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Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 250-260, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909862


Objective:To establish the acute symptomatic osteoporotic thoracolumbar fracture (ASOTLF) classification system, and to examine the reliability and evaluate the effect of clinical application.Methods:A retrospective case series study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 1 293 patients with osteoporotic thoracolumbar fracture(OTLF) admitted to Honghui Hospital from January 2016 to December 2018. There were 514 males and 779 females, aged 57-90 years [(71.4±6.3)years]. The T value of bone mass density was -5.0--2.5 SD [(-3.1±-0.4)SD]. According to the clinical symptoms a and fracture morphology, OTLF was divided into 4 types, namely type I(I occult fracture), type II(compressed fracture), type III (burst fracture) and type IV(unstable fracture). The type II was subdivided into three subtypes (type IIA, IIB, IIC), and the Type III into two subtypes (type IIIA, IIIB). of all patients, 75 patients (5.8%) were with type I, 500 (38.7%) with type II A, 134 (10.4%) with type IIB, 97 (7.5%) with type IIC, 442 (34.2%) with type IIIA, 27(2.1%) with type IIIB and 18 (1.4%) with type IV. After testing the validity of the classification, different treatment methods were utilized according to the classification, including percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for Type I, PVP after postural reduction for Type II, percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) for Type IIIA, posterior reduction and decompression, bone graft fusion and bone cement-augmented screw fixation for Type IIIB, and posterior reduction, bone graft fusion and bone cement-augmented screw fixation for Type IV. The visual analog score (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), Frankel grade of spinal cord injury, local Cobb Angle, and vertebral body angle (vertebral body angle) were recorded in all patients and in each type of patients before surgery, at 1 month after surgery and at the last follow-up. The neurological function recovery and complications were also recorded.Results:The patients were followed up for 24-43 months [(29.9±5.1)months]. A total of 3 000 assessments in two rounds were conducted by three observers. The overall κ value of inter-observer credibility was 0.83, and the overall κ value of intra-observer credibility was 0.88. The VAS and ODI of all patients were (5.8±0.7)points and 72.5±6.6 before surgery, (1.8±0.6)points and 25.0±6.3 at 1 month after surgery, and (1.5±0.6)points and 19.5±6.2 at the last follow-up, respectively (all P<0.05). The Cobb angle and vertebral body angle of all patients were (13.0±9.1)° and (8.0±4.6)° before surgery, (7.9±5.2)° and (4.6±2.9)° at 1 month after surgery, and (9.1±6.0)° and (5.8±3.0)° at the last follow-up, respectively (all P<0.05). At the last follow-up, VAS, ODI, Cobb Angle and VBA of each type of patients were significantly improved compared with those before surgery (all P<0.05). The spinal cord compression symptoms were found 1 patient with type IV and 5 patients with type IIIB preoperatively. At the last follow-up, neurological function improved from grade C to grade E in 1 patient and from grade D to grade E in 5 patients ( P<0.05). The lower limb radiation pain or numbness in 3 patients with type IV and 22 patients with type III preoperatively were fully recovered after surgical treatment at the last follow-up except for three patients. Conclusions:The ASOTLF classification is established and has high consistency and reliability. The classification-oriented treatment strategy has achieved a relatively satisfactory effect, indicating that the classification has a certain guiding significance for treatment of OTLF.

Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 625-634, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869014


Objective:To explore the risk factors of residual back pain (RBP) in patients undergone PVP within 1 month and further analyze the correlation.Methods:Between March 2013 and January 2015, 1 316 patients with OVCF were treated by PVP. RBP after PVP was defined as a visual analogue scale (VAS) score of > 4 both 1 week and 1 month post-operatively. According to the pain relief, the patients were divided into two groups, the satisfied group and the unsatisfied group. All patients were scheduled for follow-up at1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year post-operatively, during which radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and short time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences) were recommended to detect the existence of secondary OVCF. VAS scores and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were recorded. Demographic data, surgical information, anesthesia method, number of OVCF, injection amount of cement of single vertebral bone, imaging data and other comorbidity informations of patients in the two groups were analyzed by Logistic regression for the factors related to RBP after PVP.Results:Among 1 316 patients, 60 cases complained RBP, and the prevalence was 4.6%. VAS score and ODI of the two groups were significantly different at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after surgery, suggesting there was a certain degree of residual pain in the lower back of patients in the unsatisfied group, which was more severe than that in the satisfied group. However, the above differences disappeared in the follow-up of 12 months after surgery.Univariate analysesshowed that preoperative bone mineral density (BMD), number of fracture, cement distribution and volume injected per level and lumbodorsal fascia contusion were associated with RBP after PVP ( P< 0.01, retrospectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the absolute value of pre-operative BMD(odds ratio ( OR)=3.577, P=0.029), combined withlumbodorsal fascia contusion ( OR=3.805, P=0.002), number of fracture ( OR=3.440, P<0.001), satisfactory cement distribution ( OR=3.009, P=0.013) and combined with depression ( OR=3.426, P=0.028) were positively correlated with RBP after PVP, and these were risk factors. The injection amount of cement of single vertebral bone ( OR=0.079, P<0.001) was negatively correlated with RBP after PVP, which was a protective factor. Conclusion:Pre-operative low BMD, lumbodorsal fascial injury, multiple segment OVCF, insufficient cement injected volume, unsatisfactory cement distribution and depression were risk factors associated with RBP after PVP in patients with OVCF.

Chinese Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma ; (12): 676-681, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867923


Objective:To assess the effects of preoperative intravenous injection of tranexamic acid and postoperative local use of elastic bandage on blood loss in complex tibial plateau fractures (Schatzker types Ⅴ-Ⅵ).Methods:A sequence randomly generated by computer was used to randomize a cohort of 40 patients into 2 groups who were to receive surgery at Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Hong Hui Hospital from June 2018 to January 2019 for complex tibial plateau fractures. They were 24 men and 16 women, aged from 35 to 55 years (average, 46.0 years). In group A, intravenous injection of normal saline was conducted 5 to 10 min before surgical incision and no elastic bandage was used after surgery. In group B, a dose of 15 mg/kg tranexamic acid was intravenously given 5 to 10 min before surgical incision and elastic bandage was used to bandage the knee with compression after surgery. The 2 groups were compared in terms of total blood loss, hidden blood loss, transfusion rate, 48-h drainage flow, venous thromboembolism, postoperative wound complications, postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS), and D-dimer value 24 h after surgery.Results:There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in age, gender, body mass index, smoking history, concomitant medical conditions, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, preoperative hemoglobin, preoperative hematocrit, preoperative D-dimerization or fibrin degradation products, showing comparability ( P>0.05). In groups A and B, hemoglobin values 24 h after surgery were 104.6 g/L ± 10.4 g/L versus 113.3 g/L ± 11.9 g/L, drainage volumes 48 h after surgery 277.1 mL ± 229.2 mL versus 207.1 mL ± 124.3 mL, hidden blood loss volumes 318.0 mL ± 83.4 mL versus 266.2 mL ± 60.9 mL, total blood loss volumes 792.8 mL ± 202.8 mL versus 692.2 mL ± 124.9 mL, D-dimer values 24 h after surgery 5.1 mg/L ± 1.3 mg/L versus 4.1 mg/L ± 0.7 mg/L, postoperative VAS scores 5.2 ± 0.9 versus 3.9 ± 1.1, lower limb cross-section diameters 24 h after surgery 35.5 cm ± 3.0 cm versus 34.4 cm ± 2.6 cm, lower limb cross-section diameters 72 h after surgery 33.8 cm ± 2.1 cm versus 32.8 cm ± 2.3 cm, postoperative rates of wound ecchymosis hematoma 20.0% (4 cases) versus 0 (0 cases), and hospital stays 6.6 d ± 1.0 d versus 6.2 d ± 1.2 d. There were significant differences between the 2 groups in all the above items ( P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups in incidence of postoperative DVT, pulmonary embolism or other wound complications ( P>0.05). Conclusions:Preoperative intravenous injection of tranexamic acid and postoperative local use of elastic bandage is reasonable and safe for complex tibial plateau fractures, because it significantly reduces intraoperative blood loss but does not increase the risk of venous thromboembolism, and thus has a positive role in accelerating the recovery of patients.