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1.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 420-427, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933873

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate whether it is by regulating interleukin 1β ( IL-1β) gene expression that androgen receptor (AR) in macrophages affects hyperphosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. Methods:The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiment was used to determine whether AR was bound to the androgen receptor element (ARE) sequence of IL-1β promoter in THP-1 cells. Whether the AR regulated IL-1β gene expression was detected by luciferase assay experiments. AR of THP-1 cells was silenced and transfected by lentivirus with vector or shRNA. Flow cytometry was used to select positive transfected cells THP-1ARsc (control) and THP-1ARsi (AR silencing) with fluorescent markers. Western blotting was used to detect AR protein levels of THP-1ARsc (control) and THP-1ARsi cells (AR silencing in monocytes). Macrophages MФARsc (control) or MФARsi (AR silencing) were induced by 50 ng/ml phorbol ester. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect IL-1β expression levels of MФARsc or MФARsi conditioned medium. The human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) were cultured in MФARsc or MФARsi conditioned medium with phosphate (2.5 mmol/L final concentration of sodium dihydrogen phosphate), and Alizarin red S staining was used to analyze HASMC calcification degree. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of RUNX2 (osteoblast marker) and SM22α (HASMC marker), and neutralization assay was performed to test IL-1β-mediating effect of macrophages AR on HASMC calcification. Results:AR was bound to ARE sequence of IL-1β promoter and regulated IL-1β gene expression. The expression level of IL-1β protein in conditioned medium of MФARsi cells decreased significantly compared to MФARsc cells ( P<0.001). Compared with MФARsc conditioned medium group, HASMC calcium deposition in MФARsi conditioned medium group decreased significantly, RUNX2 protein decreased and SM22α protein increased (all P<0.05). The degree of HASMC calcification in the MФARsi conditioned medium+IgG antibody group decreased than that in the MФARsc conditioned medium+IgG antibody group significantly, and the degree of HASMC calcification in the MФARsc conditioned medium+IL-1β antibody group decreased significantly than that in the MФARsc conditioned medium+IgG antibody group; while the degree of HASMC calcification in the MФARsi conditioned medium+IgG antibody group and MФARsi conditioned medium+IL-1β antibody group decreased than that in the MФARsc conditioned medium+IL-1β antibody group (all P<0.05). Conclusions:Macrophage AR regulates IL-1β expression by binding to ARE sequence within IL-1β promoter, and IL-1β mediates the effect of macrophage AR on hyperphosphate-induced HASMC calcification.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907424

ABSTRACT

Random systematic biopsy is the standard method for diagnosing prostate cancer. As the improvement of multi-parameter magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and its corresponding scoring system, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)-targeted target biopsy has been an effective alternative to traditional systemic puncture. Prostate imaging reporting and data system(PI-RADS) is the most commonly used MRI-scoring system. The negative rate of prostate cancer in the patient with PI-RADS scores of 1 and 2 was 90.8%(95% CI, 88.1%~93.1%), and the diagnosis rates of clinically meaningful prostate cancer in the patient with PI-RADS scores of 3, 4, and 5 was 20.9%, 58.3% and 80.7%, respectively. That means that MRI targeted prostate biopsy can more effectively detect clinically meaningful prostate cancer on the basis of reducing unnecessary punctures. There are three effective MRI guided target biopsy method for prostate biopsy, including MRI guided target biopsy(MRI-TB), MRI-TRUS fusion target biopsy(FUS-TB) and cognitive fusion target biopsy(COG-TB). Considering the false negative rate and discrepant image quality, MRI-targeted target biopsy still cannot completely replace the traditional systemic puncture. However, it can be seen that the targeted combined system puncture is the future development trend.

3.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 685-690, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911096

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of neoadjuvant chemo-hormonal therapy(NCHT)followed by radical prostatectomy(RP) plus extended pelvic lymphadenectomy for very-high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer.Methods:The data of 327 cases of very-high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer treated in Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, and The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from December 2014 to July 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to treatment regimens: the RP group (direct RP + extended pelvic lymphadenectomy 4-6 weeks after the biopsy of prostate) and the NCHT group (4-6 cycles of NCHT prior to RP). There were 171 cases in RP group and 156 cases in NCHT group, respectively. In the RP group, the median age was 67 (ranging 44-83)years. The median PSA at diagnosis was 27.24 (ranging 4.55-207.00) ng/ml. Patients’numbers of clinical T 2, T 3a, T 3b, T 4 stage were 13, 85, 57, 16, respectively, and clinical N 1, N 0 stage were 33 and 138, respectively. Patients’numbers of ISUP grade groups of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 were 5, 35, 41, 51, 39, respectively. In the NCHT group, The median age was 67 years, ranging 46-78 years. The median PSA at diagnosis was 72.09(ranging 4.08-722.95)ng/ml. Patients’ numbers of clinical T 2, T 3a, T 3b, T 4 stage were 11, 47, 58, 40, respectively, and clinical N 1, N 0stage were 76 and 80, respectively. Patients’numbers of ISUP grade groups of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 were 1, 11, 33, 43, 68, respectively. At baseline, the NCHT group showed higher PSA, higher ISUP grade, and more advanced clinical stage at diagnosis( P<0.05). The PSA, pathological down-staging rate, and positive surgical margin rate as well as the biochemical recurrence free survival(bRFS)were compared between the two groups. Results:After radical prostatectomy, compared with the RP group, the NCHT group had a higher proportion of patients achieving PSA<0.2 ng/ml at 6-week postoperative follow-up ( P<0.001), a higher pathologic tumor stage down-staging rate ( P<0.001), a higher ISUP down-grading rate ( P<0.001), and a lower positive surgical margins rate ( P<0.001). In addition, 10.9% of the NCHT group achieved pT 0 or minimal residual disease in postoperative pathology exams. Eighty-three patients (48.5%) in the RP group and 125 patients (80.1%) in the NCHT group achieved undetectable PSA after surgery and entered further analysis for bRFS, which showed NCHT group had significantly longer bRFS (19.46 months vs. 6.35 months). NCHT significantly reduced the risk for biochemical recurrence in locally advanced prostate cancer patients( HR=0.278, 95% CI 0.198-0.390, P<0.001). Such a reduce in risk for biochemical recurrence was seen in all subgroups( P<0.001). Conclusions:NCHT might improve surgical outcomes as well as bRFS in very-high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer patients.

4.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 65-66, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798868

ABSTRACT

Primary ureteral plasmacytoid carcinomas is a rare tumor with high grade and poor diagnosis. Pathological and immunohistochemical staining play an extremely key role in diagnosis since there is no specific clinical and radiological evidence. The surgical removement is the first line treatment. Herein, we report a case of ureteral plasmacytoid carcinoma that was well controlled with multimodal therapy.

5.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 769-771, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869743

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the pathogenesis and treatment of severe hematuria after sexual activity in men.Methods:A retrospective analysis of 10 patients with severe hematuria after sexual activity who were admitted from January 2017 to January 2020, including 4 cases from Peking University People’s Hospital, 3 cases from Donghua Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University, 2 cases from Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, and 1 case from Tianjin Jinnan Hospital. The average age of the patients was (33.5±7.6) years old. All 10 cases had severe hematuria and blood clots within 1 hour after sexual activity. The blood routine examination revealed that there were different degrees of hemorrhagic anemia after 24 hours of admission, and the average hemoglobin was(95.8±8.9)g/L. Ten patients underwent transurethral cystoscopy electrosurgical resection and / or electrocoagulation under subarachnoid anesthesia or epidural anesthesia. All patients were confirmed to be bleeding from posterior urethral lesions, including 4 cases located in the distal seminal caruncle, 5 cases in the prostate, and 1 case in proximal seminal caruncle. Three cases whose bleeding from varicose veins in the prostate urethra were treated with electrocoagulation in order to stop the bleeding, and lesions were removed in the other 7 cases for pathological examination. The F16 urinary catheter was indwelt after the operation.Results:All 10 operations in this group were successfully completed. Six cases of posterior urethral hemangioma rupture and 1 case of posterior urethral polyp were confirmed by the pathological examination in 7 cases. The urinary catheter was successfully removed 1 week after operation. Abstinence was required for 1 month after operation. There was no recurrence of hematuria after resuming sexual activity, and no complications such as dysuria or urinary incontinence.Conclusion:Severe hematuria after sexual activity is mostly caused by rupture or bleeding of abnormal blood vessels in the posterior urethra. Transurethral resection and/or electrocoagulation are the first choice for treatment. The effect is reliable and the prognosis is satisfactory.

6.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 65-66, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869596

ABSTRACT

Primary ureteral plasmacytoid carcinomas is a rare tumor with high grade and poor diagnosis.Pathological and immunohistochemical staining play an extremely key role in diagnosis since there is no specific clinical and radiological evidence.The surgical removement is the first line treatment.Herein,we report a case of ureteral plasmacytoid carcinoma that was well controlled with multimodal therapy.

7.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 192-196, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869337

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between YES-related protein 1(YAP1)and prostate-specific antigen(PSA)in human castration-resistant prostate cancer(CRPC), and explore the regulation mechanism of YAP1 on PSA.Methods:The luciferase reporter gene was used to detect the activity change of the PSA gene promoter region after the over expression of YAP1 in LNCaP and C4-2 cells.The effect of over expression of YAP1 gene on PSA protein in different prostate cancer cell lines was detected by Western blot(WB)method, and the effect of YAP1 silencing on PSA protein in C4-2 cells was observed.The Q-PCR method was used to further verify the expression change of PSA mRNA affected by YAP1 gene over expressed in C4-2 cells.Meanwhile, WB was used to explore the effect of YAP1 on androgen receptor(AR)in C4-2 cells.Results:After over expression YAP1 in CRPC, the luciferase experiment showed that the average C4-2 cell ratio of experimental group to control group was 3.17815892(>2 times, P<0.001). After Q-PCR detection of all over-expressed YAP1 gene fragments, the measured PSA mRNA values in the experimental groups were 2.306667, 1.553333333, 2.613333333, and 2.673333333, respectively, which were higher than those in the control group(1 time, P<0.001), indicating that the PSA expression was significantly increased.WB analysis showed that after C4-2 cells over expressed YAP1, the AR band was significantly enhanced in the experimental group compared with the control group, suggesting that the AR protein expression in the nucleus was significantly increased in the YAP1 over expression group. Conclusions:YAP1 might positively regulate the PSA expression in CRPC and have an ability to promote AR translocation into the nucleus.

8.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 742-746, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796746

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the risk factors of postoperative upgrade to pT3a of cT1 renal cell carcinoma, and to establish a nomogram prediction model to improve the ability of predicting locally advanced renal cell carcinoma and provide a reference for clinical surgical decision-making.@*Methods@#Clinical data of 1 376 patients with cT1 (diameter ≤ 7 cm) renal tumor hospitalized for surgery from January 2010 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 979 males and 397 females, with the mean age of (57.65±10.92) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was (25.47±3.27) kg/m2 and the average tumor size was (4.02±1.52) cm. There were 711 tumors on the left and 665 on the right. There were 363 cases with clinical symptoms, 567 patients with smoking history , 732 cases with history of chronic disease. There were 289 cases with tumor necrosis, 636 cases with tumor protrusion, 822 cases with irregular tumor , and 738 cases with renal sinus compression. Partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy were performed in 396 cases and 980 cases respectively. Mann-whitney U test and chi-square test were used for univariate analysis, logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis to analyze the predictors of upgrading, R software was used to construct the nomogram predictive model, C-index was used to evaluate the model discrimination, and calibration curve method was used to evaluate the consistency of the model.@*Results@#Postoperative pathology of total 1 376 cases showed that there were 1 195 cases of clear cell carcinoma of kidney, 48 cases of papillary cell carcinoma, 57 cases of chromophobe cell carcinoma, and 76 cases of other types. Among the 1 376 patients with cT1 renal tumor, 75 patients were upgraded to pT3a, accounting for 5.5% of all patients. Univariate analysis showed that the patients who upgraded to pT3a were older [(63.08±10.17) years old and (57.34±10.88) years old], and the tumor length and diameter were larger [(5.24±1.35) cm and (3.95±1.51) cm]. Patients with clinical symptoms [46.7% (35/75) vs. 25.2%(328/1 301)], patients with CT indication of tumor necrosis [40.0%(30/25 975) vs. 19.9% (259/1 301)], patients with irregular tumor contour [73.3%(55/76 775) vs. 59.0%(767/1 301)], and patients with radical nephrectomy were higher [(92.1% (70/91 075) vs. 70%(910/1 301)]. All the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the independent predictors of upgrading were age (OR=1.046, P<0.001), larger tumor (OR=1.504, P<0.001), clinically symptom (OR=2.153, P=0.004), irregular tumor profile (OR=2.466, P=0.002), and tumor necrosis on CT (OR=2.588, P<0.001). The C-index was 0.808, the calibration curve of forecasting curve with the standard curve fit was good, and the prediction of renal cancer are better in predict consistency.@*Conclusions@#Based on the five preoperative predictors, including age, tumor size, clinical presence or absence of symptoms, tumor profile, and whether or not the tumor necrosis indicated by CT, this study developed a nomogram of cT1 renal cancer upgrade to pT3a. This nomogram has a good statistical significance, and this model can provide prognosis consultation for patients and provide reference for doctors to make decisions before treatment.

9.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 742-746, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-791678

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the risk factors of postoperative upgrade to pT3a of cT1 renal cell carcinoma,and to establish a nomogram prediction model to improve the ability of predicting locally advanced renal cell carcinoma and provide a reference for clinical surgical decision-making.Methods Clinical data of 1 376 patients with cT1 (diameter ≤ 7 cm) renal tumor hospitalized for surgery from January 2010 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.There were 979 males and 397 females,with the mean age of (57.65 ± 10.92) years.The mean body mass index (BMI) was (25.47 ± 3.27) kg/m2 and the average tumor size was (4.02 ±1.52) cm.There were 711 tumors on the left and 665 on the right.There were 363 cases with clinical symptoms,567 patients with smoking history,732 cases with history of chronic disease.There were 289 cases with tumor necrosis,636 cases with tumor protrusion,822 cases with irregular tumor,and 738 cases with renal sinus compression.Partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy were performed in 396 cases and 980 cases respectively.Mann-whitney U test and chi-square test were used for univariate analysis,logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis to analyze the predictors of upgrading,R software was used to construct the nomogram predictive model,C-index was used to evaluate the model discrimination,and calibration curve method was used to evaluate the consistency of the model.Results Postoperative pathology of total 1 376 cases showed that there were 1 195 cases of clear cell carcinoma of kidney,48 cases of papillary cell carcinoma,57 cases of chromophobe cell carcinoma,and 76 cases of other types.Among the 1 376 patients with cT1 renal tumor,75 patients were upgraded to pT3a,accounting for 5.5% of all patients.Univariate analysis showed that the patients who upgraded to pT3a were older [(63.08 ± 10.17) years old and (57.34 ± 10.88) years old],and the tumor length and diameter were larger [(5.24 ± 1.35) cm and (3.95 ± 1.51) cm].Patients with clinical symptoms [46.7% (35/75) vs.25.2% (328/1 301)],patients with CT indication of tumor necrosis [40.0% (30/25 975) vs.19.9% (259/1 301)],patients with irregular tumor contour [73.3% (55/76 775) vs.59.0% (767/1 301)],and patients with radical nephrectomy were higher [(92.1% (70/91 075) vs.70% (910/ 1 301)].All the differences were statistically significant (P <0.01).Multivariate analysis showed that the independent predictors of upgrading were age (OR =1.046,P <0.001),larger tumor (OR =1.504,P <0.001),clinically symptom (OR =2.153,P =0.004),irregular tumor profile (OR =2.466,P =0.002),and tumor necrosis on CT (OR =2.588,P < 0.001).The C-index was 0.808,the calibration curve of forecasting curve with the standard curve fit was good,and the prediction of renal cancer are better in predict consistency.Conclusions Based on the five preoperative predictors,including age,tumor size,clinical presence or absence of symptoms,tumor profile,and whether or not the tumor necrosis indicated by CT,this study developed a nomogram of cT1 renal cancer upgrade to pT3a.This nomogram has a good statistical significance,and this model can provide prognosis consultation for patients and provide reference for doctors to make decisions before treatment.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710590

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the expression of DKK3 protein and mRNA levels in gastric cancer and its correlation with the clinical prognosis of gastric cancer.Methods The expression of DKK3 protein in 158 gastric cancer specimens and paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry.The relationship between the protein expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed.Immunoblotting and real time quantitative PCR were used to examine the expression of DKK3 protein and mRNA levels in 76 paired fresh gastric cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissues.Results The expression of DKK3 in gastric cancer tissues was lower than that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (40.5% vs.55.1%,x2 =41.442,P =0.000).DKK3 protein and mRNA levels in 76 cases were lower than that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (1.096 ± 1.110 vs.3.476 ± 1.119,t =3.332,P =0.017;1.136 ± 1.013 vs.3.314 ± 1.105,t =2.673,P =0.022).There were close correlations between DKK3 expression and depth of tumor invasion (P =0.006),TNM stage (P =0.005) and lymphatic metastasis (P =0.009).The expression of DKK3 in gastric cancer was positively related with overall survival rate (47.4% vs.28.0%,P =0.011),as an independent prognosis predictor (P =0.016).Conclusions DKK3 is an independent prognostic factor of gastric cancer,its decreased expression is significantly related with shortened survival time of gastric cancer patients.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-734777

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the correlation between status of methylation of DKK3 gene promoter and expression of its mRNA in gastric cancer.Methods Methylation of DKK3 gene promotor and its mRNA expression in 76 gastric cancer specimens and paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues were detected by methylation-specific PCR(MSP) and RT-PCR respectively.Results The expression of DKK3 mRNA in gastric cancer tissues was lower than that of adjacent non-cancerous tissues (43% vs.60%,x2 =5.663,P =0.017).29 cases had methylation of DKK3 gene promoter for adjacent non-cancerous tissues.In gastric cancer tissues,however,44 cases had methylation of DKK3 gene promoter (38% vs.58%,x2 =19.405,P =0.000).There were significant difference in depth of invasion (P =0.014),TNM stage (P =0.032),pathological grading (P =0.016) and lymphatic metastasis (P =0.007).There was distinct negative correlation between methylation of DKK3 gene promoter and expression of its mRNA (x2 =64.286,P =0.000).Conclusions Abnormal methylation of DKK3 gene promoter is an important mechanism of its inactivation,and might play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-613801

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the impact of preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) on surgical outcomes and long-term survival of elderly patients with gastric cancer.Methods From Jan 2007 to Dec 2012,the clinicopathological data of 165 elderly patients (age > 65 years old) with gastric cancer undergoing radical gastrectomy in the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University were analyzed retrospectively.PNI value was calculated by serum albumin (g/L) + 5 × lymphocyte count (× 109/L).The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Youden index was used to determine the cut-off value of PNI.Patients were then divided into low PNI group and high PNI group based on the cut-off value.The two groups were compared according to clinicopathological characteristics,postoperative complication and longterm survival.Results The mean PNI value was 46.1-± 5.3,When the PN1 was 46.4,the Youden index was maximal,with a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 59%.There were 79 patients in the low PNI group and 86 patients in high PNI group.No significant correlations between PNI and gender,age,BMI,pathological type,tumor diameter,extranodal metastasis and postoperative morbidity were observed.There were significant difference in the depth of invasion (x2 =6.732,P =0.009),N stage(x2 =13.191,P =0.004),TNM stage(x2 =12.137,P =0.000) and postoperative hospital stay (t =4.595,P =0.000).By Kaplan-Meier method,PNI (P =0.000),depth of invasion (P =0.002),N stage (P =0.000),TNM stage(P =0.000) and extranodal metastasis (P =0.031) had significant impacts on overall survival.PNI (P =0.016)and N stage (P =0.018) were independent factors for predicting overall survival rate.Conclusions PNI helps in evaluating preoperative nutritional status and postoperative prognosis for elderly patients with gastric cancer.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-497028

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the surgical outcomes in octogenarians and older of gastric cancer and to identify the reasonable therapy for these patients.Methods From Jan 2000 to Dec 2010,the clinicopathological data of 533 patients with gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy were analyzed retrospectively.We conducted comparative analysis for the differences in clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis between 80 years and older (≥80 y,n =75) and younger (< 80 y,n =458).Results There were significant differences in comorbidities,anemia and histological type between the two groups.There was no significant difference in operative morbidity and mortality between the two groups.The 5-year survival rate for octogenarians was lower (21.1%) than nonoctogenarians (32.8%),but with no significant difference.TNM stage was the only independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer in octogenarians.Conclusions Older gastric cancer patients have comparative postoporative complication rate and survival with younger patients.

14.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 268-271, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-488700

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the histopathologic characteristics of bladder tumor and provide theoretical basis for the reasonable selection of treatment modality.Methods This retrospective study collected the pathological data of 4 200 bladder tumor from May 2001 to October 2014.There were 3 443 male and 757 female, and the average diameter of these tumors was (1.8 ± 0.6) cm (ranged 0.2 to 6.5 cm).Among all cases, 3 214 (76.5%) cases were solitary tumor while 986 (23.5%) were multiple tumors.The histologic subtype, pathological grade and stage, the existence of vascular and lymphovascular invasion, tumor in situ, abnormal variants and rare subtypes were recorded and analyzed.Results 162 cases (3.9%)were benign tumors and 4 038 cases (96.1%)were malignant tumors including 4 008 cases of urothelial cancer (UC), 18 cases of primary adenocarcinoma and 12 cases of primary bladder squamous carcinoma.Furthermore, 2 460 (61.4%)cases were high grade UC while 1 548(38.6%)cases were low grade.320 cases were found intravascular tumor embolus or lymphovascular tumor thrombus and 391 (9.3%)cases were found metaplasia of squamous epithelium.Moreover, there were 230 cases of squamous differentiation, 120 cases of glandular differentiation, 110 cases of both squamous and glandular differentiation, and 39 cases (0.9%)of other rare subtypes or variations.On pathological stage, 112 (2.8 %) cases were carcinoma in situ, 548 (13.7%)cases were Ta, 2 599(65.1%)cases were T1, 480(12%)cases were T2, 92 cases(2.3%)were T3 and 23 cases(0.6%)were T4 stage, with the rest cases being unable to be accurate staging.Multiple Logistic regression analysis revealed that lymphovascular invasion was related to tumor grade , pathological stage and abnormal differentiation (P < 0.02).Moreover, UC with squamous and glandular differentiation were related with tumor recurrence and progression (P =0.02).Conclusions Most bladder tumors were high grade and low stage urothelial cancer with various forms of differentiation.Squamous and glandular differentiation were most common variation which should be avoided to diagnosed as hybrid carcinoma.Lymphovascular tumor thrombus and abnormal differentiation were correlated with tumor stage and grade.

15.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 748-751,650, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-604089

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the high-risk factors leading to a poor prognosis of small renal cell carcinoma, and provide theoretical basis for the individualized treatment regimen. Methods This retrospective study analyzed the clini?cal and histological data of 18 patients with small renal cell carcinoma treated in the Department of Urology of the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from January 2004 to July 2015. All the patients underwent ultrasound, plain and en?hanced CT examinations, also, received the surgeries. The tumor diameters, pathological types, pathological stages, Fuhrman grading of tumors and the prognosis of patients were analyzed. Results Preoperative CT examination revealed that 18 pa?tients with the average tumor diameter of (3.1 ± 0.6) cm (ranged 2.0 to 4.0 cm). Five patients were diagnosed as T1aN0M0, 4 patients with T1aN0M1 (3 cases with lung metastasis, 1 case with brain metastasis), 3 patients with T1aN1M0 (CT examina?tion showed a lymph node metastasis), 6 patients with T3aN0M0 (renal vein invasion or renal vein tumor thrombus). Patholog?ical examination after surgery showed that 12 patients were Fuhrman gradeⅡ, 5 were gradeⅢand 1 was gradeⅣ;15 cases were clear cell carcinomas, 1 case was papillary carcinoma, 1 was hybrid cellular tumor (malignant rhabdoid tumor with sar?comatoid differentiation) and the last case was sarcomatoid carcinoma renal cell carcinoma (Fuhrman grade V). 4 patients (T3a, Fuhrman grade Ⅱ) underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and the remaining underwent laparo?scopic radical nephrectomy. The median follow-up time was 22.5 months (ranged 6 to 48 months). Four cases died (2 cases with tumor diameters of 3.8 cm and 4.0 cm at preliminary diagnosis,2 cases with sarcomatoid renal carcinoma and 1 with brain metastasis), 1 case was lost. Other patients were found no tumor recurrence and metastasis. Conclusion The small re?nal cell tumor with diameter≥3.0 cm, FuhrmanⅢ/Ⅳgrade,sarcomatoid cancer or metastasis should be considered as high-risk factors of small renal cell carcinoma. The high-risk small renal cell carcinoma is heterogeneous in its biological behav?ior, which is expressed as aggressive growth and early invasion of renal tissue and even metastasis. The individualized treat? ment should be made based on preoperative imaging findings and postoperative pathology.

16.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 777-781, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-482556

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of oral fosfomycin trometamal in patients with lower urinary tract infections ( UTIs) caused by multi drug resistant ( MDR) bacteria in the clinical setting in China.Methods Multicenter study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2011 in 12 hospitals in China.Three hundred and fifty-six patients with non-fever lower UTls were treated by fosfomycin trometamal 3 g once daily.Three hundred and fifty cases with complete data were further evaluated .One hundred and twenty ( 34.3%) were male and 230 ( 65.7%) were female.The average age was ( 49.9 ± 16.6) years.Depending of the results of urine culture at the first visit ,142 patients with E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, proteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and entercocous were analyzed.The susceptibility of MDR bacteria to fosfomycin trometamol were calculated . The clinical efficacy , bacteriological efficacy of fosfomycin trometamol to these patients was evaluated .Results For the gram-negative bacteria detected by culture , among the E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and proteus, 50%(52/104) were Extended-Spectrum β-lactamases producing organisms . For the gram-positive bacteria ( n =38 ) detected by culture, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus accounts for 55%(11/20) of all the Staphylococcus and the other gram-positive bacteria were Enterococcus ( n=18 ) .Higher susceptibility rates to fosfomycin trometamol were observed among MDR bacteria (85.7%) and the clinical effective rate and bacteriological effective rate of fosfomycin trometamol were 96.4%( 53/55 ) and 87.5%( 42/48 ) , respectively .The incidence of drug-related adverse events (AEs) was 5.6%(20/356).The most common AE was diarrhea. No drug-related serious adverse events were found .Conclusions The distributions of uropathogens in China are complicated. The detection rate of MDR uropathogens is high . The dosing regimen of fosfomycin trometamal 3 g once daily is effective and tolerable for the patients with lower UTIs caused by MDR bacteria . It may represent good options for the empiric therapy for the patients with lower UTIs .

17.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 628-631, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-479852

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological features of urothelial carcinoma with clear cell variant.Methods The pathological and clinical data of 7 cases pathological diagnosed urothelial carcinoma with clear cell variant between March 2005 and May 2014 were retrospectively reviewed.There were 6 males and 1 female,aged 46-75 years (mean,61 years).Clinical manifestations included gross hematuria in 5 cases,hematuria and backache in another 2 cases.The mean tumor size was 3.5 cm (ranged 2.0-6.0 cm).One case was multiple tumor and 6 cases were single tumor.Five cases were positive in urine cytology.All the 7 cases accepted surgical treatment,including radical nephroureterectomy in 2 cases,transurethral resection of bladder tumor plus pharmorubicin regular intravesicalinstillationin 1 case,and radical cystectomy in 4 patients.Results Pathological findings revealed that all the tumors were high-grade urothelial carcinoma with clear cell variant in different proportion.Among them,clear cell tumor was predominant in 1 case and focal in other 6 cases.Meanwhile,tumorsaccompanied by glandular differentiation were found in 2 cases,squamous differentiation was found in 1 case,and micropapillary variant was found in 1 case.Vascular tumor embolus was found in 4 cases.Pathological stage was pT2a (n =1),pT2b (n =3),and pT3a (n =3).Immunohistochemicalstaining revealed cytokeratin 7 (+),cytokeratin 20 (+),epithelial membrane antigen (+)and prostate specific antigen (-).Six cases were followed up.The bladder preservation case was followed up for 8 months without recurrence.In 3 radical cystectomy cases,1 died of cancer 25 months after surgery and another 2 case were followed up for 10 and 12 months after surgery without recurrence and metastasis.In 2 nephroureterectomy cases,1 died of tumor metastasis 18 months after surgery and the other case was followed up for 6 months without recurrence or metastasis.Conclusions Urothelialcarcinoma with clear cell variant is a malignancy often with advanced stage and poor prognosis.Radical surgery is recommended for the treatment.

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Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 90-92, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-469510

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical features and prognosis of the patients with renal cell carcinoma and venous tumor thrombus.Methods Fifty-six patients with renal cell carcinoma and venous tumor thrombus were selected as our subjects,who underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy in the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from June 2002 to May 2014.There were 28 patients with stage Ⅰ tumor thrombus,l5with stage Ⅱtumor thrombus,9 with stage Ⅲ tumor thrombus and 4 with stage Ⅳtumor thrombus.All patients underwent renal tumor resection and embolectomy,and were follow-up.Results Of all the patients,46 were male and 10 were female with a mean age of 61.7(age ranging from 42 to 83).Twenty-four were presented on the left kidney and 32 were right.The clinical features were as follows:The tumor size was 2.5 to 14 cm in diameter(mean:6.2 cm),there were 21 cases with low back pain,18 cases with hematuria,lcases with abdominal.Pathological results showed that 39 with clear cell carcinoma,9 with papillary cell carcinoma,3 with chromophobe cell carcinoma,1 with low-differentiated cell carcinoma and 1 with undifferentiated cell carcinoma,3 with sarcomatoid differentiation.Forty-three patients were followed up,and the median follow up period was 20.4 months (2-90 months).The median survival time for the patients was 47 months and the 5 year overall survival was 45.2%.The survival time of the patients with early tumor thrombus(below hepaticvein) was (55.3 ± 4.9) month,significantly longer than that of the patients with advanced tumor thrombus (above hepaticvein) ((24.8 ± 5.3) months,P =0.047).Conclusion Patients with renal cell carcinoma and venous tumor thrombus are characterized with high malignancy and poor prognosis.Surgical operations are effective therapies for the patients.Long term outcome of the early tumor thrombus patients is significantly better than that of the advanced tumor.

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Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 325-328, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-460722

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the clinical and histopathologic features of small renal carcinoma (diameter≤4 cm)and provide theoretical basis for evaluating the safety,efficacy and prognosis of nephron sparing surgery.Methods This retrospective study collected the pathological data of 490 patients with small renal cell carcinoma,who were treated in our hospital,from May 2000 to October 2014.We recorded and analyzed the tumor size,histological subtype,Fuhrman grading,pathological stage,the existence of mulifocality,vascular invasion,tumor psuedocapsule,hemorrhage or necrosis and distant metastasis.Results The median diameter of tumor was (3.2 ± 0.6) cm,ranged 0.6 to 4.0 cm.Of all the subjects,422 (86.1%) were clear cell carcinoma,32 (6.5%) were chromophobe cell carcinoma,23 (4.7%) were papillary carcinoma and 13 (2.7%) were other rare types.Among the 422 clear cell carcinoma cases,27 were Fuhrman grade Ⅰ,157 were Ⅰ-Ⅱ grade,210 were grade Ⅱ,21 were Ⅱ-Ⅲ grade,7 were grade Ⅲ and no one was grade Ⅳ.Multifocal tumors were found in 18 cases (3.7%) and tumor embolus of renal vein was found in 6 cases (1.2%).Intact psuedocapsule were found in 326 (66.5%) tumors with the thickness ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 mm.Tumor infiltration without the psuedocapsule penetration were found in 82 cases (16.7%),penetrated into the psuedocapsule were found in 11 cases (2.2%),infringement of perirenal fat were found in 9 cases (1.8%).Hemorrhage and necrosis were found in 240 cases (48.9%),synchronous lung metastases occurred in 3 patients (0.6%).Logistic regression analysis revealed that tumor invasion and pseudocapsule penetration were related to Fuhrman Ⅱ-Ⅲ,Ⅲ and tumor diameter (P =0.04).Moreover,tumor size was related with histological grade and renal capsule invasion (P =0.02).Nevertheless,there was no relationship among tumor size,renal vein embolus or mulifocality (P =0.35).Conclusions Although most small renal tumors are high differentiation and low grade,but rare cases are aggressive with infringement of perirenal fat or early distant metastasis,suggesting heterogeneity in its biological behavior.Most small renal tumors have obvious psuedocapsule.When the tumor size is greater than 3.0 cm and its Fuhrman classification was high,the psuedocapsule and perirenal fat are more likely to be infiltrated.Nephron sparing surgery should remove the tumor and its surface adipose tissue entirely.

20.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 946-949,950, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-602450

ABSTRACT

As a new model of pre-cancer, organoid is essential for the basic understanding of tumor characteristic and effective tumor treatment. Organoids derived from prostate play an especially important role in the research of fundamental oncology and anticancer drug screen against prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cell lines and xenografts derived directly from primary human tumors are widely used now as models to study prostate cancer and have proven very valuable. But there are some caveats and shortcomes of these two models that have to be accounted for. Here we outline organoid as a third preclini?cal cancer model which may potentially overcome the shortcomes of cancer cell lines and PDTX. This article aims to summa?rizee recent progress of the role of organoid in prostate cancer research.

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