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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916993

ABSTRACT

Background@#Xylazole (Xyl) is a veterinary anesthetic that is structurally and functionally similar to xylazine. However, the effects of Xyl in vitro remain unknown. @*Objectives@#This study aimed to investigate the anesthetic mechanism of Xyl using fetal rat nerve cells treated with Xyl. @*Methods@#Fetal rat nerve cells cultured for seven days were treated with 10, 20, 30, and 40 μg/ mL Xyl for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Variations of amino acid neurotransmitters (AANTs), Nitric oxide-Cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) signaling pathway, and ATPase were evaluated. @*Results@#Xyl decreased the levels of cGMP and NO in nerve cells. Furthermore, Xyl affected the AANT content and Na+ -K+ -ATPase and Ca2+ -Mg2+ -ATPase activity in nerve cells. These findings suggested that Xyl inhibited the NO-cGMP signaling pathway in nerve cells in vitro. @*Conclusions@#This study provided new evidence that the anesthetic and analgesic effects of Xyl are related to the inhibition of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1068-1099, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929361

ABSTRACT

Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), a diverse group of enzymes responsible for the metabolic elimination of drugs and other xenobiotics, have been recognized as the critical determinants to drug safety and efficacy. Deciphering and understanding the key roles of individual DMEs in drug metabolism and toxicity, as well as characterizing the interactions of central DMEs with xenobiotics require reliable, practical and highly specific tools for sensing the activities of these enzymes in biological systems. In the last few decades, the scientists have developed a variety of optical substrates for sensing human DMEs, parts of them have been successfully used for studying target enzyme(s) in tissue preparations and living systems. Herein, molecular design principals and recent advances in the development and applications of optical substrates for human DMEs have been reviewed systematically. Furthermore, the challenges and future perspectives in this field are also highlighted. The presented information offers a group of practical approaches and imaging tools for sensing DMEs activities in complex biological systems, which strongly facilitates high-throughput screening the modulators of target DMEs and studies on drug/herb‒drug interactions, as well as promotes the fundamental researches for exploring the relevance of DMEs to human diseases and drug treatment outcomes.

3.
International Eye Science ; (12): 752-756, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923406

ABSTRACT

@#AIM:To investigate the factors associated with short-term elevation of intraocular pressure(IOP)after conbercept intravitreal injection. <p>METHODS:This study was a clinical prospective observational study. It enrolled in 269 eyes of 269 patients who were diagnosed retinopathy, and all patients receive conbercept intravitreal injection. Among them, 143 were males and 126 were females. There were 201 cases of age-related macular degeneration(ARMD)and 68 cases of other retinopathy patients. The mean age was 62.86±11.74 years. Non-contact pneumatic tonometer was used to measure the IOP of the patients before, 10, 30min, 2 and 4h after injection. The group was divided according to the IOP elevation 10min after injection. The IOP elevation 10 mmHg and above was defined as the IOP elevation group, and the IOP elevation less than 10 mmHg was defined as the IOP stable group. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differences between the two groups.<p>RESULTS:The average IOP of patients at 10, 30min, 2 and 4h after injection was 24.1, 20.2, 19.5 and 16.9 mmHg, respectively. The average IOP at each time point after injection was 6.7, 3.1, 1.7 and 0.5 mmHg higher than that before injection. Among them, 56 cases of increased IOP, 213 cases of stable IOP. There were no significant differences in age, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), gender, eye side and disease type between two groups(all <i>P</i>>0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the number of injection(<i>Z</i>=-4.389, <i>P</i>=0.012), IOP before injection and IOP at each time point after injection(<i>t</i>=-5.343, -10.467, -8.933, -6.124, -4.635, all <i>P</i><0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that baseline IOP was positively correlated with IOP increase 10min after injection(<i>B</i>=-0.913, <i>OR</i>=0.521, 95%<i>CI</i>: 0.211-0.694, <i>P</i>=0.011).<p>CONCLUSION: The higher the baseline IOP, the higher risk of elevated IOP after injection. The factor associated with a short-term increase in IOP after intravitreal injection of conbercept was baseline IOP. The number of injection may be another risk factor.

4.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 72-79, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909835

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the impact of the expression of long noncoding RNA-nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) on neurological function and neuronal apoptosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice and the possible mechanism.Methods:According to the random number table, 90 C57BL/6J mice were divided into sham group, blank control group, empty virus group 1, empty virus group 2, NEAT1 over-expression group and NEAT1 knockdown group, with 15 mice per group. The traumatic brain injury (TBI) was simulated by controlled cortical injury (CCI) model, and NEAT1 was regulated by intracerebroventricular injection with recombinant adenovirus. The neurological severity score (NSS) and Morris water maze test were used to evaluate the neurological function in blank control group, NEAT1 over-expression group and NEAT1 knockdown group within 1 week and 14-21 days after injury. The Western blot was used to observe the expressions of P53-induced protein with a death domain 1 (Pidd1), caspase-2, caspase-9 and caspase-3 in blank control group at 6 hour and 1, 3, 7 days after injury. The TUNEL method and immunofluorescence were used to observe the neurological apoptosis and expression of Pidd1 in blank control group, NEAT1 over-expression group and NEAT1 knockdown group at 3 days after injury. The Western blot analysis was used to detect protein expressions of Pidd1, caspase-2, cytochrome c (Cyt c) and caspase-3 in sham group, blank control group, empty virus groups, NEAT1 over-expression group and NEAT1 knockdown group at 3 days after injury.Results:The NSS was significantly reduced in NEAT1 over-expression group [(3.5±0.7)points], and was significantly increased in NEAT1 knockdown group [(5.0±1.5)points]at day 1 after injury, when compared with blank control group [(4.9±1.0)points]( P<0.01). The Morris water maze test showed that the time to find platform was decreased in NEAT1 over-expression group[(10.9±2.8)seconds], and was prolonged in NEAT1 knockdown group [(30.7±6.2)seconds] at day 19 after injury ( P<0.05 or 0.01), when compared with blank control group [(20.1±5.6)seconds]. The Western blot analysis showed that the expressions of Pidd1, caspase-2, caspase-9 and caspase-3 had significant increase at day 3 after injury ( P<0.01). The TUNEL test showed that the apoptosis rate of neurons was significantly decreased in NEAT1 over-expression group [(18.0±2.7)%], and the apoptosis rate was significantly increased in NEAT1 knockdown group [(63.0±8.6)%] at day 3 after injury ( P<0.01). Immunofluorescence showed that the expression of Pidd1 protein in cytoplasm of the neurons was decreased in NEAT1 over-expression group [(22.7±2.2)%]( P<0.01), and was increased in NEAT1 knockdown group [(72.7±7.0)%]( P<0.01) at day 3 after injury, when compared with blank control group. The Western blot analysis showed that the expressions of Pidd1, capsase-2, Cyt c and caspase-3 were significantly reduced in NEAT1 over-expression group (0.5±0.0, 0.3±0.0, 0.5±0.0, 0.4±0.0) at day 3 after injury, when compared with blank control group. However, the results were opposite in NEAT1 knockdown group. Conclusion:After TBI, the NEAT1 can reduce the activation of caspase-3 through the Pidd1-caspase-2-Cyt c pathway after TBI, regulate neuronal apoptosis, and ultimately play a protective role in neurological function.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909485

ABSTRACT

Objective:To verify the validity of the clinical dementia rating(CDR) for early screening of Alzheimer's disease in the community.Methods:One thousand two hundred and eighty-one community volunteers (580 males and 701 females) came to hospital for clinical interviews, laboratory tests and a series of psychological assessment, including CDR, brief elderly cognitive screening inventory (BECSI), quickly cognitive screening scale for elderly (QCSS-E), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and core neurocognitive test (CNT). According to clinical interview, assessment and DSM-5 criteria, 623 normal cognition, 570 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 88 dementia with Alzheimer's type (DAT) were screened.Results:(1) The results of CDR-global scores (CDR-GS)in the community volunteers showed that 506 (39.5%) scored 0, 688 (53.7%) scored 0.5, 72 (5.6%) scored 1, and 15 (1.2%) scored 2 or more.(2) There were significantly differences on the BECSI score, QCSS-E score, MMSE score and CNT score among people with different CDR-GS ( P<0.01). In the total or dementia sample, CDR-sum of box score (CDR-SB) and CDR-GS were significantly correlated with BECSI score ( r=0.577-0.639), QCSS-E score ( r=-0.586--0.680), MMSE score ( r=-0.570--0.764) and CNT score ( r=-0.244--0.357)( P<0.01). (3) The accuracy (95.8%) and specificity (99.8%) of the CDR-GS screening DAT were slightly higher than those of the CDR-SB(91.1%, 92.0%), and its sensitivity (65.9%) was lower than that of CDR-SB(82.5%). The accuracy (72.6%), sensitivity (81.9%) and specificity (64.0%)of the CDR-GS were close to those of CDR-SB(72.1%, 83.3%, and 61.8% respectively) in screening MCI. Conclusion:The CDR can be used for screening of AD in community populations.CDR-GS and CDR-SB have their own advantages, and combination of both advantages can improve the screening efficiency.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908905

ABSTRACT

Clinical pharmacy is an important part of hospital pharmacy. Education of clinical pharmacy is one of the most important tasks in clinical pharmacy personnel training. At present, there is a considerable progress in the development of clinical pharmacy education in China, however, the professional quality of clinical pharmacists is still insufficient and there is a gap between the disciplinary education and clinical practice. In this article, we discuss the origin, development, academic degree, curriculum, teaching methods and practice certification of clinical pharmacy education in China and in United States, in order to explore the applicable methods of clinical pharmacy education in China. It will provide ideas and references for the optimization of the training of clinical pharmacy professionals, accelerating the development of clinical pharmacy in China.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921724

ABSTRACT

To learn the current situation and strengthen the management of national standards for Chinese medicinal materials, we sorted out the relevant national standards. According to incomplete statistics, there are 1 185 kinds of Chinese medicinal materials, including 1 024 kinds of plant medicines, 106 kinds of animal medicines, and 54 kinds of mineral medicines, in addition to ethnic medicinal materials with different functions. The relevant standards include 819 Pharmacopoeia standards, 342 standards issued by the Ministry of Health or National Medicinal Products Administration, 7 standards for new medicinal materials, and 17 standards for imported medicinal materials. In this paper, the sources of standards as well as the distribution of families and genera and the distribution of medicinal parts of medicinal materials are analyzed. The suggestions are as follows:(1)to improve the coordination among different national standards of Chinese medicinal materials;(2)to improve the standardization and controllability of relevant standards;(3)to revise the issued standards for Chinese medicinal materials(including Tibetan, Uygur, and Mongolian medicinal materials).


Subject(s)
Animals , Asians , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Reference Standards
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921528

ABSTRACT

Objective To obtain the proteome and acetylome profiles of livers in mice during normal aging.Methods We applied tandem mass tag labeling and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and achieved proteome and acetylome data in C57BL/6J male mice aged 2 and 18 months under physiological conditions.Results A total of 4712 proteins were quantified by proteome profiling,and 4818 acetylated sites in 1367 proteins by acetylome profiling.The proteome and acetylome revealed moderate differences in the livers of young and old mice.There were 195 differentially expressed proteins in the proteome and 113 differentially expressed acetylated sites corresponding to 76 proteins in the acetylome.Functional enrichment analysis for the proteome showed that aging-associated upregulated proteins were mainly involved in fatty acid metabolism,epoxygenase P450 pathway,drug catabolic process,organic hydroxy compound metabolic process,and arachidonic acid metabolic process,while the downregulated proteins were related to regulation of gene silencing,nucleosome assembly,protein heterotetramerization,response to interferon,protein-DNA complex assembly and other processes.For the acetylome,the proteins with aging-associated upregulated acetylated sites mainly participated in cofactor metabolism,small molecule catabolic process,ribose phosphate metabolic process,ribonucleotide metabolic process,and purine-containing compound metabolic process,while the proteins with downregulated acetylated sites were associated with sulfur compound metabolic process,response to unfolded protein,and amino acid metabolic process.Conclusion We profiled the proteome and acetylome of livers in mice during normal aging and generated datasets for further research on aging.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Aging , Animals , Liver , Lysine/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Proteome/metabolism
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2850-2856, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms after efavirenz (EFV) treatment in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) could persist and impact their quality of life. We assessed the impact of EFV-based regimen replacement with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF), which is considered an alternative option for subjects who do not tolerate EFV. Most specifically, we assessed the safety and the efficacy of E/C/F/TAF and its effects on the participants' neuropsychiatric toxicity symptoms in a real-life setting.@*METHODS@#A prospective cohort study was conducted among virologic suppressed HIV-positive participants receiving EFV-based regimens with ongoing CNS toxicity ≥ grade 2. The participants were switched to single-pill combination regimens E/C/F/TAF and followed up for 48 weeks. The neuropsychiatric toxicity symptoms were measured using a CNS side effects questionnaire, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants experiencing grade 2 or higher CNS toxicity after EFV switch off at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Secondary endpoints included virologic and immunological responses and the effect on fasting lipids at week 48 after switch.@*RESULTS@#One hundred ninety-six participants (96.9% men, median age: 37.5 years, median: 3.7 years on prior EFV-containing regimens) were included in the study. Significant improvements in anxiety and sleep disturbance symptoms were observed at 12, 24, and 48 weeks after switching to E/C/F/TAF (P < 0.05). No significant change in depression symptom scores was observed. At 48 weeks after switch, HIV viral load <50 copies/mL was maintained in all of the participants, median fasting lipid levels were moderately increased (total cholesterol [TC]: 8.2 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]: 8.5 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]: 2.9 mg/dL, and triglyceride (TG): 1.6 mg/dL, and the TC:HDL-C ratio remained stable.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The single-pill combination regimens E/C/F/TAF is safe and well tolerated. This study reveals that switching from EFV to E/C/F/TAF significantly reduces neuropsychiatric toxicity symptoms in people living with HIV with grade 2 or higher CNS complaints.


Subject(s)
Adenine/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine , Alkynes , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Benzoxazines , Central Nervous System , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes , Drug Combinations , Emtricitabine/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Quinolones , Sleep Quality , Tenofovir/analogs & derivatives
10.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 1000-1004, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910955

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate regional homogeneity(ReHo)and whole brain functional connectivity(FC)in patients with mild cognitive impairment(MCI), and to explore the mechanisms of MCI in the resting state.Methods:Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging(RS-fMRI)was performed on 24 patients with MCI and 30 age, gender and nationality-matched normal controls.Abnormal brain areas in the MCI group were screened and analyzed by using the DPARSFA2.3 and SPM8 software programs.Whole brain FC analysis was performed with the posterior cingulate cortex(PCC)/precuneus as the seed points.Results:Compared with the control group, MCI subjects displayed higher ReHo values in the frontal-middle-Left, precentral-Left, postcentral-Left, rolandic-opercular-Left, and frontal-inferior-opercular-Left and lower ReHo values in the temporal-superior-right, temporal-middle-right, postcentral-right, and temporal -pole -superior -right(Voxel level, Alphasim correction, P<0.05). Whole brain FC analysis showed greater functional connectivity of PCC/precuneus with fusiform-right, thalamus-right, lingual-right and parahippocampal-right in subjects with MCI, and less functional connectivity of the PCC/precuneus with temporal-middle-Left, angular-Left, temporal-superior-Left and occipital-middle-Left in subjects with MCI(Voxel level, Alphasim correction, P<0.05). Conclusions:Abnormalities of the default mode network may be associated with the onset of MCI, and abnormalities in posterior cingulate/precuneus connectivity may be helpful in finding imaging evidence with high sensitivity to MCI.

11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 409-414, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888432

ABSTRACT

Accurate methods for identifying pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) of prostate cancer (PCa) prior to surgery are still lacking. We aimed to investigate the predictive value of peripheral monocyte count (PMC) for LNM of PCa in this study. Two hundred and ninety-eight patients from three centers were divided into a training set (n = 125) and a validation set (n = 173). In the training set, the independent predictors of LNM were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the optimal cutoff value was calculated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The sensitivity and specificity of the optimal cutoff were authenticated in the validation cohort. Finally, a nomogram based on the PMC was constructed for predicting LNM. Multivariate analyses of the training cohort demonstrated that clinical T stage, preoperative Gleason score, and PMC were independent risk factors for LNM. The subsequent ROC analysis showed that the optimal cutoff value of PMC for diagnosing LNM was 0.405 × 109 l

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887891

ABSTRACT

Objective To obtain the metabolome profiles in liver and serum of mice during normal aging. Methods The liver and serum samples of ten 2-month-old mice and ten 18-month-old C57BL/6J mice under physiological conditions were collected.Metabolites were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.The overall assessment,differential screening,and functional analysis were performed with the filtered high-quality data. Results In the negative-ion mode and positive-ion mode,242 and 399 metabolites were identified in the liver and 265 and 230 in serum,respectively.The difference of metabolome between young and old mice was moderate.The upregulated metabolites identified in aging liver were related to the metabolism of riboflavin,glucose,and arachidonic acid,while the downregulated ones were associated with the metabolism of pyrimidine,purine,glycerophospholipid,glutathione,and nicotinamide.Altered metabolites in serum during aging were involved in a variety of nucleic acid metabolism-related pathways,such as pyrimidine metabolism,purine metabolism,one carbon pool by folate,and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. Conclusions The metabolome profiles of mouse liver and serum both revealed dysregulated nucleic acid metabolism pathways during normal aging.This study provides metabolome data for further research on aging-associated mechanism and may support the discovery of intervention methods for aging.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Liver , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
13.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 588-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886788

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of heterozygous living donor liver transplantation for pediatric maple syrup urine disease. Methods A 3-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital on July 5, 2017 due to maple syrup urine disease for half a year. The child presented with paroxysmal dysarthria and motor dysfunction of the lower limbs under fasting status for half a year, accompanied with obvious maple syrup urine odor and slow language development. No other growth abnormality or mental defects were observed. Serum branched chain amino acid (BCAA) assay detected that the level of leucine was 684 μmol/L and 559 μmol/L for the valine. The child was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease type b based on gene detection combined with BCAA assay. Living donor liver transplantation from his biological father was performed. Postoperatively, routine immunosuppression, anti-virus, anti-infection therapies, maintenance of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and other necessary nutritional support were given. The dose of tacrolimus was adjusted according to biochemical parameters and cytochrome P450(CYP)3A5 genotype of the recipient. Glucocorticoid administration was terminated at approximately 6 months after operation. Results The liver function of the recipient was recovered to normal range at postoperative 1 month, and basically stabilized at 3 years after surgery. The amino acid level was decreased to normal level immediately after operation, and BCAA was continually declined after normal diet for postoperative 1 month. As of the submission date, the recipient grew well in a stable condition and achieved high quality of life. Conclusions Heterozygous living donor liver transplantation is a safe and effective treatment of maple syrup urine disease, which reduces the possibility of sudden acute metabolic events, significantly improves the quality of life of the recipient and provides a novel idea for surgical treatment of maple syrup urine disease.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885252

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of morpholine nidazole in the treatment of infection after radical resection of perianal abscess.Methods:Thirty patients diagnosed with perianal abscess were randomly divided into the observation group(given intravenous infusion of morpholine nidazole) and the control group(given intravenous infusion of ornidazole).Results:There was no significant difference in postoperative wound infection rate between the observation group and the control group ( P>0.05). There was significant difference in wound healing quality between the two groups on the 2 d and 7 d after the operation ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in WBC and neutrophil counts between the two groups ( P>0.05), and the WBC and neutrophil counts in the two groups were significantly lower on the 7th day after the operation than before the treatment, and the observation group was significantly lower than the control group ( P<0.05). After treatment, there was no significant difference in the clearance rate of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, bacteroides fragile and staphylococcus aureus in the observation group ( P>0.05), but there was significant difference in the overall bacterial clearance rate compared with the control group ( P<0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The use of morpholinidazole in patients with perianal abscess is effective and safe.

15.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 72-75, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884844

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the mechanism of subjective cognitive decline(SCD)in resting-state by using regional homogeneity(ReHo)and functional connectivity(FC)in SCD patients.Methods:Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging(RS-fMRI)was performed in 25 SCD patients and 30 normal controls matched by sex, education and nationality.DPARSFA2.3 and SPM8 software were used to analyze and screen the brain areas with abnormal ReHo values in SCD group, with the posterior cingulated(PCC)/paruneus as seed points for whole-brain FC analysis.Results:Compared with the normal control group, the SCD group showed that ReHo values of right occipital gyrus and left precuneus were increased, and ReHo values of right inferior temporal gyrus, right orbital inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral thalamus were decreased(Voxel level, Alphasim correction, P<0.05). Using PCC/ precuneus as seed voxels, the whole brain functional connectivity analysis showed that the functional connectivity with cerebelum Crus 2 R was increased, and the functional connectivity with right orbital inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and temporal pole was reduced(Voxel level, Alphasim correction, all P<0.05). Conclusions:Default mode network may play an important role in the mechanism of SCD, and abnormalities in brain areas may first occur in PCC/precuneus.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875682

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the strategies of drug treatment and pharmaceutical care for children with bacterial meningitis. Methods The anti-infective therapy, therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustment of vancomycin in children with bacterial meningitis were analyzed and discussed according to relevant guidelines and literatures. Results Clinical pharmacists analyzed therapeutic regimen. According to the results of etiology and drug sensitivity, meropenem was discontinued and rifampicin was added. Based on drug monitoring of vancomycin, it is suggested to extend the infusion time of vancomycin to reach the target concentration. The child was discharged from hospital. Conclusion Recommendations of the relevant drug treatment guidelines and the latest medical research evidence should be provided by clinical pharmacists in order to promote reasonable and effective clinical uses of medicine.

17.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 899-903, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922173

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the efficiency of the target gene panel method and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in detecting idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), and select a more suitable gene detection method.@*METHODS@#We selected 24 genes closely related to the molecular pathogenesis of IHH to make up the gene panel, detected the mutation sites in 73 patients with IHH using the panel method, and verified the results of sequencing with the Sanger method. Using the key words "idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism", we searched databases for relevant literature, calculated the positive rate of IHH detected by WES and compared it with that detected with the panel method.@*RESULTS@#Of the 73 cases of IHH detected with the panel method, 7 were found with pathogenic mutations, including 2 cases of FGFR1, 2 cases of CHD7, 2 cases of KISS1R, and 1 case of NR5A1 mutation. Sanger sequencing showed that the positive rate of the panel method was 9.7%. Of the 1 336 articles retrieved, 5 met the inclusion criteria and were included, in which WES revealed a positive rate of about 30%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#For detection of the diseases with clear mutated genes, the panel method is relatively inexpensive and has a high sequencing depth, while for detection of the diseases with complicated genetic patterns and unclear mutated genes, WES is more efficient. Further studies are needed for choice of the two methods for different purpose of detection./.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypogonadism/genetics , Male , Whole Exome Sequencing
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2900-2913, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888893

ABSTRACT

Malaria still threatens global health seriously today. While the current discoveries of antimalarials are almost totally focused on single mode-of-action inhibitors, multi-targeting inhibitors are highly desired to overcome the increasingly serious drug resistance. Here, we performed a structure-based drug design on mitochondrial respiratory chain of

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3364-3378, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922801

ABSTRACT

As a cellular bulk degradation and survival mechanism, autophagy is implicated in diverse biological processes. Genome-wide association studies have revealed the link between autophagy gene polymorphisms and susceptibility of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), indicating that autophagy dysregulation may be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. A series of autophagy modulators have displayed protective effects on autoimmune disease models, highlighting the emerging role of autophagy modulators in treating autoimmune diseases. This review explores the roles of autophagy in the autoimmune diseases, with emphasis on four major autoimmune diseases [SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), IBD, and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)]. More importantly, the therapeutic potentials of small molecular autophagy modulators (including autophagy inducers and inhibitors) on autoimmune diseases are comprehensively analyzed.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872927

ABSTRACT

Objective:To identify the quality differential markers of different processed products of Glycyrrhiza uralensis dry roots and rhizomes. Method:Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE) was used to collect high-precision mass-charge ratio and ion response strength information of the components in G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes before and after processing by negative ion mode. The data set collected after pretreatment was analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to quickly search the differential components in different processed products of G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes. Differential components were identified according to the relative molecular weight, fragment ion, mass spectrum database and related literature information, then the migration of components before and after processing was studied. Result:A total of 10 quality differential markers were searched from raw products, roasted products and honey-roasted products of G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes, mainly derivatives of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid. Among them, the contents of 6''-O-acetylliquiritin apioside, 6''-O-acetylliquiritin apioside isomer, 6''-O-acetylliquiritin, formononetin and 11-deoxo-18β-glycyrrhetic acid were the highest in the raw products, the contents of 6''-O-acetylisoliquiritin apioside, 6''-O-acetylisoliquiritin, isoliquiritin and glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide were the highest in the roasted products, the content of liquiritin was the lowest in the honey-roasted products. Conclusion:There are some chemical differences among the three products. This study can provide material basis for the quality control and pharmacodynamic research of processed products of G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes.

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