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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 441-445, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922937

ABSTRACT

Four triterpenoids were isolated and purified from the 95% ethanol extract of Maytenus guangxiensis by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, MCI column chromatography and preparative RP-HPLC. Their structures were determined from their physicochemical properties and spectral data. They were identified as maytguanone A (1), maytguanone B (2), 11α-methoxyurs-12-ene-1β,3β-diol (3), lup-20(29)-ene-3β,11α-diol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 are new triterpenoids, along with compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from M. guangxiensis for the first time. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1, 3 and 4 was evaluated using the MTT procedure with three cancer cell lines. The results show that compound 3 displayed good inhibitory effects against HeLa, with an IC50 of 10.68 μmol·L-1.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935295

ABSTRACT

To explore the protective immune effect induced by mucosal delivery heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA)-a candidate vaccine antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Female C57BL/6 mice were between 6 and 8 weeks of age before experimental use. Thirty mice received different immunization strategies and were randomly divided into the control group, the early secreting antigen target-6 (ESAT-6) intranasal immunization group, the HBHA intranasal immunization group, the BCG priming PBS control group, or BCG priming HBHA boost group, 6 mice in each group. In order to analyzed the immune effect, the concentrations of plasma Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and other cytokines were measured by ELISA. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed to detect the relative quantity (RQ) mRNA of IL-17A in the lung. The lung tissue sections were stained to detect the formation of the tertiary lymphoid structures. The chemokines contributed to formation of the tertiary lymphoid structures were also measured. Flow cytometry was used to detect the frequency of Th1 and Th17 cells in the system. Sixty mice in the BCG priming PBS control group and the BCG priming HBHA boost group were sacrificed at different time points after infection to count the lung bacterial burden. The concentrations of plasma IL-17A and relative quantity of lung IL-17A mRNA were highest in the BCG priming HBHA boost group [(14.76±4.73) pg/mL,RQ (12.27±6.71)], which was significantly higher than the control group [(5.57±2.95) pg/mL,RQ (1.30±0.97)] (t=4.213, P<0.001; t=5.984, P<0.001), and also significantly higher than the BCG priming PBS control group [(6.81±2.18) pg/mL,RQ (1.44±1.16)] (t=3.646 P=0.001; t=6.185 P<0.001). Compared with the BCG priming PBS control group (0.38±0.38)% the frequency of spleen Th17 cells were also significantly increased (t=-0.280 , P=0.048) in the BCG-primary HBHA boost group (1.02±0.34)%. In addition, HBHA boosting could promote better formation of the tertiary lymphoid structures in the lung, and decrease the bacterial load on the early stage after BCG challenge. Collectively, mucosal delivery of HBHA can effectively enhance the protective effect after BCG vaccination, and it is a potential candidate vaccine component.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Bacterial , Bacterial Proteins , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Interleukin-17 , Lectins , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis Vaccines
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 347-353, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935219

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influence of HBsAg expression in peritumoral tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients on their postoperative recurrence. Methods: The HCC patients treated in Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from October 2009 to August 2010 were selected. The clinicopathological data and adjacent tissues of 718 patients were collected, and dextran polymer immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of HBsAg in adjacent tissues. According to the expression of HBsAg in adjacent tissues, the tissues were divided into HBsAg positive group and HBsAg negative group. Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test were used for survival analysis, and Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Among the 718 patients in the whole group, 153 were HBsAg negative and 565 were HBsAg positive. There was a statistically significant difference in serum HBV DNA level between HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients (P<0.001). The number of patients with serum DNA≥2 000 IU/ml and<2 000 IU/ml in HBsAg negative group were 52 and 93, while the patients in HBsAg positive group were 325 and 205. The cumulative recurrence rates of all patients at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery were 30.2%, 54.3%, and 62.7%, respectively. The expression of HBsAg was related to the recurrence (P=0.038). Multivariate analysis showed that γ-GT, PT, multiple tumors, tumor length, and portal vein invasion were independent risk factors for recurrence of HCC (P<0.05). In HBeAg-negative patients with low viral load (HBV DNA <2 000 IU/ml) and without cirrhosis, the recurrence rates of HBsAg-positive patients were 14.3% and 31.0% at 3 and 5 years, respectively, compared with HBsAg negative patients (all 0), the difference was statistically significant (P=0.021). Conclusion: The positive expression of HBsAg in peritumoral tissue increases the postoperative recurrence risk of HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , China , DNA, Viral/analysis , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/metabolism , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2533-2549, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929380

ABSTRACT

Induction of immunogenic cell death promotes antitumor immunity against cancer. However, majority of clinically-approved drugs are unable to elicit sufficient ICD. Here, our study revealed that mitochondria-targeted delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) massively amplified ICD via substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after mitochondrial damage. The underlying mechanism behind increased ICD was further demonstrated to be ascribed to two pathways: (1) ROS elevated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to surface exposure of calreticulin; (2) ROS promoted release of various mitochondria-associated damage molecules including mitochondrial transcription factor A. Nevertheless, adaptive upregulation of PD-L1 was found after such ICD-inducing treatment. To overcome such immunosuppressive feedback, we developed a tumor stimuli-responsive nano vehicle to simultaneously exert mitochondrial targeted ICD induction and PD-L1 blockade. The nano vehicle was self-assembled from ICD-inducing copolymer and PD-L1 blocking copolymer, and possessed long-circulating property which contributed to better tumor accumulation and mitochondrial targeting. As a result, the nano vehicle remarkably activated antitumor immune responses and exhibited robust antitumor efficacy in both immunogenic and non-immunogenic tumor mouse models.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 76-84, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913170

ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a multifunctional organelle in eukaryotic cells, is responsible for protein synthesis and intracellular signal transduction, which dominates cell function, survival, and apoptosis. Disequilibrium of ER homeostasis may induce ER stress, which closely intertwines with tumor occurrence and progress. A few clinical-used drugs (such as anthraquinones and oxaliplatin) can mediate the immunogenic cell death of tumor cells through excessive ER stress, and sequentially stimulate anti-tumor immune responses as well as long-term immune memory. However, these drugs often exhibit poor targeting ability and extremely low ER accumulation in tumor cells, limiting their clinical efficacy. Therefore, the researches of ER-targeted delivery of these drugs will significantly benefit the efficient and precise anti-tumor immunotherapy. In this review, we introduce the relationship between ER and tumor immunity, and summarize the ER targeting strategies for anti-tumor immunotherapy in recent years. Furthermore, we discuss the problems of existing ER targeting strategies and look into its broad prospects of application.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2924-2936, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888895

ABSTRACT

Solid tumors always exhibit local hypoxia, resulting in the high metastasis and inertness to chemotherapy. Reconstruction of hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME) is considered a potential therapy compared to directly killing tumor cells. However, the insufficient oxygen delivery to deep tumor and the confronting "Warburg effect" compromise the efficacy of hypoxia alleviation. Herein, we construct a cascade enzyme-powered nanomotor (NM-si), which can simultaneously provide sufficient oxygen in deep tumor and inhibit the aerobic glycolysis to potentiate anti-metastasis in chemotherapy. Catalase (Cat) and glucose oxidase (GOx) are co-adsorbed on our previously reported CAuNCs@HA to form self-propelled nanomotor (NM), with hexokinase-2 (HK-2) siRNA further condensed (NM-si). The persistent production of oxygen bubbles from the cascade enzymatic reaction propels NM-si to move forward autonomously and in a controllable direction along H

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882945

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the analgesic effect and nursing intervention of pulse epidural controlled analgesia on uterine contraction pain after cesarean section.Methods:A total of 100 cases of parturient with patient-controlled epidural analgesia after elective cesarean section in Central Theater General Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army from January to March 2019 were selected as study subjects, and 100 cases were divided into observation group and control group, each group of 50 cases, the control group used constant speed epidural patient-controlled analgesia, the observation group used pulse epidural patient-controlled analgesia. The analgesic effect of uterine contraction pain after cesarean section was observed, at the same time, the two groups conducted a simulation test, the speed, time and infiltration area of the pumping liquid were recorded, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores of incision pain and uterine contraction pain were recorded at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h postoperatively. VAS score of contraction pain after single press, Motor Block score of iatrogenic uterine pain were recorded on the postoperative day, the first day and the second day after operation.The times of additional dose compression by analgesia pump, the times of incomplete analgesia intervention, nausea and vomiting, skin itching and other adverse reactions were recorded within 2 days after operation.Results:The infiltration area at 1, 5 min were (130.00±14.14), (334.00±2.83) cm 2 in the observation group and (65.00±7.07), (137.50±3.54) cm 2 in the control group, there were significant differences between the two groups( t values were 5.814, 61.376, P< 0.05 or 0.01). VAS scores of incision pain at 6 h and 12 h after operation were (2.36±1.05) and (2.42±0.95) in the observation group and (3.52±1.09) and (3.16±1.25) in the control group, respectively, there were significant differences between the two groups( t values were 5.425, 3.331, P<0.01). VAS scores of uterine contraction pain at 6,12 and 24 hours after operation were (2.66±0.80), (2.23±0.68), (2.22±0.71) in the observation group and (5.14±1.05), (4.48±0.71), (3.36±0.80) in the control group, respectively, there were significant differences between the two groups( t values were 2.489, 2.008, 5.004, P<0.01 or 0.05).VAS scores of contraction pain after single press on the postoperative day, the first day and the second day after operation in the observation group were (2.66±0.80), (2.23±0.68), (2.22±0.71) in the observation group and (5.14±1.05), (4.48±0.71), (3.36±0.80) in the control group, respectively, there were significant differences between the two groups( t values were 13.296,15.536, 7.534, P<0.01). The times of pressing and intervention were (2.28±1.36) and (0.90±0.61) in the observation group and (4.62±1.61), (0.62±0.53) in the control group, respectively, there were significant differences between the two groups( t values were 7.847, 2.439, P<0.01 or 0.05). Maternal satisfaction score was (5.92±1.37) and (2.34±0.82) in the observation group and the control group, there was significant difference ( t value was 15.856, P<0.01).The incidence of adverse reactions such as lower limb numbness, nausea and vomiting and skin pruritus in the observation group were 2.00%(1/50), 4.00%(2/50) and 4.00%(2/50) respectively, which were lower than those in the control group 14.00%(7/50), 16.00%(8/50), 18.00%(9/50), the difference was statistically significant ( χ2 values were 4.759, 4.000, 5.005, P<0.05). Conclusions:The pulse epidural controlled analgesia can effectively reduce the uterine contraction pain after cesarean section, and the active nursing intervention can accelerate the postoperative recovery of parturient.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877091

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between the epidemiology of chronic rhinitis and atmospheric environmental factors in Wuhan. Methods A total of 3 371 patients with chronic rhinitis in Wuhan seventh hospital from January 2017 to January 2020 were enrolled. The incidence of chronic rhinitis in different years and seasons was compared. Then the influence of atmospheric environmental factors such as air pollution index (API), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), diurnal patterns of relative humidity, wind speed, air temperature, air pressure wind speed and temperature range on occurrence of chronic rhinitis was analyzed. Results The incidence of chronic rhinitis in Wuhan showed an annual decreasing trend from 2017 to 2020, so the incidence rate was the highest in 2017 (38.83%, 1309/3371) and was the lowest in 2020 (28.98%, 977/3371). In terms of different seasons, the incidence rate was the highest in winter (33.67%, 1135/3371), and was the lowest in summer (16.11%, 543/3371). The main factors affecting the incidence of chronic rhinitis were API, PM2.5, and PM10 in spring, which were NO2, SO2, and daily average relative humidity in summer, those were API, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2 in autumn, and were API, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, and daily range of air temperature in winter. The lag response of patients with chronic rhinitis to atmospheric environmental factors was 2-5 days in spring, 1-6 days in summer, 0-5 days in autumn and 3-6 days in winter. Patients with chronic rhinitis have the fastest response to API and PM2.5 in spring, the fastest response to API in summer, and the fastest response to API and PM2.5 in autumn, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of chronic rhinitis in Wuhan is decreasing year by year, and the incidence is related to environmental and meteorological factors, and the disease onset has the characteristics of lag due to seasonal factors.

9.
Journal of Stroke ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874960

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of different blood pressure (BP)-lowering strategies. @*Methods@#Randomized controlled trials that compared various antihypertensive treatments and stroke outcomes were included. Eligible trials were categorized into three scenarios: single or combination antihypertensive agents against placebos; single or combination agents against other agents; and different BP-lowering targets. The primary efficacy outcome was the risk reduction pertaining to strokes. The tolerability outcome was the withdrawal of drugs, owing to drug-related side effects (PROSPERO registration number CRD42018118454 [20/12/2018]). @*Results@#The present study included 93 trials (average follow-up duration, 3.3 years). In the pairwise analysis, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and beta-blockers (BBs) were inferior to calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (odds ratio [OR], 1.123; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.008 to 1.252) (OR, 1.261; 95% CI, 1.116 to 1.425) for stroke prevention, BB was inferior to angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) (OR, 1.361; 95% CI, 1.142 to 1.622), and diuretics were superior to ACEi (OR, 0.871; 95% CI, 0.771 to 0.984). The combination of ACEi+CCB was superior to ACEi+diuretic (OR, 0.892; 95% CI, 0.823 to 0.966). The network meta-analysis confirmed that diuretics were superior to BB (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.58), ACEi+diuretic (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.08), BB+CCB (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.05 to 3.79), and renin inhibitors (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.75) for stroke prevention. Regarding the tolerability profile, the pairwise analysis revealed that ACEi was inferior to CCB and less tolerable, compared to the other treatments. @*Conclusions@#Monotherapy using diuretics, CCB, or ARB, and their combinations could be employed as first-line treatments for stroke prevention in terms of efficacy and tolerability.

10.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 437-443, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873418

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in China, and due to the lack of specific symptoms, more than half of these patients are in the advanced stage at the time of initial diagnosis. Targeted therapy and systemic chemotherapies are the main treatment methods for advanced HCC with limited efficacy. In recent years, immunotherapy has been developed rapidly. This article introduces the current status of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, in the treatment of HCC, summarizes the latest data of several clinical trials, and analyzes the safety and efficacy of monotherapy and combination therapy. The analysis shows that immunotherapy has become one of the important methods for systemic treatment, and combination therapy can significantly improve the outcome of HCC with a manageable safety profile, which is an important direction for future development.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906020

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of modified Guilu Erxianjiao decoction combined with cisplatin on the immune function, resistance-related genes and interleukin-7(IL-7)-mediated Wnt/<italic>β</italic>-serial protein(<italic>β</italic>-catenin)signaling pathway in Lewis lung cancer mice by establishing a mouse model of Lewis lung cancer with deficiency of both Qi and Yin. And the anti-cancer mechanism of modified Guilu Erxianjiao decoction was clarified, so as to provide a basis for its clinical application. Method:A Lewis lung cancer mouse model (type of deficiency of both Qi and Yin) was established. Mice were divided into a normal group (no modeling), a model group (saline solution), a cisplatin group (cisplatin, 2 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) group (modified Guilu Erxianjiao decoction, 19.63 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), and a combined group (modified Guilu Erxianjiao decoction, 19.63 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup> + cisplatin, 2 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>). The 10 mice in each group were administered separately for 21 days of intervention. The general conditions and organ indexes of mice were observed, and tumor inhibition rate was calculated. CD4<sup>+</sup>CD25<sup>+</sup> regulatory T cell (CD4<sup>+</sup>CD25<sup>+</sup> Treg) were detected by flow cytometry, the IL-7 level of cytokines in serum was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR) was used to detect the gene expression level of drug resistance-related genes P-glycoprotein(P-gp), and multidrug resistance protein1(MRP1)in tumor tissues. The protein expression of Wnt/<italic>β</italic>-serial protein(<italic>β</italic>-catenin)signaling pathway in tumor tissues were detected by Western blot. Result:In the TCM group and the combined group, the food intake increased, the mental state was better, the response was sensitive, and the body weight increased. Compared with the cisplatin group, the thymus index and spleen index in the combined group were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the tumor inhibition rate of the combined group was significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the cisplatin group, the percentage of CD4<sup>+</sup>CD25<sup>+</sup>Treg/CD4<sup>+</sup> in the TCM group and the combined group was significantly reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and IL-7 in the TCM group and the combined group was significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the cisplatin group, the expressions of P-gp and MRP1 genes in the TCM group and the combined group were significantly reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and the protein expressions of secretory glycoprotein1(Wnt1)and <italic>β</italic>-serial protein(<italic>β</italic>-catenin)in the TCM group and the combined group were significantly reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:The combined use of modified Guilu Erxianjiao decoction and cisplatin can significantly inhibit the growth of tumors in mice with Lewis lung cancer, and its mechanism of action may be related to the efficacy of m odified Guilu Erxianjiao decoction in relieving the body's immunosuppressive state, promoting the body to produce IL-7, regulating IL-7-mediated Wnt/<italic>β</italic>-catenin signaling pathway and reducing the expression of resistance-related genes in lung cancer tissues.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905878

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the potential suitable distribution area and the high-quality distribution area of <italic>Sabia parviflora</italic>. Method:Combined with the distribution information and environmental factors,the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model and ArcGIS software were used to predict the potential suitable distribution area of <italic>S. parviflora</italic>. Based on the correlation between environmental factors and total saponins,total flavonoids,quercetin-3-<italic>O</italic>-gentiobioside,camellianoside,tsubakioside A,kaempferol-3-<italic>O</italic>-rutinoside and isobariclisin-3-<italic>O</italic>-rutinoside,the quality regionalization was conducted by using spatial interpolation method and fuzzy superposition function in ArcGIS software. Result:<italic>S. parviflora</italic> is mainly distributed in Yunnan,Guizhou,Guangxi province in China. The medium and high suitable areas accounts for about 2.88% of the national area. The precipitation in October and November,the precipitation in the warmest and driest seasons,the standard deviation of seasonal changes in temperature and altitude are the main environmental factors that affect the distribution of <italic>S. parviflora</italic>. Slope,precipitation,solar radiation and temperature change had great influence on the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Based on the results of potential suitable distribution and spatial interpolation of each component,the high-quality areas of <italic>S. parviflora</italic> are mainly concentrated in the southwest of Guizhou,with Qinglong,Guanling,Zhenning,Pu'an,Xingren county and other areas as the core. Conclusion:This study provides a scientific guidance for the site selection of artificial planting and the procurement of medicinal materials for <italic>S. parviflora</italic>.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862543

ABSTRACT

End-stage liver cirrhosis usually refers to chronic liver failure caused by decompensated liver cirrhosis and brings a heavy burden to human health. Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment, but its clinical application is limited by the shortage of liver source and high cost. Artificial liver support system is often used as bridging therapy to liver transplantation. The development of cell therapy brings new hope to this disease. This article summarizes the etiological treatment of end-stage liver cirrhosis and the management of related complications and introduces the indications and timing for artificial liver support system, cell therapy, and liver transplantation in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis.

14.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1049-1054, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921007

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the literature knowledge structure and acupoint matching rules of acupuncture for depression.@*METHODS@#The articles regarding acupuncture for depression published from January 1 of 1984 to October 19 of 2020 were searched in CNKI database. CiteSpace5.7.R2 software was used to import the literature data, and the keyword cluster analysis, emergence analysis and time-zone analysis of articles and acupoints were conducted, and the map of scientific knowledge was draw.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3524 articles were included to the knowledge structure analysis, while 601 articles into the acupoint matching rules analysis. There were 13 keyword clusters of acupuncture for depression, with "post-stroke depression" and "electroacupuncture treatment" as high-frequency keywords, and "electroacupuncture treatment" and "Hamilton depression scale" had high centrality, and "electroacupuncture treatment" had the highest emergence intensity. The keywords such as "electroacupuncture treatment" and "Hamilton depression scale", etc. appeared the earliest, followed by "post-stroke depression", "fluoxetine" and "auricular point therapy", etc. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, acupoint keywords were divided into four clusters: ①core acupoint, ②replenishing-spleen and dispelling phlegm, dispersing-liver and relieving depression, reinforcing @*CONCLUSION@#The main knowledge structure of acupuncture for depression includes five parts: treatment method, depression type, TCM-related diseases, literature type and curative effect index. Clinical acupoint matching should adhere to the principle of "focusing the disease before syndrome" and "combination of disease and syndrome", and treatment should be modified for the syndromes of phlegm stagnation blocking, liver-stagnation and


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Depression/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878851

ABSTRACT

Andrographis Herba is a commonly used plant medicine, and has been recorded in pharmacopeias of different countries. However, there are some differences in the quality standards. Based on this, this paper compare the quality standards of Andrographis Herba between Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Hong Kong Chinese Materia Medica Standards, United States Pharmacopoeia, European Pharmacopoeia and Indian Pharmacopoeia, including origin, botanical characteristics, identification(microscopic identification and chromatographic identification), content determination, specific test(such as impurities, loss on drying, extractives, pesticides, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and other items) and storage requirements, so as to provide a reference for studying international quality standards of Andrographis.


Subject(s)
Andrographis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Reference Standards
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828979

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the prevalence and determinants of folic acid (FA) supplementation in Chinese couples planning for pregnancy and in women during early pregnancy.@*Methods@#This was a cross-sectional study based on the Shanghai PreConception Cohort (SPCC) study. Data on FA supplementation and socio-demographic features were collected using questionnaires. Couples visiting clinics for pre-pregnancy examination and pregnant women at < 14 gestational weeks were recruited in Shanghai, China, between March 2016 and September 2018.@*Results@#Among the pregnancy planners, 42.4% (4,710/11,099) women and 17.1% (1,377/8,045) men used FA supplements, while 93.4% (14,585/15,615) of the pregnant women used FA supplements. FA supplement use was higher in female pregnancy planners who were older ( : 1.13, 95% : 1.08-1.18), had higher education ( : 1.71, 95% : 1.53-1.92), and were residing in urban districts ( : 1.06, 95% : 1.01-1.11) of FA supplementation; female pregnancy planners with alcohol consumption ( : 0.95, 95% : 0.90-0.99) had lower odds of FA supplementation. In early pregnancy, women with higher educational level ( : 1.04, 95% : 1.03-1.06), who underwent pre-pregnancy examination ( : 1.02, 95% : 1.01-1.03) had higher odds of using an FA supplement; older aged ( : 0.99, 95% : 0.98-0.99), and multigravida ( : 0.97, 95% : 0.96-0.98) had lower odds of FA supplementation.@*Conclusion@#Although the majority of pregnant women took FA supplements, more than half of the women planning for pregnancy did not. Urgent strategies are needed to improve pre-conception FA supplementation.


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Female , Folic Acid , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vitamin B Complex , Young Adult
17.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 61-65, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941054

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of echocardiography-guided closed-chest repeated intraventricular blood sampling in mice, and to clarify the maximum blood volume that can be collected by this method, and whether the method can be used for long-term repeated blood collection in mice. Methods: Twenty-four male C57BL/6J mice (10-14 weeks old) were divided into the terminal experiment group (n=4, for investigating the maximum blood amount that could be sampled at one time), the repeated 0.5 ml blood collection group (n=10, sampling 0.5 ml whole blood each time, once every two days for consecutive 4 weeks), and the repeated 0.75 ml blood collection group (n=10, sampling 0.75 ml whole blood each time, once every two days for consecutive 4 weeks). High-frequency echocardiography was used to display the largest section of the left ventricle, guiding the insulin syringe needle through the thorax into the left ventricle for blood collection. In the repeated 0.5 ml blood collection group, echocardiography was used to detect the cardiac structure and function before blood collection, three minutes after blood collection, and one week after the last (the 14th) blood collection. Results: We successfully performed echocardiography-guided closed-chest intraventricular blood sampling, with an average operating time (88±19)s per mouse, and a maximum blood volume (1.43±0.11)ml per mouse. In the repeated 0.5 ml blood collection group, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular fractional shortening, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and left ventricular posterior wall end-diastolic thickness remained uncganged before the first blood collection and after 4 weeks of repeated blood collection (all P>0.05). No death in the repeated 0.5 ml blood collection group. However, in the 0.75 ml blood collection group, two mice died before the end point. Conclusions: The echocardiography-guided closed-chest intraventricular blood sampling is a safe, minimally invasive, convenient and efficient method, and can be used repeatedly for long-term blood collection in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Echocardiography , Feasibility Studies , Heart Ventricles , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Ventricular Function, Left
18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836620

ABSTRACT

There is no doubt that the colonial period was a critical time for the establishment and expansion of modern Western medicine in Korea. However, did this act as a catalyst for the overall decline of traditional Korean medicine? While previous studies mainly focus on research based on the concept of Uisaeng (traditional Korean medicine doctor) and the medical policies implemented by the Japanese Government-General of Korea, this paper begins with the Korean herbal medicine industry, and comprehensively investigates the distribution and consumption of Korean herbal medicines during the colonial period from three perspectives: the policies for Korean medicine merchants implemented by the Japanese Government-General of Korea, changes in the Korean herbal medicine industry, and consumption of Korean herbal medicines in the Korean society.The colonial authorities’ intention was to foster the advancement of Western medicine and phase out traditional Korean medicine. However, they merely imposed limitations on Uisaengs’ operations—this policy loophole objectively left a window for Korean medicine merchants. Moreover, against the backdrop of the growing popularity of Western medicine and restrictions on the development of traditional Korean medicine by colonial authorities, the Korean herbal medicine industry, as one of the few “national industries” dominated by and serving Koreans, showed its tenacious vitality during that time. Korean medicine merchants responded to market changes with ease. They built different drugstores, such as traditional herbal stores mainly selling traditional Korean medicines, hybrid drugstores that simultaneously dealt with the manufacture and sale of patent medicines, and ginseng drugstores that specialized in the ginseng business. This classification promoted the commercialization of traditional Korean herbal medicine.Another crucial condition for the vitality of the Korean herbal medicine industry is Koreans’ preference for traditional Korean medicine. It is an indisputable fact that Western medicine gradually became popular and was recognized by the common man during the colonial period; nonetheless, Eastern medicine and Western medicine were not playing a zero-sum game. Through comprehensive macro and micro analysis, this paper demonstrates that, during the colonial period, when old and new ideas interacted, most Koreans, including upper-class elites and intellectuals who were open-minded about emerging concepts and options and had ample opportunities to avail western medical treatment, preferred traditional Korean medicine. Using Korean herbal medicines for illnesses remained the primary choice, While Western medicine assumed the role of a supplement to traditional treatment. This paper argues that the first reason for this phenomenon is the inertia of tradition, and the second is that Western medicine was not necessarily more effective than Korean herbal medicine at that time.Specifically, it can be considered that, during the colonial period, the growing popularity of Western medicine failed to bring about a radical change in Koreans’ regular medical interventions. Simultaneously, the Korean herbal medicine industry, one of the pillars offering medical support to the common man, adapted suitably while relying on the inertia of its own tradition. The industry’s vitality and dynamism during the colonial period certainly underscore the need to amend the one-sided narrative of medical modernization vis-à-vis Western medicine.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832040

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) have impaired attention, inhibition control, and memory function. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 ) gene has been associated with OUD and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms may affect aldehyde metabolism and cognitive function in other substance use disorder. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether ALDH2 genotypes have significant effects on neuropsychological functions in OUD patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). @*Methods@#OUD patients undergoing MMT were investigated and followed-up for 12 weeks. ALDH2 gene polymorphisms were genotyped. Connors’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were administered at baseline and after 12 weeks of MMT. Multivariate linear regressions and generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to examine the correlation between the ALDH2 genotypes and performance on the CPTs and WMS-R. @*Results@#We enrolled 86 patients at baseline; 61 patients completed the end-of-study assessments. The GEE analysis showed that, after the 12 weeks of MMT, OUD patients with the ALDH2 *1/*2+*2/*2 (ALDH2 inactive) genotypes had significantly higher commission error T-scores (p = 0.03), significantly lower hit reaction time T-scores (p = 0.04), and significantly lower WMS-R visual memory index scores (p = 0.03) than did patients with the ALDH2 1 */*1 (ALDH2 active) genotype. @*Conclusion@#OUD patients with the ALDH2 inactive genotypes performed worse in cognitive domains of attention, impulse control, and memory than did those with the ALDH2 active genotype. We conclude that the ALDH2 gene is important in OUD and is associated with neuropsychological performance after MMT.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876294

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the relationship between social norms and smoking intention, among male smokers in China. Methods A total 3 621 (with 95.8% of effective response rate) male smokers were selected and investigated with questionnaires from August to November in 2013.Univariate logistic regressions and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to find the associations between social norms, smoking intention and quitting attempts. Results Smokers perceived low pro-quitting social norms from their family members, friends and other people around.With a 1 point increase in pro-quitting social norms score, smokers′ willingness to quit in the next 6 months increased by 69% (OR=1.69, 95%CI:1.48-1.94), and smokers were 86% more likely to quit(OR=1.86, 95%CI:1.66-2.08). Conclusion Pro-quitting social norms is proved to be an independent predictor for smoking intention, quitting attempts among male smokers in China.Therefore, future intervention should aim to establish pro-quitting social norms for smoking cessation.

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