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1.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 26-32, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic effect of tetrandrine(TET) on silicosis model rats and its toxic effect on liver and kidney function. METHODS: The specific pathogen free healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group, the model group and the TET group, with 14 rats in each group. By un-exposure tracheal injection method, the rats in the model and TET groups were given one-time tracheal infusion of free silicon dioxide suspension with a mass concentration of 50 g/L to establish the rat model of silicosis. Rats in the control group were infused with 1 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution with the same method. On the second day after the model was established, the TET group was given 30 mg/kg body mass of TET solution by gavage. The other two groups were given the same amount of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The treatment was once per day, six times per week. Seven rats in each group were sacrificed on the 28 th and 56 th days after modeling. The morphological change of the lung, liver and kidney tissues of each group was observed. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), interleukin(IL)-1β and IL-6, in the lung tissues of rats in each group. The activities of aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and the levels blood urea nitrogen(BUN), creatinine(CRE) were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. RESULTS: The lung organ coefficients of rats in the TET group were lower than those of the model group on the 28 th and 56 th days(all P<0.05). The lung organ coefficient of the rats in the TET group on the 56 th day was higher than that in the same group on the 28 th day(P<0.05). The lung tissue structure of the control group was normal. After modeling, the lung tissues of rats in model group showed different degrees of pathological changes such as alveolar structure destruction, inflammatory cell infiltration, and fibrosis on the 28 th and 56 th days. The degree of pathological changes in TET group was less than that of the model group. In the lung tissues of rats in the model group, the levels of TNF-α, TGF-β1, IL-1β and IL-6 were higher than those of the control group(all P<0.01). The levels of TNF-α, TGF-β1, IL-1β and IL-6 in the lung tissues of rats in the TET group were lower than that of the model group(all P<0.01), but there was no statistically significant difference when compared with the control group(all P>0.05). The activities of ALT and AST in the TET group were higher than those in the model group and the control group(all P<0.01). The level of serum BUN in TET group was higher than that in control group(P<0.01), but it showed no statistical difference when compared with the control group(P>0.05). The level of serum CRE in each group showed no significant difference(P>0.05). There were no abnormal pathological changes found in the liver and kidney tissues of rats in each group at different times. CONCLUSION: TET can reduce the inflammatory response in silicosis rats and improve lung tissue fibrosis; however, the therapeutic dose may have certain toxicity to the liver and kidney of the silicosis rats.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 865-871, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876530

ABSTRACT

The article was to study the effect of local photodynamics therapy combined with carbon dioxide lattice laser - "light needles" for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) cubic liquid crystal using glyceryl monostearate (GMO) as the substrate was prepared. The cytotoxicity of 5-ALA cubic liquid crystal combined with light needles in vitro were evaluated. The pharmacodynamics study of 5-ALA cubic liquid crystal combined with light needles of high or low energy for BCC was carried out based on the pathological changes, tumor volume, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the recurrence rate, which has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine. The cubic liquid crystal was isotropic with the lattice of PN3M. The cytotoxicity of 5-ALA cubic liquid crystal combined with light needles was much higher than that of 5-ALA or light needles alone. Compared with light needles or photodynamic therapy alone, 5-ALA cubic liquid crystal combined with light needles of high energy could prevent the BCC metastasis and of low energy could inhibit BCC growth. It demonstrated the obvious therapeutical effects for BCC. 5-ALA cubic liquid crystal combined with light needles can effectively treat BCC, which provides a new choice for clinical BCC treatment.

3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1892-1898, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-formamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) combined with interferon (IFN-α-2b) on the proliferation and apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells, and explore its possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#CCK-8 method was used to detect the inhibition of cell proliferation. Wright Giemsa method was used to stain and cell morphology was observed by light microscopy. FITC Annexin V/PI double staining method was used to analyze the change of apoptosis rate. Immunocytochemistry method was used to detect the expression of wild-type P53 protein.@*RESULTS@#Different concentration of AICAR was inhibitory effect on K562 cells at different time point of action for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the inhibition was time and dose-dependent (r=0.71, r=0.84). The combination of AICAR and IFN-α-2b could effectively inhibit the proliferation and promote apoptosis of K562 cells. The inhibition rate of K562 cells was (45.26±2.54)%, and the early apoptosis rate was (33.72±0.23)%, which was statistically significantly different from the control group, AICAR or IFN-ɑ-2b alone (P<0.05). The combination of two drugs promoted the expression of wild-type p53 protein.@*CONCLUSION@#AICAR and/or IFN-ɑ-2b can inhibit the cell proliferation and promote the apoptosis of K562 cells. The combination of two drugs shows synergistic antitumor effect, and its mechanism may be related to the promotion of high expression of wild-type p53 protein.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Formamides , Humans , Imidazoles , Interferons , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Ribonucleotides/pharmacology
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1691-1698, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823306

ABSTRACT

italic>Shiraia bambusiccola is an important medicinal fungus in China. Hypocrellins with perylenequinone skeleton are main bioactive components of Shiraia bambusiccola, which are widely used in food, medicine, pesticide and other fields as natural photosensitizers. For example, "hypocrellin ointment" has already been used clinically. As a rare and vulnerable species, wild Shiraia bambusiccola resources are very limited. Due to the complex structure and chanllenge in chemical total synthesis of hypocrellins, it is urgent to find an effective strategy to rationally utilize its medicinal value while protecting the wild resources. In this study, a candidate gene cluster hpc was identified in Shiraia sp. cfcc 84681 based on careful bioinformatic analysis. A heterologous expression system for hpc gene cluster was successfully constructed and a mutant strain with high yield of hypocrellins was obtained, which mainly produced hypocrellin A and isohypocrellin A. The main ingredients in the mutant strain are consistent with that in the wild Shiraia bambusiccola. These results provide a new strategy to solve the shortage of wild Shiraia bambusiccola resources.

5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2601-2611, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#In consideration of characteristics and functions, extra-cellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) signaling pathway could be a new target for spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment. Our study aimed to evaluate the roles of ERK5 signaling pathway in secondary damage of SCI.@*METHODS@#We randomly divided 70 healthy Wistar rats into five groups: ten in the blank group, 15 in the sham surgery + BIX02188 (sham + B) group, 15 in the sham surgery + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; sham + D) group, 15 in the SCI + BIX02188 (SCI + B) group, and 15 in the SCI + DMSO (SCI + D) group. BIX02188 is a specific inhibitor of the ERK5 signaling pathway. SCI was induced by the application of vascular clips (with the force of 30 g) to the dura on T10 level, while rats in the sham surgery group underwent only T9-T11 laminectomy. BIX02188 or DMSO was intra-thecally injected at 1, 6, and 12 h after surgery or SCI. Spinal cord samples were taken for testing at 24 h after surgery or SCI.@*RESULTS@#Expression of phosphorylated-ERK5 (p-ERK5) significantly increased after SCI. Application of BIX02188 indeed inhibited ERK5 signaling pathway and reduced the degree of spinal cord tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and apoptosis (measured by TdT-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling, expression of Fas-ligand, BCL2-associated X [Bax], and B-cell lymphoma-2 [Bcl-2]). Double immunofluorescence revealed activation of ERK5 in neurons and microglia after SCI.@*CONCLUSION@#ERK5 signaling pathway was activated in spinal neurons and microglia, contributing to secondary injury of SCI. Moreover, inhibition of ERK5 signaling pathway could alleviate the degree of SCI, which might be related to its regulation of infiltration of inflammatory cells and release of inflammatory cytokines, expression of NF-κB and cell apoptosis.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2011-2018, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780294

ABSTRACT

The Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastatic mouse model was used to investigate the effects of gefitinib and Sijunzi Tang (SJZ) on pre-metastatic niche. The experimental protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee which belongs to Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. To generate spontaneous lung metastatic models, 1×106 luciferase-labeled LLC cells were injected subcutaneously in the shaved right flank of mice. One day after LLC inoculation, the mice were randomly divided into model (saline), gefitinib (50 mg·kg-1) treatment, SJZ treatment (25.74 g·kg-1), and co-treatment gefitinib with SJZ groups, with intragastrical administration. After 14 days of continuous administration, tumor size was detected by IVIS® Spectrum system. The number of monocytes and neutrophils and the expression levels of chemokine receptors (CXCR1, CCR2) and carcinogenic gene (c-Kit), in peripheral blood, spleen and lung tissues of mice were determined by flow cytometry. The contents of interleukin-IL-1α (IL-1α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After 21 days of treatment, tumors were surgically removed, weighed and the tumor volume was measured with vernier caliper and the antitumor effect of co-administration was evaluated. After 45 days of administration, the survival of mice was recorded. The results of flow cytometry showed that the percentage of neutrophils in gefitinib group, SJZ group, and co-treatment group was significantly decreased in the lung tissue compared to the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but there was no significant difference between three treatment groups (P>0.05). In the mouse peripheral blood and lung tissue, compared with the model group, the expression levels of CXCR1, CCR2 and c-Kit on the surface of neutrophils and monocytes in SJZ group and co-treatment group decreased or decreased significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05). However, there was a significant increase in the expression level of c-Kit on the surface of monocytes (P<0.05). In the mouse spleen tissue, the expression levels of CXCR1, CCR2 and c-Kit in the gefitinib group increased significantly (P<0.05), while decreased significantly in SJZ or co-treatment group (P<0.05). The results of ELISA showed that the content of IL-1α in SJZ group decreased significantly in the plasma of the mice compared with the model group (P<0.01) and the content of IL-6 in co-treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the gefitinib group, the content of IL-1 in the co-treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.05). In the tumor tissues of mice, compared with the model group, the content of IL-1α in the co-treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.05). Furthermore, the content of IL-1α in co-administrated group and IL-6 in SJZ or co-treatment group decreased significantly compared with the gefitinib group (P<0.05). After 21 days of continuous administration, the tumor inhibition rates of gefitinib group, SJZ group and co-administrated group were 45.7%, 38.4%, and 84.8%, respectively. After 45 days of administration, the survival rate of the model group was 0%, whereas the gefitinib, SJZ or co-treatment group has a survival rate of 40%, 60%, or 60%, respectively. In summary, our study illustrated that Sijunzi Tang could improve the anti-tumor effect of gefitinib by regulating pre-metastatic niche.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of (resolving stasis, promoting collateral circulation) moxibustion on learning and memory ability and the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) in the rats of vascular dementia (VD) in the microenvironment of neurovascular niche.@*METHODS@#Using 2-vessel occlusion (2-VO), the VD rat models were duplicated. The neural stem cells (NSCs) labeled with lentiviral vector-mediated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were co-cultured with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to structure the NSCs + EPCs implant. The implant was transplanted into the lateral ventricle of VD rats and the VD rat models with neurovascular niche were established. In No.1 experiment, the successful-modeled rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e. a NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group, a NSCs + EPCs blank group and a model group, 12 rats in each one. No any treatment was provided in the model group and the NSCs + EPCs blank group. The moxibustion therapy was adopted in the NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group, in which, the suspending moxibustion technique was applied to "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenting" (GV 24), 20 min at each acupoint. The treatment was given once every day and a 14-day treatment was as one course. Totally, 3 courses of treatment were required. At the end of treatment, Morris water maze experiment was adopted to determine the learning and memory ability of the rats in each group. In the No.2 experiment, the model rats were divided into 3 groups, a NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group, a NSCs + EPCs blank group and a model group, 18 rats in each one. In each group, according to the durations of treatment, 3 subgroups were divided and 6 rats in each one. The intervention method was same as the No.1 experiment. Additionally, after corresponding treatment course, using perfusion, the brains were collected in each subgroup and the slices were frozen. BDNF/TrkB expressions were observed in the immunofluorescence test.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, in the NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group, the escape incubation was reduced, the time of the first running-cross platform was shortened and the frequency of running-cross platform increased as compared with the model group and the NSCs + EPCs blank group (<0.01, <0.05). The protein expressions were increased in tendency among the 3 courses of treatment in the NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group, indicating the significant differences (all <0.05), in which, the increase of the protein expressions in the NSCs + EPCs moxibustion group was better than the NSCs + EPCs blank group (<0.05, <0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The moxibustion therapy is the effective approach to VD in clinical treatment. This therapy up-regulates the BDNF/TrkB protein expressions in the microenvironment of neurovascular niche, co-modulates NSCs-EPCs coupling mechanism, promotes nerve neogenesis and repairs the injured nerve.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Complement Factor B , Dementia, Vascular , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hippocampus , Moxibustion , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
8.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1081-1086, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776209

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the action mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) based on Wnt/beta-catenin (Wnt/β-catenin) signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#Ten rats were randomly selected into a sham-operation group among 50 male 2-month-old SD rats, and the KOA model was established in the remaining 40 rats by modified Hulth method. Four weeks after the model establishment, the rats were randomly divided into a model group, an experimental A group, an experimental B group and an experimental C group, 10 rats in each group. The rats in the sham-operation group and model group did not receive any intervention. The rats in the experimental A group were treated with EA at "Neixiyan" (EX-LE 4) and "Dubi"(ST 35) for 15 min. The rats in the experimental B group were treated with EA at "Neixiyan" (EX-LE 4) and "Dubi"(ST 35) for 30 min. The rats in the experimental C group were treated with EA at non-acupoint for 15 min. EA intervention was given once a day, five times a week, and totally 12-week treatment was given. After 12 weeks, the knee cartilage tissues were stained and the morphological changes were observed under light microscopy; the severity of cartilage degeneration was evaluated by modified Mankin's score; the content of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in synovium tissues was detected by ELISA method; the content of Wnt-4, β-catenin and matrix metalloprotein-13 (MMP-13) in cartilage tissues was detected by Western blot method.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, in the model group the morphology and structure of cartilage were disordered, the number of cells was significantly reduced, the matrix was decontaminated and tidal line was incomplete; the Mankin's score was significantly increased (0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EA at "Neixiyan" (EX-LE 4) and "Dubi"(ST 35) may reduce the expression of MMP-13 and the production of inflammatory factor IL-1β through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, thus inhibit the degradation of cartilage matrix and the apoptosis of chondrocyte, and improve the morphology and structure of cartilage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cartilage, Articular , Metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Humans , Male , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Therapeutics , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Wnt Signaling Pathway
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2601-2611, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803154

ABSTRACT

Background@#In consideration of characteristics and functions, extra-cellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) signaling pathway could be a new target for spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment. Our study aimed to evaluate the roles of ERK5 signaling pathway in secondary damage of SCI.@*Methods@#We randomly divided 70 healthy Wistar rats into five groups: ten in the blank group, 15 in the sham surgery + BIX02188 (sham + B) group, 15 in the sham surgery + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; sham + D) group, 15 in the SCI + BIX02188 (SCI + B) group, and 15 in the SCI + DMSO (SCI + D) group. BIX02188 is a specific inhibitor of the ERK5 signaling pathway. SCI was induced by the application of vascular clips (with the force of 30 g) to the dura on T10 level, while rats in the sham surgery group underwent only T9-T11 laminectomy. BIX02188 or DMSO was intra-thecally injected at 1, 6, and 12 h after surgery or SCI. Spinal cord samples were taken for testing at 24 h after surgery or SCI.@*Results@#Expression of phosphorylated-ERK5 (p-ERK5) significantly increased after SCI. Application of BIX02188 indeed inhibited ERK5 signaling pathway and reduced the degree of spinal cord tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and apoptosis (measured by TdT-mediated 2′-deoxyuridine 5′-triphosphate nickend labeling, expression of Fas-ligand, BCL2-associated X [Bax], and B-cell lymphoma-2 [Bcl-2]). Double immunofluorescence revealed activation of ERK5 in neurons and microglia after SCI.@*Conclusion@#ERK5 signaling pathway was activated in spinal neurons and microglia, contributing to secondary injury of SCI. Moreover, inhibition of ERK5 signaling pathway could alleviate the degree of SCI, which might be related to its regulation of infiltration of inflammatory cells and release of inflammatory cytokines, expression of NF-κB and cell apoptosis.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801990

ABSTRACT

Cerebral hemorrhage, also known as hemorrhagic stroke, refers to non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Cerebral hemorrhage is a common and frequently-occurring disease in middle-aged and elderly people. It has the characteristics of high mortality and high disability rate. Most survivors have serious neurological deficits, which seriously threaten human health and quality of life.The pathological process of cerebral hemorrhage is more complicated, including the formation and expansion of hematoma, elevated intracranial pressure, destruction of blood-brain barrier, brain edema, neuronal apoptosis and neurological dysfunction.At present, the main methods for treating cerebral hemorrhage by western medicine include antiplatelet therapy, blood pressure reduction and hematoma surgery. However, it is usually accompanied by the risk of rebleeding caused by surgery, infection, nerve damage and insufficient effective perfusion pressure. Chinese medicine believes that blood stasis and endogenous fever are the most basic pathogenesis of acute cerebral hemorrhage. The previous studies found that many traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) can improve blood-brain barrier damage, brain edema, neuronal apoptosis and neurological dysfunction related to cerebral hemorrhage to reduce cerebral hemorrhage injury. Main signal transduction pathways regulated by TCM to treat cerebral hemorrhageinclude Aquaporin 4(AQP4)-related, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/Akt), nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB),suppressor protein 53/Bcl-2-associated X protein/Caspase-3(p53/Bax/Caspase-3)molecular pathways, etc.In this paper, based on the current Chinese medicine to improve the brain damage caused by cerebral hemorrhage and the molecular pathway of intervention, it reviews the research progress published in foreign journals in the past ten years, in order to provide clues and reference for the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke diseases and and the further development of new drugs.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773808

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of hydrogen sulfide (HS) on the negatively regulation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the relationship between the effect of HS with miRNA-133a-mediated Ca/calcineurin/NFATc4 signal pathway.@*METHODS@#Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol (ISO). The cell surface area was measured by image analysis system (Leica). The expression of brain natriuretic peptide(BNP), β-myosin heavy chain(β-MHC), cystathionase (CSE), miRNA-133a, calcineurin (CaN) were detected by qRT-PCR. The protein expressions of CaN、nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFATc4) were detected by Western blot. The concentration of HS in the cardiomyocyte was detected by Elisa. The concentration of intracellular calcium was measured by calcium imaging using confocal microscope. The nuclear translocation of NFATc4 was checked by immuno-fluorescence cell staining technique.@*RESULTS@#①The level of system of CSE/HS and expression of miRNA-133a were significantly reduced in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Pretreatment with NaHS increased the concentration of HS and the expression of miRNA-133a mRNA in cardiomyocytes, and suppressed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. ②The concentration of intracellular calcium, the expression of CaN and nulear protein NFATc4 were significantly increased, and the nuclear translocation of NFATc4 were obviously enhanced in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. NaHS pretreatment markedly inhibited these effects of ISO induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. ③Application of antagomir-133a reversed the inhibitory effects of NaHS on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and increased the influx of intracellular calcium, and elevated the expression of CaN and nuclear protein NFATc4, and enhanced the nuclear translocation of NFATc4.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HS can negatively regulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The effects might be associated with HS increasing expression of miRNA-133a and inhibiting inactivation of Ca/calcineurin/NFATc4 signal pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcineurin , Metabolism , Cardiomegaly , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase , Metabolism , Hydrogen Sulfide , Metabolism , MicroRNAs , Metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac , Metabolism , Myosin Heavy Chains , Metabolism , NFATC Transcription Factors , Metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Metabolism , Rats , Signal Transduction
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773566

ABSTRACT

The steroidal saponins are one of the saponin types that exist in an unbound state and have various pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and nerves-calming properties. Cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. Significant progress has been made to understand the antitumor effects of steroidal saponins in recent years. According to reported findings, steroidal saponins exert various antitumor activities, such as inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and autophagy, and regulating the tumor microenvironment, through multiple related signaling pathways. This article focuses on the advances in domestic and foreign studies on the antitumor activity and mechanism of actions of steroidal saponins in the last five years to provide a scientific basis and research ideas for further development and clinical application of steroidal saponins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Saponins , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Steroids , Chemistry , Pharmacology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-699614

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the protective effects of Toona sinensis leaf extract on the retina of rats with high-fat diet and the expression of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated x protein (Bax).Methods Together 24 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group (N group),hyperlipidemia model group (HF group) and hyperlipidemia model + toona sinensis leaf extract (HF + TSLE group),and then hyperlipidemia model was induced by fed high-fat diet in the latter two groups;after 8 weeks,the model was confirmed to be successful,and the rats in HF + TSLE group were fed with TSLE solution for 4 weeks continuously,and rats in N group and HF group were given the same dose of physiological saline.At the end of the twelfth week,all rats were followed by the examination of flash electroretinogram (FERG),serum lipid total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).Then,HE staining was performed in the retinas,the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting for the analysis of the correlation between the expression level of apoptotic protein Bax and the abnormal function of FERG.Results In HF group,the content of HDL-C decreased,and the contents of TC,TG and LDL-C were higher than those in N group,and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05).The contents of TC,TG and LDL-C in HF + TSLE group were lower than those in HF group,but the content of HDL-C was significantly increased,and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05).The content of HDL-C in HF + TSLE group was lower than that in N group,while the contents of TC,TG and LDL-C were higher than those in N group,and the differences were not statistically significant (all P >0.05).The difference of a wave latency between the three groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05),and the latency of a wave in HF group was longer than that in N group,while HF + TSLE group was shorter than HF group,and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05),but HF + TSLE group was longer than N group,and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).Moreover,there was no significant difference in the incubation period of b wave in the three groups (P > 0.05);and there was no significant difference in the amplitude of a wave and b wave in the three groups (all P > 0.05).In addition,HF group had lower expression level of Bcl-2 and overexpression of Bax than N group.The expression level of Bcl-2 increased and Bax expression level decreased significantly in HF + TSLE group,and the expression level of Bax was positively correlated with the latency of a wave and b wave (all P < 0.05),but was not correlated with amplitude of a wave and b wave (all P > 0.05).Conclusion TSLE has an important role in the retina of rats with abnormal lipid metabolism,and it may play a protective role by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax.

14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1079-1085, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-686979

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Facing the increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), this study aimed to evaluate the management of GDM and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes.</p><p><b>Methods</b>The data of 996 inpatients with GDM who terminated pregnancies in our hospital from January 2011 to December 2015 were collected. Treatments during pregnancy and the last hospital admission before delivery were analyzed. Pregnancy outcomes of the GDM patients were compared with 996 nondiabetic subjects matched by delivery year and gestational age. The association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and adverse pregnancy outcomes was examined by logistic regression analyses.</p><p><b>Results</b>The average prevalence of GDM over the 5 years was 4.4% (1330/30,191). Within the GDM patients, 42.8% (426/996) received dietary intervention, whereas 19.1% (190/996) received insulin treatment. Adverse outcomes were more likely to occur in patients with unsatisfactory control of blood glucose such as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, χ = 13.373, P < 0.01). Elevated FPG was identified as an independent risk factor for premature birth (odds ratio [OR] = 1.460, P < 0.001), neonatal care unit admission (OR = 1.284, P < 0.001), RDS (OR = 1.322, P = 0.001), and stillbirth (OR = 1.427, P < 0.001).</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>Management of GDM in the real world of clinical practice was unsatisfactory, which might have contributed to adverse pregnancy outcomes.</p>


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes, Gestational , Blood , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Blood , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 730-733, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818053

ABSTRACT

Objective Erythroderma is a very serious disease that affects nearly the entire cutaneous surface and are highly subjected to secondary hypoalbuminemia, infection, cardiovascular diseases, complex causes and high death rates. The article aimed to explore the etiology, comorbidities and complicated infection of erythroderma.Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of 95 cases of erythroderma in our department from January 2009 to August 2016. Observations were made on the patients' clinical characteristics, etiology and inducement, lab examination, complications and complicated infection.Results There were 73 first-episode and 22 recurrent patients, among which 14 cases are psoriasis as the basic disease. As to etiological factors, there were 57 cases secondary to other skin diseases (60%) and 25 cases by drug reactions (26%). As to inducing factors, there were 6 cases by upper respiratory tract infection, 38 cases by irrational application of glucocorticoids, and 7 cases by external stimulants (traditional Chinese medicine scrubbing and external medicinal liquor). The main complications were 38 cases of cardiovascular diseases (40%). The complicated infection rates of plasma albumin in patients <35g/L and ≥35g/L were 65.78% and 12.28%(P<0.01). The complicated infection rates of the patients with hypoalbuminemia and electrolyte disturbance were 44.2% and 25% respectively (P<0.05).Conclusion The erythroderma is mainly secondary to previous skin diseases, mostly psoriasis, with cardiovascular diseases as the main comorbidities. In clinical practice, importance should be attached to monitoring decreased plasma albumin level and electrolyte disturbances in order to reduce the risk of infection.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812355

ABSTRACT

The steroidal saponins are one of the saponin types that exist in an unbound state and have various pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and nerves-calming properties. Cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. Significant progress has been made to understand the antitumor effects of steroidal saponins in recent years. According to reported findings, steroidal saponins exert various antitumor activities, such as inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and autophagy, and regulating the tumor microenvironment, through multiple related signaling pathways. This article focuses on the advances in domestic and foreign studies on the antitumor activity and mechanism of actions of steroidal saponins in the last five years to provide a scientific basis and research ideas for further development and clinical application of steroidal saponins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Saponins , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Steroids , Chemistry , Pharmacology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-660260

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside RG3 on choroidal neovascularization in vitro and in vivo.Methods MTT assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside RG3 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro,and HUVEC were divided into normal group,in which the cells were cultured in DMEM/F-12 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum,control group with its medium containing 2 g · L-1 dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and different concentrations of ginsenoside RG3 administration group (12.5 μmol · L-1,25.0 imol · L-1,50.0 μmol · L-1,100.0 μmol · L-1).Then the absorbance value was measured after 6 h.Then,a small amount of HUVEC was collected again and divided into control group with its medium containing 2 g · L-1 DMSO and 100.0 μrnol · L-1 ginsenoside RG3 group for detecting the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside RG3 on tubular formation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression by Western blots.In vivo,20 male C57BL/6J mice were collected and randomly divided into control group and ginsenoside RG3 group.After 2 weeks,followed by establishment of model with a semiconductor laser,fundus fluorescein angiography was performed on the 1 st day and 21 st days after treatment.Results MTT results showed that absorbance value of the normal group,control group,12.5 μnol · L-1,25.0 μmol · L-1,50.0 μmol · L-1,100.0 μmol · L-1 ginsenoside RG3 group was 0.43 +0.17,0.43 ±0.05,0.33 +0.02,0.24 +0.02,0.18 ±0.01,0.15 ±0.01 accordingly,and there was no significant difference between the control group and the normal group (all P > 0.05),but the difference between the other group and control group was statistically significant (all P < 0.05).Tubular formation assay showed that the number of tubular formation in the control group and 100.0 μmol · L-1 ginsenoside RG3 group was 72.5 + 5.56 and 11.33 ± 3.71,respectively,and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01).Western blots showed that the relative expression of VEGF in 100.0 μmol · L-1 ginsenoside RG3 group (0.14 ±0.01) was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.46 ±0.01),and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.01).In vivo fundus fluorescein anglography showed that the fluorescein leakage area of ginsenoside RG3 group was lower than that of the control group.Conclusion Ginsenosid RG3 can inhibit the formation of choroidal neovascularization by inhibiting the expression of VEGF in vitro and in vivo.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-657810

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside RG3 on choroidal neovascularization in vitro and in vivo.Methods MTT assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside RG3 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro,and HUVEC were divided into normal group,in which the cells were cultured in DMEM/F-12 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum,control group with its medium containing 2 g · L-1 dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and different concentrations of ginsenoside RG3 administration group (12.5 μmol · L-1,25.0 imol · L-1,50.0 μmol · L-1,100.0 μmol · L-1).Then the absorbance value was measured after 6 h.Then,a small amount of HUVEC was collected again and divided into control group with its medium containing 2 g · L-1 DMSO and 100.0 μrnol · L-1 ginsenoside RG3 group for detecting the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside RG3 on tubular formation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression by Western blots.In vivo,20 male C57BL/6J mice were collected and randomly divided into control group and ginsenoside RG3 group.After 2 weeks,followed by establishment of model with a semiconductor laser,fundus fluorescein angiography was performed on the 1 st day and 21 st days after treatment.Results MTT results showed that absorbance value of the normal group,control group,12.5 μnol · L-1,25.0 μmol · L-1,50.0 μmol · L-1,100.0 μmol · L-1 ginsenoside RG3 group was 0.43 +0.17,0.43 ±0.05,0.33 +0.02,0.24 +0.02,0.18 ±0.01,0.15 ±0.01 accordingly,and there was no significant difference between the control group and the normal group (all P > 0.05),but the difference between the other group and control group was statistically significant (all P < 0.05).Tubular formation assay showed that the number of tubular formation in the control group and 100.0 μmol · L-1 ginsenoside RG3 group was 72.5 + 5.56 and 11.33 ± 3.71,respectively,and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01).Western blots showed that the relative expression of VEGF in 100.0 μmol · L-1 ginsenoside RG3 group (0.14 ±0.01) was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.46 ±0.01),and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.01).In vivo fundus fluorescein anglography showed that the fluorescein leakage area of ginsenoside RG3 group was lower than that of the control group.Conclusion Ginsenosid RG3 can inhibit the formation of choroidal neovascularization by inhibiting the expression of VEGF in vitro and in vivo.

19.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1073-1082, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-858680

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of seven tannins in Chebulae Fructus, including gallic acid, chebulic acid, corilagin, ethyl gallate, ellagic acid, chebulagic acid and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6-O-pentagalloylglucose and determine the contents of the seven tannins in Chebulae Fructus Retz from different areas. METHODS: The HPLC analysis was carried out on an Hypersil ODS2 C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) column with acetonitrile (A) and 0.05% formic acid solution in water (B) as mobile phase in a linear gradient elution mode. The UV detection wavelength was set at 290 nm and the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1. RESULTS: The calibration curves of the seven tannins all showed good linearity (r>0.999 8). The recovery rates were in the range of 95.2% to 98.4%. All the seven tannins could be detected in the two kinds of Chebulae Fructus Retz from eight regions, but the amounts of these tannins varied significantly. The contents of the seven tannins active ingredients in Chebulae Fructus of Terminalia chebula Retz from Hainan, Guangxi, Guangdong and Xinjiang were much higher than those from other areas, while those in Chebulae Fructus of Terminalia chebula Retz. var. tomentella Kurt were higher in Guangdong and Guangxi than other areas. CONCLUSION: The method is proved to be accurate and valid, and can be used for the quality control of Terminalia chebula Retz.

20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 174-180, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310687

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Current knowledge about clinical and genetic risk factors for aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury is not sufficient to prevent these gastric mucosal lesions.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We recruited aspirin takers as the exposed group and healthy volunteers as the control group. The exposed group was categorized into two subgroups such as subgroup A as gastric mucosal injury diagnosed by gastroscopy, including erosion, ulcer or bleeding of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum; subgroup B as no injury of the gastric mucosa was detected by gastroscopy. Clinical information was collected, and 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 385 participants, 234 were in the aspirin-exposed group. According to gastroscopy, 82 belonged to subgroup A, 91 belonged to subgroup B, and gastroscopic results of 61 participants were not available. Using the Chi-square test and logistic regression, we found that peptic ulcer history (odds ratio [OR] = 5.924, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.115-16.592), dual anti-platelet medication (OR = 3.443, 95% CI: 1.154-10.271), current Helicobacter pylori infection (OR = 2.242, 95% CI: 1.032-4.870), male gender (OR = 2.211, 95% CI: 1.027-4.760), GG genotype of rs2243086 (OR = 4.516, 95% CI: 1.180-17.278), and AA genotype of rs1330344 (OR = 2.178, 95% CI: 1.016-4.669) were more frequent in subgroup A than subgroup B. In aspirin users who suffered from upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the frequency of the TT genotype of rs2238631 and TT genotype of rs2243100 was higher than in those without upper gastrointestinal bleeding.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Peptic ulcer history, dual anti-platelet medication, H. pylori current infection, and male gender were possible clinical risk factors for aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. GG genotype of rs2243086 and AA genotype of rs1330344 were possible genetic risk factors. TT genotype of rs2238631 and TT genotype of rs2243100 may be risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in aspirin users.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Aspirin , Female , Gastric Mucosa , Wounds and Injuries , Genotype , Helicobacter Infections , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptic Ulcer , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics , Risk Factors
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