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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 867-871, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405251

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The information technology (IT) based "instant evaluation" is supported by IT, which allows instant evaluation of teaching phenomena based on certain evaluation criteria and provides instant feedback. In anatomy teaching, we explored and practiced the application of instant evaluation based on a platform called "Rain classroom." We found that IT-based instant evaluation had higher practicability and better student satisfaction, which could improve teaching efficiency during class time, help students improve learning methods, and promote knowledge mastery. Additionally, instant evaluation positively impacted teachers' evaluation ability and teaching skills.


RESUMEN: La "evaluación instantánea" basada en la tecnología de la información (TI) está respaldada por ésta y permite la evaluación instantánea de los fenómenos de enseñanza en función de ciertos criterios de evaluación proporcionando retroalimentación instantánea. En la enseñanza de la anatomía, exploramos y practicamos la aplicación de la evaluación instantánea basada en una plataforma llamada "Aula de lluvia" o Rain Classroom. Descubrimos que la evaluación instantánea basada en TI tenía una mayor practicidad y una mejor satisfacción de los estudiantes, lo que podría mejorar la eficiencia de la enseñanza durante el tiempo de clase, ayudar a los estudiantes a mejorar los métodos de aprendizaje y promover el dominio del conocimiento. Además, la evaluación instantánea tuvo un impacto positivo en la capacidad de evaluación y las habilidades de enseñanza de los maestros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students , Educational Measurement/methods , Information Technology , Feedback , Anatomy/education , Teaching , Software , China , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
International Eye Science ; (12): 220-224, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913026

ABSTRACT

@#Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1(MALAT1)is one of the first identified LncRNA associated with human diseases. Unlike most members of the LncRNA family, MALAT1 is found in almost all human tissues and expressed at a relatively high level. At present, MALAT1 is known to play a vital role in the pathophysiological process of many diseases such as tumors, cardiovascular diseases, and nervous system diseases. In recent years, studies have found that MALAT1 may be involved in many ocular diseases(such as diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma, retinoblastoma, neonatal retinopathy, <i>etc</i>.)play an important role in the pathological development process, and it is expected to become an effective target for the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. This article summarizes the research progress of eye diseases in which MALAT1 has participated in recent years.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2435-2444, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937047

ABSTRACT

In this study, a method for simultaneous quantitative analysis of 6 salvianolic acids and 4 tanshinones in extracts of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was established by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The semi-biomimetic method was applied to simulate digestion process in vitro, to explore the digestion and transport characters of oral administration through the gastrointestinal tract, and to explain the content ratio changes and bioaccessibility of active ingredients in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The results showed that the 10 index components have a good linear relationship in the corresponding concentration range, and the average recovery rate was 91.35% to 105.65%. After simulated digestion in vitro, types of chemical composition in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid digested extracts of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma did not change significantly. While the content ratio of salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid decreased, and the content ratio of protocatechuic aldehyde and danshensu increased. In the simulated gastric fluid digestion extract of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, the order of bioaccessibility was: danshensu (50.19%) > salvianolic acid B (33.44%) > lithospermic acid (27.34%) > salvianolic acid A (21.71%) > rosmarinic acid (12.31%). In the simulated intestinal fluid digestion extract of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, the order of bioaccessibility was: 15,16-dihydrotanshinone Ⅰ (5.45%) > tanshinone Ⅰ (3.67%) > cryptotanshinone (3.29%) > tanshinone ⅡA (3.01%) > salvianolic acid A (2.39%) > lithospermic acid (1.57%) > salvianolic acid B (1.02%) > danshensu (0.41%) > rosmarinic acid (0.34%). In conclusion, the UHPLC method established in this study can be applied for accurately and sensitively detecting the contents of 6 salvianolic acids and 4 tanshinones in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The results of semi-biomimetic extraction showed that not all components were extracted with simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, especially rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. Therefore, in the quality study of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its extract, bioavailability should be considered at the same time when select quality markers and determine their content limits.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2262-2268, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937045

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, and its incidence and mortality are among the top three of all malignant tumors. In recent years, CRC is becoming more common in younger patients. Currently, surgery is the main or first treatment of early stage CRC, however, up to 50% patients have recurrence and metastasis post-surgery. While chemotherapy and radiotherapy are often used as adjuvant treatment after surgery or as main treatment options for late stage CRC, they usually induce severe adverse effects. Safe and effective treatments for CRC are still lacking. Therefore, it is essential to discover new therapies for CRC. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1), as a transmembrane glycoprotein, is reported to highly express in CRC, and its overexpression is demonstrated to be closely related to the occurrence and development of CRC. NRP1 is involved in angiogenesis, tumor growth, autophagy, and lipid metabolism, which is expected to be a potential new target for the treatment of CRC. This paper reviews the role of NRP1 in CRC, including its molecular structure, expression in CRC, as well as its connection with autophagy and metabolism. The regulatory factors of NRP1 in CRC were introduced, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), etc. The potential intervention strategies of CRC targeting NRP1 were summarized in order to provide reference for the diagnosis and prevention of CRC.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937009

ABSTRACT

@#Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are widely used in the modern era. Every year, about 730,000 permanent pacemakers and 330,000 CIEDs are implanted worldwide. CIEDs have been known to increase the life expectancy of millions of people and improve their quality of life by controlling the heart rate and atrioventricular and interventricular synchronization and preventing sudden cardiac death.[1] The tricuspid valve consists of the annulus, leaflets, chordae tendineae, and papillary muscles. Interaction between the endocardial lead and any component of this structure can lead to tricuspid valve dysfunction, thereby resulting in tricuspid regurgitation (TR).[2] CIED-related TR has been shown to be an independent predictor of hospitalization for heart failure.[3,4]

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1977-1990, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936576

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (CoVs) is a widespread pathogen that can infect humans and animals to cause serious acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Among them, SARS-CoV broke out in 2003, MERS-CoV was discovered and spread widely in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 emerged at the end of 2019. They all belong to β-coronavirus. Peptidomimetic inhibitors targeting coronavirus main proteases (Mpro, 3CLpro) have attracted much attention because of their broad spectrum and strong antiviral efficacy. In this review, peptidomimetic inhibitors of coronavirus main protease were classified and summarized according to the different "warheads" in design strategy. And also, the molecular structures, biological activity and design ideas of the inhibitors were analyzed and discussed, which is aimed to provide useful reference for further design and development of coronavirus inhibitors.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of pirfenidone for reducing urethral stricture following urethral injury in rats and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Thirty male SD rats were randomly assigned into negative control group, positive control group and pirfenidone group (n=10). In pirfenidone and positive control groups, the rats were subjected to incision of the posterior urethral cavernous body followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of pirfenidone (100 mg/kg) and an equivalent volume of solvent, respectively. The rats in the negative control group were given intraperitoneal injections of solvent without urethral injury. At two weeks after modeling, retrograde urethrography was performed for observing urethral stricture, and the injured urethral tissues were harvested for HE staining, Masson staining, immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting for detecting the protein expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β1. The mRNA expressions of the inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were detected using qRT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#The body weight of the rats in pirfenidone group was significantly decreased compared with that in the other two groups (P < 0.05). Retrograde urethrography showed significant narrowing of the urethra in the positive control group but not in the pirfenidone group. HE staining of the injured urethral tissues showed obvious proliferation of urethral epithelial cells with narrow urethral cavity and increased inflammatory cells in positive control group. The pathological findings of the urethra were similar between pirfenidone group and the negative control group. Masson staining revealed obviously reduced collagen fibers and regular arrangement of the fibers in pirfenidone group as compared to the positive control group. Compared with those in the negative control group, the expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in the positive control group, and pirfenidone treatment significantly inhibited their expressions (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Pirfenidone also significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured urethral tissue (P < 0.05 or 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Pirfenidone can prevent urethral fibrosis and stricture after urethral injury possibly by inhibiting the TGF-β1 pathway and inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Pyridones/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Solvents , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Urethral Stricture/pathology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To clarify the functional effects of differential expression of ring finger and tryptophan-aspartic acid 2 (RFWD2) on dendritic development and formation of dendritic spines in cerebral cortex neurons of mice.@*METHODS@#Immunofluorescent staining was used to identify the location and global expression profile of RFWD2 in mouse brain and determine the co-localization of RFWD2 with the synaptic proteins in the cortical neurons. We also examined the effects of RFWD2 over-expression (RFWD2-Myc) and RFWD2 knockdown (RFWD2-shRNA) on dendritic development, dendritic spine formation and synaptic function in cultured cortical neurons.@*RESULTS@#RFWD2 is highly expressed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, and its expression level was positively correlated with the development of cerebral cortex neurons and dendrites. RFWD2 expression was detected on the presynaptic membrane and postsynaptic membrane of the neurons, and its expression levels were positively correlated with the length, number of branches and complexity of the dendrites. In cultured cortical neurons, RFWD2 overexpression significantly lowered the expressions of the synaptic proteins synaptophysin (P < 0.01) and postsynapic density protein 95 (P < 0.01), while RFWD2 knockdown significantly increased their expressions (both P < 0.05). Compared with the control and RFWD2-overexpressing cells, the neurons with RFWD2 knockdown showed significantly reduced number of dendritic spines (both P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#RFWD2 can regulate the expression of the synaptic proteins, the development of the dendrites, the formation of the dendritic spines and synaptic function in mouse cerebral cortex neurons through ubiquitination of Pea3 family members and c-Jun, which may serve as potential treatment targets for neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspartic Acid/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex , Dendritic Spines/metabolism , Mice , Neurons/metabolism , Synapses , Tryptophan/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923779

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the health-seeking behaviors of imported malaria cases after returning to China, and to investigate the factors affecting the time to initial diagnosis, so as to provide the scientific evidence for early identification of imported malaria cases and prevention of severe cases development and secondary transmission. Methods The individual demographic features, and the disease onset and the time to initial diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2019 were captured from the National Notifiable Disease Report System and the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control in China. The characteristics of health-seeking behaviors and epidemiological features of imported malaria cases were descriptively analyzed, and the factors affecting the time to initial diagnosis of imported malaria cases after returning to China were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 244 imported malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2019, and the time to initial diagnosis of the cases were 1-12 days, with mean time of (1.53 ± 1.65) days, with median time of one day. The highest number of malaria cases seeking healthcare services were found on the day of developing primary symptoms (76 cases, 31.1%), followed by on the second day (68 cases, 27.9%), on the third day (46 cases, 18.9%), and 54 cases (22.1%) received initial diagnosis 3 days following presence of primary symptoms, including 3 cases with initial diagnosis at more than one week. High proportions of imported malaria cases with a delay in the time to initial diagnosis were seen in migrant workers who returned to China in January (14 cases, 5.7%) and December (13 cases, 5.3%) and those aged between 41 and 50 years (32 cases, 13.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed relative short time to initial diagnosis among imported malaria cases returning to China on March [odds ratio (OR) = 0.16, P = 0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.03, 0.85)] and those with a history of overseas malaria parasite infections [OR = 0.36, P = 0.001, 95% CI: (0.19, 0.67)]. Conclusions Timely health-seeking behaviors should be improved among imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province, patients with a history of overseas malaria infections require faster health-seeking activities.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923777

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the protective effect of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst fluid protein (HCFP) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) in mice. Methods Twenty-four BALB/c mice at ages of 8 to 10 weeks, each weighing approximately 20 g, were randomly divided into four groups, including groups A (blank control group), B (blank intervention group), C (AR model group) and D (AR+HCFP intervention group), with 6 mice in each group. On days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12, mice in groups A, B, C and D were injected with 200 μL sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 200 μL sterile PBS containing 20 μg HCFP, 200 μL sterile PBS containing 50 μg OVA and 5 mg Al(OH)3 gel, and 200 μL sterile PBS containing 50 μg OVA, 5 mg Al(OH)3 gel and 20 μg HCFP, respectively. On days 14 to 20, mice in groups A, B, C and D were administered with 40 μL sterile PBS, 40 μL sterile PBS containing 20 μg HCFP, 40 μL sterile PBS containing 2 mg OVA and 40 μL sterile PBS containing 2 mg OVA and 20 μL HCFP by nasal drop, respectively. Mouse behavioral changes were observed and behavioral scores were estimated. The serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and OVA-specific IgE antibody (OVA-sIgE) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the pathological changes of mouse nasal mucosa were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Results The mean behavioral score was significantly greater in Group C (6.83 ± 0.50) than in groups A (1.17 ± 0.52) and B (1.33 ± 0.52) (P < 0.05), while a lower mean behavioral score was estimated in Group D (3.50 ± 0.50) than in Group C (P < 0.05). There were significant differences among the groups in terms of serum IFN-γ (F = 4.08, P < 0.05), IL-4 (F = 275.90, P < 0.05), IL-5 (F = 96.82, P < 0.05), IL-10 (F = 77.67, P < 0.05), TGF-β (F = 9.98, P < 0.05) and OVA-sIgE levels (F = 44.69, P < 0.05). The serum IFN-γ level was significantly lower in Group C than in groups A, B and C (P < 0.05), and the serum levels of IL-4, IL-5 and OVA-sIgE were significantly higher in Group C than in groups A, B and C (P < 0.05), while the serum IL-10 and TGF-β levels were significantly greater in Group D than in Group C (P < 0.05). Microscopy showed apparent loss of nasal mucosa cilia, increased number and enlargement of goblet cells, interstitial edema and submucous vascular dilation in Group C, while the pathological changes of nasal mucosa were alleviated in Group D relative to Group C. Conclusions E. granulosus HCFP has a protective activity against OVA-induced allergic rhinitis in mice.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 441-445, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922937

ABSTRACT

Four triterpenoids were isolated and purified from the 95% ethanol extract of Maytenus guangxiensis by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, MCI column chromatography and preparative RP-HPLC. Their structures were determined from their physicochemical properties and spectral data. They were identified as maytguanone A (1), maytguanone B (2), 11α-methoxyurs-12-ene-1β,3β-diol (3), lup-20(29)-ene-3β,11α-diol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 are new triterpenoids, along with compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from M. guangxiensis for the first time. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1, 3 and 4 was evaluated using the MTT procedure with three cancer cell lines. The results show that compound 3 displayed good inhibitory effects against HeLa, with an IC50 of 10.68 μmol·L-1.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929243

ABSTRACT

Pueraria thomsonii has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Isoflavonoids are the principle pharmacologically active components, which are primarily observed as glycosyl-conjugates and accumulate in P. thomsonii roots. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycosylation processes in (iso)flavonoid biosynthesis have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the current study, an O-glucosyltransferase (PtUGT8) was identified in the medicinal plant P. thomsonii from RNA-seq database. Biochemical assays of the recombinant PtUGT8 showed that it was able to glycosylate chalcone (isoliquiritigenin) at the 4-OH position and glycosylate isoflavones (daidzein, formononetin, and genistein) at the 7-OH or 4'-OH position, exhibiting no enzyme activity to flavonones (liquiritigenin and narigenin) in vitro. The identification of PtUGT8 may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for efficient biotransformation of isoflavones and other natural products for food or pharmacological applications.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Genistein , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Pueraria/chemistry
13.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 659-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941489

ABSTRACT

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) refers to the reperfusion injury caused by the recovery of blood supply of ischemic tissues or organs, which commonly occurs in organ transplantation and other surgical procedures. IRI may cause a series of severe clinical issues, such as delayed graft function, acute kidney injury, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and circulatory arrest, etc. These events yield high incidence and fatality. At present, no effective solution has been available. Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6), a member of Ca2+ channel family, is highly expressed in multiple types of cells. It may adjust many physiological functions by regulating intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which has become an important target for developing therapeutic drugs for multiple diseases. In this article, research progresses on the introduction and function of TRPC6, the association between TRPC6 and IRI and the therapeutic prospect of TRPC6 targeted drugs in IRI were reviewed, aiming to provide novel insights into the prevention and treatment of IRI during organ transplantation

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the protective effect of excretory-secretory proteins from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (Ts-MES) on sepsis-induced myocardial injury in mice.@*METHODS@#Eighty male BALB/C mice were randomized equally into sham-operated group, myocardial injury group, Ts-MES treatment group and dexamethasone treatment group. In the latter 3 groups, sepsis-induced myocardial injury models were established by cecal ligation and perforation; the sham operation was performed by exposure of the cecum without ligation or perforation. Forty minutes after the operation, the mice were given intraperitoneal injections 150 μL PBS, 20 μg TS-MES or 0.3 mg/kg dexamethasone as indicated. At 12 h after the operation, 6 mice were randomly selected from each group for echocardiography, and 8 mice were used for observing the survival rate within 72 h. The remaining 6 mice were examined for myocardial pathologies with HE staining and serum levels of NTPro-BNP and cTnI with ELISA; the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β in the serum and myocardial tissue were detected using ELISA and qRT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operated mice, the septic mice showed significantly decreased cardiac function indexes (LVEF, LVFS, and E/A) with lowered survival rate within 72 h (P < 0.001) and significantly higher myocardial injury scores and serum levels of NTPro-BNP and cTnI (P < 0.01). Treatment with TS-MES significantly improved the cardiac function and 72-h survival rate (P < 0.05) and lowered the myocardial injury scores and serum levels of NTPro-BNP and cTnI (P < 0.05) in the septic mice. Compared with the sham-operated mice, the septic mice had obviously increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the serum and myocardial tissue (P < 0.001), which were significantly lowered by treatment with TS-MES (P < 0.05). TS-MES and dexamethasone both increased the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in the septic mice, but the changes were significant only in TS-MES-treated mice (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Ts-MES are capable of protecting against myocardial injury in septic mice by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhancing the levels of regulatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Dexamethasone , Heart Injuries , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Larva , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Myocardium , Sepsis , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Trichinella spiralis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
15.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 574-579, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940963

ABSTRACT

Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare chronic inflammatory non-infectious skin dermatosis, and there is no clear treatment guideline for this disease at home and abroad. There are a variety of clinical treatment methods for PG, including local therapy and systemic application of glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, intravenous immuno- globulin, and biologics. Glucocorticoids are the first-line drugs commonly used in clinical practice, and immunosuppressants can be used alone or in combination with glucocorticoids. In recent years, more and more evidence has shown that biologics are a new trend in the treatment of PG, mainly including tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors, interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitors, IL-12/23 inhibitors, IL-17 inhibitors, rituximab, and small molecular inhibitors. This article summarizes the current status and latest progress in the treatment of PG, hoping to provide clinicians with ideas for the treatment of PG.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Immunotherapy , Interleukin Inhibitors , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/drug therapy
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 587-592, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940927

ABSTRACT

Single-arm trial refers to a clinical trial design that does not set up parallel control group, adopts open design, and does not involve randomization and blind method. These features, on the one hand, speed up the process of clinical trials, significantly shorten the time to market and meet the needs of patients with advanced malignancies, but also lead to the uncertainty of single-arm clinical trials themselves. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration held a meeting of the oncologic drug advisory committee to discuss six tumor indications that have been accelerated approved, which once again triggered the discussion of single-arm trials. The basis of accelerated approval by single-arm trial is actually a compromise on the level of evidence-based medical evidence requirements after assessing the benefit risk. Therefore, the sponsor should strictly grasp the applicable conditions of single-arm trial in anti-tumor drugs and conduct single-arm trial scientifically. Post-marketing clinical trial should be implement as early as possible to ensure the benefit of patients. Based on the characteristics of single-arm trial, combined with two guidance relevant to single-arm trial issued by National Medical Products Administration recently, this article is supposed to propose and summarize the strategy of single-arm trial supporting the marketing of anti-tumor drugs.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Marketing , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Research Design , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940737

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveUncommon medicinal herbs are valuable medicinal resources, but their identification is a difficult problem in Chinese medicine due to their particularity and complexity. It is, therefore, urgent to establish a method for the identification of uncommon medicinal herbs. In this study, DNA signature sequence (DSS) tags were used to establish a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification method for Hibisci Cortex, the origin plant of Hibisci Cortex, and its adulterants. MethodThe candidate DSS tags were obtained from the chloroplast genome sequence analysis, and the DSS tags were verified by DNA sequencing. The specific identification primers for H. syriacus were designed based on the obtained reliable DSS tags. The PCR reaction conditions were optimized, and the tolerance and feasibility were investigated. ResultA DSS tag for identification of H. syriacus was obtained from the comparison of sequencing results of the amplified products with DSS, which revealed the distinguishing characteristics of Hibisci Cortex and its adulterants. A pair of specific primers for H. syriacus was designed according to the DSS tag. After PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis with the primers, a single bright band of about 270 bp was observed from H. syriacus, which did not appear in the four adulterants. ConclusionA DSS tag obtained in this study can be used to identify H. syriacus. The specific primers designed based on this DSS tag can accurately and simply identify the original plant of Hibisci Cortex and its adulterants, which provides a new method and idea for the molecular identification of genuine and counterfeit products of Hibisci Cortex.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940736

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of Artemisia absinthium to allow accurate and convenient identification of A. absinthium and its related species. MethodThe chloroplast genome sequences of A. absinthium and its related species were searched from Chloroplast Genome Information Resource (CGIR), and the specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites of A. absinthium were screened out. A pair of specific identification primers (zykh1-F and zykh1-R) of A. absinthium was designed. The original plant samples of A. absinthium and its related species were collected. The specific PCR method was established and optimized, and the tolerance and feasibility of this method were investigated and verified. The method was used to identify A. absinthium samples purchased from Xinjiang medicinal materials market. ResultA 210 bp bright band was obtained from A. absinthium after PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis under the following conditions: specific primers zykh1-F and zykh1-R, annealing temperature of 54 ℃, and the number of cycles of 33. No such band was observed from its relative species, such as A. argyi, A. annua, A. leucophylla, and A. lavandulaefolia. ConclusionThe specific PCR identification method of established in this study can accurately identify A. absinthium and its common related species with high specificity. The method can save time and cost and allows a convenient and fast species identification for the introduction and utilization of A. absinthium resources.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940735

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveIn order to ensure the safety and effectiveness of clinical drug use , the identification method of mixed and adulterated specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of Pheretima aspergillum and its processed products was established. MethodBased on the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I sequence of P. aspergillum, primers were designed to cover the whole sequences, and the stable DNA ranges suitable for the identification of Pheretima (P. aspergillum) formula granule were screened out. Specific primers were designed according to the specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of P. aspergillum in the stable DNA range. The P. aspergillum and its mixture were collected respectively, the PCR reaction system was established and optimized, and PCR reaction system and procedure were optimized, and the tolerance and applicability were investigated. ResultWhen the annealing temperature was 62 ℃ and the cycle number was 36, both P. aspergillum formula granule and its formula particles could amplify a single specific identification band of about 170 bp, and the other 20 adulterants and negative controls had no band. ConclusionThe allele-specific PCR identification method established in this study can quickly and accurately identify the P. aspergillum formula granule. The orgin of Chinese herbal medicine and decoction pieces and P. aspergillum were accurately identified. It can also provide a reference for other studies on the quality standard research of other Chinese herbal formula granule.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940734

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish a rapid screening method for germplasm materials of Gastrodia elata with high purity, and lay a foundation for pure line breeding and cross breeding. MethodBased on the whole genome sequencing and population resequencing of G. elata, 20 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were developed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-RFLP method was used to carry out restriction endonuclease experiments on 20 RFLP markers of 15 G. elata germplasms. According to the number of enzymatic bands at 20 RFLP marker sites, the purity of 15 germplasms was calculated and evaluated. On this basis, genome resequencing technology was used to verify the assessment results. ResultTen germplasm materials with purity greater than 95% were screened out by PCR-RFLP method, 3 of which had 95% purity and 7 had 100% purity. Nine germplasm materials with purity greater than 95% were screened out by genome resequencing methods, and 8 of them were consistent with the results of PCR-RFLP. ConclusionThe PCR-RFLP method established in this study for screening G. elata germplasms with high purity precision of RFLP markers has 80% precision and 89% accuracy. The method is simple, efficient, and significantly less expensive than genome resequencing method, which provides technical support for pure line breeding of G. elata and references for breeding of other Chinese medicinal materials.

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