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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880558

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Using network pharmacology to explore the mechanism of the 'invigorating qi and promoting blood circulation' drug pair Ginseng-Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) on treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD).@*METHODS@#The chemical constituents of ginseng and Danshen drug pair were identified by searching the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and the potential targets of the pair were identified. The pharmacodynamics of the pair was analyzed using network pharmacology. The targets of IHD were identified by database screening. Using protein-protein interaction network, the interaction targets of Ginseng-Danshen on IHD were constructed. A "constituent-target-disease" interaction network was constructed using Cytoscape software, Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis and biological pathway enrichment analysis were carried out, and the mechanism of improving myocardial ischemia by the Ginseng-Danshen drug pair was investigated.@*RESULTS@#Seventeen active constituents and 53 targets were identified from ginseng, 53 active constituents and 61 targets were identified from Danshen, and 32 protein targets were shared by ginseng and Danshen. Twenty GO terms were analyzed, including cytokine receptor binding, cytokine activity, heme binding, and antioxidant activity. Sixty Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathways were analyzed, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-serine-threonine kinase (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, interleukin 17 signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, and the advanced glycation end product (AGE)-the receptor for AGE (RAGE) signaling pathway in diabetic complications.@*CONCLUSION@#The specific mechanism of Ginseng-Danshen drug pair in treating IHD may be associated with improving the changes of metabolites inbody, inhibiting the production of peroxides, removing the endogenous oxygen free radicals, regulating the expression of inflammatory factors, reducing myocardial cell apoptosis and promoting vascular regeneration.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873191

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Shuangshen Ningxin capsule in alleviating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats by regulating mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate(ATP)-sensitive potassium channels.Method:A total of 56 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated control group (sham), model group (model), Shuangshen Ningxin group (SSNX, 90 mg·kg-1).Shuangshen Ningxin and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (MitoKATP) channel inhibitor group 5-hydroxyl-acid group (SSNX+5-HD, 5 mg·kg-1), with 14 rats in each group. Except the sham operation group, the other three groups received occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 45 min, and were sacrificed 3 h after reperfusion. Myocardial ischemia and infarct size were observed by TSC Evans blue staining, and myocardial tissue damage degree was observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The kit was used to measure serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB). The ultrastructural changes of mitochondria and mitochondrial autophagy were observed under transmission electron microscope. The changes of mitochondrial membrane potential in cardiomyocytes were detected by fluorescent probe.Result:Compared with the sham group, myocardial infarct size and myocardial ischemic area percentage in the model group were significantly increased, myocardial tissue arrangement was disordered and loose, individual myocardial fibers were broken, cardiomyocytes were necrotic, and serum CK, CK-MB, LDH activities were significantly increased (P<0.01). Mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased (P<0.01), and mitochondrial structure was destroyed by transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the model group, the myocardial tissue of the SSNX group was arranged orderly, and a small amount of cell edema was mildly degenerated. The percentage of myocardial infarct size and myocardial ischemic area was significantly decreased, serum CK, CK-MB, and LDH activities were significantly decreased (P<0.01), while mitochondrial membrane potential increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the SSNX+5-HD group had mild myocardial tissue disorder and mild degeneration of cell edema in some areas, the percentage of myocardial infarct size and myocardial ischemic area was significantly reduced, serum CK, CK-MB, and LDH activities were significantly decreased (P<0.01), and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (P<0.01). Compared with SSNX group, SSNX+5-HD group had significant increase in serum CK, CK-MB and LDH activities (P<0.01), significant increase in the percentage of myocardial infarct size and myocardial ischemic area, and mitochondrial membrane potential Reduced (P<0.05).Conclusion:SSNX protects rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by opening mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828385

ABSTRACT

Ischemic heart disease(IHD) is a common and frequently-occurring disease that causes serious harm to human health. Autophagy is a life process that maintains cell homeostasis by degrading macromolecules such as damaged organelles in cells. In the process of ischemic heart disease development, on the one hand, cardiomyocytes degrade macromolecules such as damaged organelles by autophagy to provide material basis for energy synthesis and maintain cell homeostasis; on the other hand, over-activated autophagy can also increase cardiomyocyte death. Ischemic heart disease has a complex pathological mechanism, and the occurrence of autophagy is closely related to the survival or death of myocardial cells, so the regulation of autophagy may be an important therapeutic target for ischemic heart disease. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) with obvious effects, unique advantages and great potential has been widely used in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. In recent years, more and more studies have found that TCM can protect myocardium by regulating autophagy of cardiomyocytes. In this review, we summarized recent studies on the regulation of autophagy in myocardial cells by traditional Chinese medicine in ischemic heart disease. The pharmacological mechanism of Chinese medicinein regulating autophagy to protect cardiomyocytes was reviewed through different ways(promoting or inhibiting autophagy) from three levels, i.e. active ingredient, as well as drug pair and compound. The specific mechanism of Chinese medicine in regulating autophagy to protect ischemic heart disease was explored to provide references or new ideas for clinical treatment and drug development of ischemic heart disease.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myocardial Ischemia , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828061

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate whether the mechanism of salvianolic acid B in protecting H9 c2 cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury is related to the regulation of mitochondrial autophagy mediated by NIX. H9 c2 cardiomyocytes were cultured in vitro and divided into normal group, model group and salvianolic acid B group(50 μmol·L~(-1)). Hypoxia/reoxygenation injury model was established by hypoxia for 4 h and reoxygenation for 2 h. In normal group, high glucose DMEM medium was used for culture. Those in model group were cultured with DMEM medium without glucose and oxygen, and no drugs for hypoxia and reoxyge-nation. In salvianolic acid B group, salvianolic acid B prepared by glucose-free DMEM medium was added during hypoxia, and the other process was as same as the model group. The cell viability was evaluated by CCK-8 assay. The leakage of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) was detected by microplate method. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species(ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential(ΔΨm) were measured by chemical fluorescence method. The level of intracellular adenosine triphosphate(ATP) was mea-sured by fluorescein enzyme method. The autophagy related proteins LC3-Ⅰ, LC3-Ⅱ, apoptosis related protein cleaved caspase-3 and mitochondrial autophagy receptor protein NIX were detected by Western blot. As compared with the normal group, the activity of H9 c2 cardiomyocytes and ATP level were decreased(P<0.05); LDH leakage and ROS production were increased(P<0.01); ΔΨm was decreased(P<0.01); LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ ratio, cleaved caspase-3 and NIX protein expression levels were increased(all P<0.05) in the model group. As compared with the model group, the activity of cells and ΔΨm were significantly increased(P<0.01); ATP level was increased(P<0.05); LDH leakage and ROS generation were decreased(P<0.01); LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ ratio was decreased(P<0.01); cleaved caspase-3 and NIX expression levels were decreased(P<0.05) in the salvianolic acid B group. The protective effect of salvianolic acid B on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury of H9 c2 cardiomyocytes may be associated with inhibiting mitochondrial auto-phagy. The specific mechanism may be related to inhibiting the activation of mitochondrial autophagy mediated by NIX, increasing ΔΨm, reducing ROS production, reducing the expression of cleaved caspase-3, LC3-Ⅱ, and increasing cell viability.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Benzofurans , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Survival , Humans , Hypoxia , Myocytes, Cardiac
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827532

ABSTRACT

The minimum amount of tooth preparation that can be fully controlled is crucial in achieving long-term, stable, and effective aesthetic restoration, which is also a major difficulty in aesthetic restoration. The tooth preparation can be imple-mented efficiently and accurately through digital technology based on the fixed-deep hole guiding technology. Prior the actual tooth preparation, the technology first designs the virtual contour, layering, and virtual occlusion of the prosthesis on the computer. Then, virtual tooth preparation is carried out by cutting back according to the virtual prosthesis. Next, the virtual drilling operation plan is designed according to the shape of the virtual tooth preparation and the contour of the abutment tooth. Finally, the tooth preparation guide plate is designed and printed in 3D. It realizes the whole process of quantitative and precise guidance of dental preparation, visualizes the restoration space, reduces the clinical operation time, and guarantees the quality of dental preparation. It also promotes the improvement of the teaching quality of digital practical exercises.


Subject(s)
Bone Plates , Esthetics, Dental , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Tooth , Tooth Preparation
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802212

ABSTRACT

Objective:To design and synthesize series of rotundic acid derivatives by introducing aromatic ester groups with rotundic acid as the parent nucleus, test their anti-tumor activity in vitro,investigate the structure-activity relationship of rotundic acid derivatives in inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, and obtain the novel rotundic acid derivatives with high anti-tumor activity. Method:Compounds 1-8 were synthesized with rotundic acid as the initial raw material through the 28-etherification,3β and 23di-aromatic esterification eaction. The anti-tumor activities in vitro were evaluated by MTT assay against A375 (human malignant melanoma cells),HeLa (human cervical cancer cells),SPC-A1 (human lung adenocarcinoma cells),and HepG2 (human liver cancer cells). Result:Compounds 2-8 were new compounds. Their structures were identified by melting point (MP),high resolution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS),1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C-NMR). MTT results showed that compounds 3,5 and 8 exhibited significant anti-tumor activity, especially compound 5 was found to have the best inhibition activity on HeLa,A375, HepG2 and SPC-A1 with IC50 values of (5.25±1.08),(5.99±0.88),(3.31±1.89),(5.74±1.78) μmol·L-1, 1.92,3.22,3.79, 3.72 times of that of rotundic acid,respectively. Conclusion:Compound 5 has significant anti-tumor activity with great significance for further research and development of new anti-tumor medicines.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802054

ABSTRACT

Ischemic heart disease is one of the most deadly diseases in the world, and new therapies and preventive measures are urgently needed. In general, cardiomyocytes rely on adenosine triphosphate(ATP) produced by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to maintain their systolic and ion pump functions. Autophagy is a procedural degradation mechanism widely present in eukaryotic cells. It is a self-defense mechanism and self-repair process of the body tissues. It is also a way of apoptosis and a basic phenomenon to maintain the energy balance of human cells. Mitochondrial autophagy is a type of selective autophagy in cells. In fact, damaged mitochondria selectively remove damaged proteins and organelles with autophagy to maintain intracellular homeostasis. Mitochondrial autophagy is important for maintaining the homeostasis of cardiomyocytes. With the deepening of modern biological research, more and more traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) or their extracts have been proven to alleviate myocardial cell damage after ischemia/reperfusion through autophagy or regulation of mitochondrial function. This further inspires TCM workers to find effective treatment measures by targeting mitochondria. Under the above background, this paper reviews the effects of mitochondrial autophagy on ischemic heart disease and the intervention studies of TCM in this field.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801876

ABSTRACT

Objective:Echinocystic acid(EA)is a kind of oleanolic pentacyclic triterpenoid compound,due to its main structural features of stability and less active sites,the structures of EA were modified in this paper to synthesize a series of EA derivatives, improve their bioavailability, and investigate their inhibitory effect on lipase. Method:In this study,EA derivatives were designed and synthesized from EA,which is a natural lipase inhibitor. Their inhibitory effects on lipase were tested by using 2,4-dinitrophenyl butanoate(PNPB) method. Result:Nine compounds were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by infrared spectrum (IR), ultraviolet spectrum (UV), mass spectrum (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1H-NMR and 13 C-NMR),all of which were identified as new compounds. Further experiments on the inhibitory effect on lipase showed that compounds 1-9 had higher inhibitory effects than EA,IC50=7.03,2.05,2.14,3.65,3.24,0.28,0.34,0.46,and 0.39 g·L-1. Compounds 6-9 had higher inhibitory effect than Orlistat(IC50=0.53 g·L-1). Inhibition rates were as follows:6 > 7 > 9 > 8 > Orlistat> 2 > 3 > 5 > 4 > 1 >EA. Conclusion:It is feasible to design and synthesize derivatives with EA as the lead compound to improve the inhibitory effect on lipase.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801732

ABSTRACT

Objective:To prepare Lycii Fructus polysaccharide buccal tablets and investigate its immunomodulatory effect. Method:Taking the appearance, taste, hardness and disintegration time of the tablets as comprehensive evaluation index, based on single factor tests, central composite design-response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the prescription of Lycii Fructus polysaccharide buccal tablets with mass ratio of dextrin to mannitol, mass ratio of cyclamate to malic acid and dosage of sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) as factors. Kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely the Lycii Fructus polysaccharide buccal tablets low (100 mg·kg-1·d-1), medium (200 mg·kg-1·d-1) and high (300 mg·kg-1·d-1) dose groups, the normal group (0.9% normal saline, 300 mg·kg-1·d-1) and the positive medicine group (Cinengsu group, 300 mg·kg-1·d-1). The immunomodulatory effect of the buccal tablets were investigated by calculating immune organ index, monocyte-macrophage phagocytic index, serum hemolysin antibody level, and the voix pedis thickness difference of delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) of mice. Result:Optimal prescription for the buccal tablets was 80% of Lycii Fructus extract, 11.5% of dextrin-mannitol (1.2:1), 1% of cyclamate-malic acid (1:1), 0.5% of cream essence, 6.5% of CMS-Na, 0.5% of magnesium stearate, and appropriate amount of 80% ethanol. Under the optimal condition, the hardness of the buccal tablets was 11.83 kg, its disintegration time was 13.21 min, both of which were in line with the relevant provisions of the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the buccal tablets had good appearance and taste. Compared with the normal group, medium and high dose groups of Lycii Fructus polysaccharide buccal tablets significantly increased thymus index, spleen index and phagocytic index of mice (PPPPPConclusion:The formulation process of the buccal tablets optimized by central composite design-response surface methodology is stable and feasible, and Lycii Fructus polysaccharide buccal tablets can improve the immune regulation function of normal mice, and this study can provide experimental basis for the development, utilization and clinical application of Lycii Fructus and Lycii Fructus polysaccharides.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772670

ABSTRACT

Tooth preparation is the primary and core operation technique for dental esthetic restoration treatment, due to its effect of providing restoration space, bonding interfaces and marginal lines for dental rehabilitation after tooth tissue reduction. The concept of microscopic minimal invasive dentistry put forward the issue of conducting high-quality tooth preparation, conserve tooth-structure, protect vital pulp and periodontal tissue simultaneously. This study reviewed the concepts, physiology background, design and minimal invasive microscopic tooth preparation, and in the meantime, individualized strategies and the two core elements of tooth preparation (quantity and shape) are listed.


Subject(s)
Dental Porcelain , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Esthetics, Dental , Tooth Preparation
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the risk factors for brain injury in preterm infants by a multicenter epidemiological investigation of brain injury in hospitalized preterm infants in Anhui, China.@*METHODS@#Preterm infants who were hospitalized in the department of neonatology in 9 hospitals of Anhui Neonatal Collaboration Network between January 2016 and January 2017 were enrolled as subjects. The data of maternal pregnancy and clinical data of preterm infants were collected, and the logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors for brain injury in preterm infants.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3 378 preterm infants were enrolled. Of the 3 378 preterm infants, 798 (23.56%) had periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (PVH-IVH), and 88 (2.60%) had periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Intrauterine distress, anemia, hypoglycemia and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) were risk factors for PVH-IVH (OR=1.310, 1.591, 1.835, and 3.310 respectively; P<0.05), while a higher gestational age was a protective factor against PVH-IVH (OR=0.671, P<0.05). PVH-IVH, NEC and mechanical ventilation were risk factors for PVL (OR=4.017, 3.018, and 2.166 respectively; P<0.05), and female sex and use of pulmonary surfactant were protective factors against PVL (OR=0.514 and 0.418 respectively; P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Asphyxia/anoxia, infection/inflammation, mechanical ventilation, anemia and hypoglycemia may increase the risk of brain injury in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Cerebral Hemorrhage , China , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Leukomalacia, Periventricular
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773225

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the mechanism of safflower yellow injection for regulating inflammatory response against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury( MIRI) in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation group,model group,Hebeishuang group,safflower yellow injection high,medium and low dose groups. MIRI model was established by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed by HE staining; myocardial infarct size was detected by TTC staining; content and changes of tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α) and interleukin-6( IL-6),serum creatine kinase( CK),aspartate aminotransferase( AST),and lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) were detected by biochemical method or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA). Western blot assay was used to detect the protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4( TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB( NF-κB p65) in myocardial tissues. The results showed that as compared with the sham operation group,the myocardial arrangement of the model group was disordered,with severe edemain the interstitial,significantly increased area of myocardial infarction,increased activities of AST,CK and LDH in serum,and significantly increased contents of TNF-α and IL-6; the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB( p65) protein in myocardial tissues were also increased. As compared with the model group,the myocardial tissues were arranged neatlyin the Hebeishuang group and safflower yellow injection high,medium and low dose groups; the edema was significantly reduced; the myocardial infarct size was significantly reduced; the serum AST,CK,LDH activity and TNF-α,IL-6 levels were significantly decreased,and the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB( p65) protein in myocardial tissues were decreased. As compared with the Hebeishuang group,the myocardial infarct size was larger in the safflower yellow injection high,medium and low dose groups; the activities of AST,CK and LDH in serum and the contents of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum were higher,but there was no statistically significant difference in the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB( p65) protein in tissues. It is suggested that safflower yellow injection has a significant anti-MIRI effect,and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of TLR-NF-κB pathway to inhibit inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Chalcone , Pharmacology , Creatine Kinase , Blood , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Blood , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772441

ABSTRACT

3D printing technology can be used in prosthodontics to obtain detailed structures. The technique offers a possible supersession for the most conventional restorations technologies. Contemporary aesthetic restorations encounter difficulties in the consistency between the analysis and design stages and the clinical implementation stage. 3D printing transfers aesthetic designs to customize the finial restoration fabrication, which could be an appropriate optimization to the aformentioned problem. Meanwhile, 3D printing technology can be employed to manufacture target restoration space guide (TRS guide), which is a blueprint for the aesthetic ceramic restorations and presents a general functional and aesthetic situation of patients. The guidance provided by TRS guide ensures precision and minimal invasive operation in aesthetic restorations. These new digital technologies have revolutionized aesthetic rehabilitation. This paper introduces the application of 3D printing in aesthetic oral rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Ceramics , Esthetics, Dental , Humans , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Prosthodontics
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 107-113, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237016

ABSTRACT

An efficient system of genetic transformation and plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was established in crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.) by infecting the segments of cotyledons and hypocotyls of 15d-old seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834. Hairy roots were produced directly from the wounded surface of the explants or via calluses on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium after infection by A. rhizogenes. Transformed roots grew rapidly either on solid or liquid MS medium, and exhibited typical hairy root phenotypes. The highest transformation frequency (87.4%) was achieved by preculturing cotyledons for 2d and pre-treating the A. rhizogenes with suitable concentration of acetosyringone at logarithmic phase (OD600 = 0.8). The embryogenic calluses with 100% induction frequency were induced from hairy roots on MS medium containing 0.2mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5mg/L NAA and 0.5mg/L KT. Globular-, heart-, torpedo-, and cotyledon shaped somatic embryos were produced orderly and developed into plantlets when transferred the embryogenic calluses on MS medium supplemented with 0.5mg/L KT, 0.2mg/L IBA and 300mg/L proline. The transformed plants did not show differences in morphology except abundant lateral root branches compared to the non-transformed plants. However, the contents of 3-nitropropanic acid in hairy roots and leaves of one of 5 transformed clones were 57.68% and 58.17% in roots and leaves of untransformed plants, respectively. Opine paper electrophoresis revealed the integration and expression of TR-DNA. PCR analysis confirmed that the TL-DNA including 654 bp rol B sequence was inserted into the genome of transformed hairy roots and their regenerated plants.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae , Genetics , Physiology , Plant Roots , Genetics , Physiology , Plants, Genetically Modified , Genetics , Regeneration , Rhizobium , Genetics , Tissue Culture Techniques , Transformation, Genetic
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