantly reduced mA levels in adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) and inhibited the proliferation of aNSCs. Mettl3 depletion not only inhibited neuronal development and skewed the differentiation of aNSCs more toward glial lineage, but also affected the morphological maturation of newborn neurons in the adult brain. mA immunoprecipitation combined with deep sequencing (MeRIP-seq) revealed that mA was predominantly enriched in transcripts related to neurogenesis and neuronal development. Mechanistically, mA was present on the transcripts of histone methyltransferase Ezh2, and its reduction upon Mettl3 knockdown decreased both Ezh2 protein expression and consequent H3K27me3 levels. The defects of neurogenesis and neuronal development induced by Mettl3 depletion could be rescued by Ezh2 overexpression. Collectively, our results uncover a crosstalk between RNA and histone modifications and indicate that Mettl3-mediated mA modification plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and neuronal development through modulating Ezh2.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Metabolism , Adult Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Animals , Brain , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Genetics , Cell Proliferation , Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Protein , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Methyltransferases , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neural Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Neurogenesis , Genetics , Neurons , Cell Biology , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1461-1466, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799963

ABSTRACT

Background@#Low handgrip strength (HS) and declining gait speed (GS) are increasingly obvious with aging, requiring effective, and safe medication for treatment. Trimetazidine (TMZ) modified release tablets, a common anti-angina drug, has potential benefits for alleviating the condition, but this has not yet been fully studied and therefore is the aim of this study.@*Methods@#This is a prospective randomized controlled study. Fifty-eight eligible patients will be randomly assigned to one of two study groups: TMZ group or control group. For the TMZ group, a dose of 35 mg of oral TMZ will be administered with a meal twice a day for 3 months, in addition to any conventional treatments for angina. Only conventional treatments for angina will be administrated in the control group. The primary outcome will be the 6-min walking distance and the secondary outcomes will be: muscle strength (HS and pinch strength), GS, muscle endurance (five times sit-to-stand test), balance maintenance (tandem standing test), and the frequency of angina per week. Additionally, body mass index, circumferences (biceps, waist, hip, and calf), albumin levels, and the score on a five-question scale for sarcopenia will be obtained during the study.@*Discussion@#This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of TMZ in a population with poor muscle function. The results may provide an effective and safe medical treatment to people with low muscle strength or physical performance.@*Trial registration@#Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1800015000; www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=25445.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-701581

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare diagnostic value of four fungal scoring methods in invasive Candida infection,provide evidence for early diagnosis and treatment of invasive Candida infection.Methods High-risk patients with invasive Candida infection in the intensive care unit(ICU) in a hospital from 2011 to 2016 were analyzed retrospectively.According to diagnostic criteria,patients were divided into four groups:non-infection group,suspected infection group,clinically diagnosed group,and confirmed group,patients were conducted multi-diseases risk assessment (MDRA) score,invasive fungal infections risk scoring system (IFIRSS) score,Sevilla score,and Candida score,diagnostic value of four scoring methods for invasive Candida infection were evaluated.Results There were 275 high-risk patients,138 in non-infection group,63 in suspected infection group,and 74 in infection group(clinically diagnosed group:n =64;confirmed group:n =10).The age and length of hospital stay in the infection group were all higher than non-infection group (both P<0.05).74 strains of Candida were isolated from 74 infected patients,mainly Candida albicans (n =60,81.1%).Positive rates for MDRA score,Candida score,Sevilla score,and IFIRSSscore were 41.5%(n =114),30.2%(n =83),15.3%(n =42),and 8.4% (n =23) respectively.Of four MDRA scoring methods,MDRA had the higher sensitivity(Se,59%) but lowest specificity(Sp,66%);IFIRSS had higher Sp(91%) but very low Se (9%);Sevilla score had the highest Sp (96%)and higher Se(45%);Candida score had the highest Se(68%) and higher Sp (90%).Conclusion Sevilla score has higher Se and Sp,which can be used in early diagnosis of invasive Candida infection;Candida score has the highest coincidence with clinical diagnostic criteria for invasive Candida infection,both Se and Sp are high,which is of great value for early diagnosis of invasive Candida infection.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-660512

ABSTRACT

Objective · To explore the association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level and peripheral nerve demyelination in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Methods · Clinical and biochemical data of 86 patients with GBS were retrospectively analyzed. According to electromyograms examination of peripheral nerve, GBS patients were divided into group with demyelination and group with axonal degeneration, and their clinical and biochemical characteristics were compared between the two groups. The correlation between CSF protein level and peripheral nerve demyelination was assessed by Spearman's correlation analysis. Results · Between the group with demyelination and group with axonal degeneration,there was no significant difference in gender, age, Hughes score, respiratory infection, gastrointestinal infection, erythra, ganglioside sodium injection and immunoglobulin G (IgG) index (P>0.05). Significant higher level of CSF protein, CSF albumin/serum albumin, IgG, and 24 h IgG intrathecal synthesis rate were detected in group with demyelination than that of in group with axonal degeneration (P<0.01). CSF protein level was positively correlated with peripheral nerve demyelination (r=0.345, P=0.001). Conclusion · The incidence of peripheral nerve demyelination increased accompanied with CSF protein level, and analysis of CSF protein level may be helpful in investigating the immunologic mechanism of peripheral nerve demyelination in GBS patients.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-657942

ABSTRACT

Objective · To explore the association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level and peripheral nerve demyelination in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Methods · Clinical and biochemical data of 86 patients with GBS were retrospectively analyzed. According to electromyograms examination of peripheral nerve, GBS patients were divided into group with demyelination and group with axonal degeneration, and their clinical and biochemical characteristics were compared between the two groups. The correlation between CSF protein level and peripheral nerve demyelination was assessed by Spearman's correlation analysis. Results · Between the group with demyelination and group with axonal degeneration,there was no significant difference in gender, age, Hughes score, respiratory infection, gastrointestinal infection, erythra, ganglioside sodium injection and immunoglobulin G (IgG) index (P>0.05). Significant higher level of CSF protein, CSF albumin/serum albumin, IgG, and 24 h IgG intrathecal synthesis rate were detected in group with demyelination than that of in group with axonal degeneration (P<0.01). CSF protein level was positively correlated with peripheral nerve demyelination (r=0.345, P=0.001). Conclusion · The incidence of peripheral nerve demyelination increased accompanied with CSF protein level, and analysis of CSF protein level may be helpful in investigating the immunologic mechanism of peripheral nerve demyelination in GBS patients.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275464

ABSTRACT

To compare the amino acid metabolic profiling in urine of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normal Wistar rats, and investigate the regulatory effect of extract from Coreopsis tinctoria on blood pressure and amino acid metabolic profiling in SHR. Right aged SHR and Wistar rats were housed to fit the new environment for 2 weeks. After that, their systolic pressure(SBP), diastolic pressure(DBP) were measured and urine was collected. Amino acids profiles for SHR and Wistar rats were acquired by using AQC precolumn derivatization HPLC-fluorescence method, and then partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) was applied to facilitate differentiation and determine metabolic differences between collected samples from two groups of rats. Consequently, 40 SHR were randomly divided into 5 groups: model group, high, middle, low dosage groups of C. tinctoria extract (3.2, 1.6,0.8 g•kg⁻¹), and captopril group (4 mg•kg⁻¹). They were treated for 4 weeks by ig administration, and then their urine samples were collected to determine the amino acid metabolic profiling in various groups. After treatment for 4 weeks, as compared with Wistar group, serine, alanine, tyrosine, and cystine in the amino acid metabolic profiling were significantly increased in SHR group. As compared with SHR model group, threonine and methionine were decreased significantly in captopril group (P<0.01); amino acid metabolism was changed to different degrees in high, middle, and low dosage groups of C. tinctoria extract, and the threonine in low dose group was significantly decreased (P<0.01); serine and threonine were decreased (P<0.05), and valine, methionine and lysine were significantly decreased (P<0.01) in middle dose group; threonine, valine, methionine and lysine were significantly decreased in large dose group (P<0.01). The results showed that middle and high doses of extract from C. tinctoria could significantly improve disturbance of amino acid metabolism, help to further clarify the drug property research of C. tinctoria, and provide data support for amino acid metabolic pathway abnormalities in hypertension patients.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335814

ABSTRACT

To explore the possible mechanism of liver injury, the effects of Ploygoni Multiflori Caulis and its extractive on the function of bilirubin-associated transporters were investigated in normal (N) and idiosyncratic (LPS) rats (M). The normal and LPS rats were respectively administrated powder of Ploygoni Multiflori Caulis, its extractive and same volume of 0.5% CMC-Na solution for 7 d. BSP, a substrate of the transporters of Oatp1a1 and Oatp1b2 was selected, and its pharmacokinetic parameters of intravenous injection were determined to examined the activity these transporters. Meanwhile the mRNA expressions of transporters were detected. Compared with N-blank control group, besides M-powder group, the Cmax has no significantly different from other groups, t1/2, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were significantly increased, and CL were significantly decreased. However, compared with N- blank control group, AST and ALT decreased significantly. The expression of Oatp1a1, Oatp1b2 and MRP2 mRNA was significantly decreased (P<0.05), but there was no act synergistically when Ploygoni Multiflori Caulis and extractive were combined with LPS. The function of Oatp1a1, Oatp1b2 and MRP2 in rats were significantly inhibited by Ploygoni Multiflori Caulis and extractive, which may be an important cause of hepatotoxicity.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272678

ABSTRACT

To study the hepatotoxicity of emodin based on bilirubin metabolism mediated by glucuronidation of UGT1A1 enzyme. In this study, three different incubation systems were established by using RLM, HLM, and rUGT1A1, with bilirubin as the substrate. Different concentrations of bilirubin and emodin were added in the incubation systems. The double reciprocal Michaelis equation was drawn based on the total amount of bilirubin glucuronidation. The apparent inhibition constant Ki was then calculated with the slope curve to predict the hepatotoxicity. The results indicated that emodin had a significant inhibition to the UGT1A1 enzyme in all of the three systems, with Ki=5.400±0.956(P<0.05) in HLM system, Ki =10.020±0.611(P<0.05) in RLM system, Ki=4.850±0.528(P<0.05) in rUGT1A1 system. Meanwhile, emodin had no significant difference between rat and human in terms of inhibition of UGT1A1 enzyme. Emodin had a potential risk of the hepatotoxicity by inhibiting the UGT1A1 enzyme activity. And the method established in this study provides a new thought and new method to evaluate hepatotoxicity and safety of traditional Chinese medicines.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230129

ABSTRACT

To predit the mechanism of metabolic drug-drug interactions of hydroxygenkwanin with other drugs, we investigated the inhibition inhibitory effect of hydroxygenkwanin on UGTs and UGT1A1 activities of different liver microsomes. In the present study, 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and β-estradiol were elected as substrates to determine activities of UGTs and UGT1A1 by UV and HPLC, respectively. The results showed that, hydroxygenkwanin significantly inhibited UGTs activity in rat, mouse and human liver microsomes. UGT1A1 activity was inhibited by hydroxygenkwanin to varying degrees, with IC₅₀ about 190, 10.93, 20.07, 76.31 μmol•L⁻¹ in mouse liver microsome(MLM), rat liver microsome (RLM) and recombinant UGT1A1, and human liver microsome (HLM), respectively. The inhibition types were competitive inhibition (RLM, HLM) and linear mixed-typed linear inhibition (recombinant UGT1A1). The order for the inhibitory intensity was RLM>rUGT1A1>HLM>MLM. In conclusion, hydroxygenkwanin has an inhibitory effect on UGTs and UGT1A1 activities of different liver microsomes, with differences in species, indicating its potential drug interactions based on UGT1A1 enzyme. This study aims to provide a reliable experimental basis for its further research and development of hydroxygenkwanin, and provide theoretical reference for the clinic drug combination research.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307161

ABSTRACT

To predict the mechanism of liver injury induced by Genkwa Flos, we investigated the effect of chloroform extract on UGTs and UGT1A1 activities of the liver microsomes in rat and human. In the present study, 4-nitrophenol(4-NP) and β-estradiol were elected as substrates to determine activities of UGTs and UGT1A1 by UV and HPLC. The results showed that there were 1.00% of apigenin, 6.40% of hydroxygenkwanin and 18.38% of genkwanin in chloroform extract; and total diterpene mass fraction was 31.40%. Compared with the control group, chloroform extract could significantly inhibit the activity of UGTs in rat liver microsomes(RLM) system, while the inhibitory effect was not obvious in human liver microsomes(HLM) system. UGT1A1 activity was inhibited by chloroform extract in rat liver microsomes and human liver microsomes (based on genkwanin, IC₅₀=8.76, 10.36 μmol•L⁻¹). The inhibition types were non-competitive inhibition(RLM) and uncompetitive inhibition(HLM). In conclusion, the results indicated that chloroform extract showed different inhibitory effects on UGTs and UGT1A1 activity, which may be one of the mechanisms of liver injury induced by Genkwa Flos.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304855

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the effects of six Coptidis alkaloids (berberine, epiberberine, coptisine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and magnoflorine) on liver microsomes UGTs and UGT1A1 activities in rats and mice were investigated in vitro and in vivo to study the mechanism of metabolic drug-drug interactions of Coptidis Rhizoma with other drugs. In vitro rat and mice liver microsomal incubation systems combined with UDPGA were applied, as well as mice liver microsomes after administration of six Coptidis alkaloids. 4-Nitrophenol and β-estradiol were selected as substrates to determine activities of UGTs and UGT1A1 by UV and HPLC, respectively. According to the in vitro rat study, berberine, epiberberine, coptisine and jatrorrhizine significantly inhibited rat liver microsome UGTs activity, particularly epiberberine showed the strongest inhibition. UGT1A1 activity was lowly inhibited by jatrorrhizine, with IC₅₀ at about 227 μmol•L⁻¹, whereas coptisine and magnoflorine significantly activated UGT1A1. According to the in vitro mice study, berberine, coptisine, jatrorrhizine and palmatine significantly inhibited mice liver microsome UGTs activity, and the six alkaloids all significantly activated UGT1A1. According to the in vivo mice study, UGTs activity was significantly activated only in berberine group, while UGT1A1 activity was significantly activated only in jatrorrhizine group. In conclusion, the effects of Coptidis alkaloids on UGT activity showed significant differences in species and between in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, the changes in structures of Coptidis alkaloids also have a big impact on UGT activity, which may be one of the causes for the drug-drug interactions between Coptidis Rhizoma and other drugs.

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