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1.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 419-424, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700845

ABSTRACT

Pigment epithelium-derived factor(PEDF)is an endogenously produced protein widely expressed throughout the human body,which exhibits multiple and varied biological actions.Over the past few years,PEDF has been described as a multifaceted protein with anti-angiogenic, neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and anti-permeability.PEDF effectively inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)-driven angiogenesis and vascular permeability by regulating the intracellular proteolysis of VEGF receptors in re -cent reports.Moreover,PEDF can inhibit the occurrence of neural degenerative diseases through a variety of signaling pathways.The aim of the present review is to discuss the varied biological actions of PEDF and to identify the possible molecular mechanism underly -ing its effects.

2.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 97-101, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284136

ABSTRACT

This article endeavours to reiterate the advances in six vital aspects of burn injury, i.e. shock/ischemia-hypoxia, infection/sepsis, inhalation injury, regenerative medicine/tissue engineering and wound repair, hypermetabolism after burn, and integration of early treatment and rehabilitation in the last three decades. They originated from the papers dealing with ten main episodes in the care of burn trauma as a token to commemorate the 10th anniversary of Chinese Journal of Burns, as well as the 30th anniversary of the inauguration of Chinese Burn Association.


Subject(s)
Burns , Therapeutics , China , Humans , Translational Research, Biomedical
3.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 109-112, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284133

ABSTRACT

Shock is one of the most important and common complications in the early stage following severe burn. This article focuses on the main advances in the roles and mechanism of vascular and cardiac factors in the pathogenesis of burn shock, and the new measures for prevention and treatment of it. Further studies are still needed to elucidate the precise mechanism of increased capillary permeability and the effective measures for decreasing fluid leakage from blood vessels, and to prevent hypoxic/ischemic damage and complications of visceral tissues arising thereof.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels , Burns , Heart , Humans , Shock , Therapeutics
4.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 232-234, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284112

ABSTRACT

The "PRIDE"-five combined measures, including "protection of cell function and anti-shock treatment to reduce ischemic-hypoxic injury", "rehabilitation from early postburn stage", "inhalation injury treatment", "deep burn wound repair", and "enterogenous infection control", are key measures to improve the levels of burn treatment. The progressive advances in combined measures denoted as "PRIDE" have raised the burn treatment to a higher level and greatly elevated the survival rate. The degree of attention has also been raised from improvement in survival rate only to higher survival rate and better life quality with improvement in rehabilitation. Clinically however, many problems remain to be solved in the treatment of severe burn patients. Further basic and translational studies on "PRIDE" will be helpful to further improve the level of burn treatment.


Subject(s)
Burns , Therapeutics , Humans
5.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 235-238, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284111

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the clinical significance of hematocrit used as a predictor for diagnosis and evaluation of resuscitation effect in the early shock stage after burn.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data of 131 severely burned patients admitted to our burn unit from January 2000 to December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The burn patients were divided into group A (n = 80) and group B (n = 51) based on the hematocrit level at post burn hour (PBH) 24. The hematocrit levels in group A were less than or equal to 0.50, which in group B were higher than 0.50. There were no statistically significant differences between two groups in age, gender, body weight, admission time after burn, total burn area, full-thickness burn area, and degree of inhalation injury (P values all above 0.05). Hematocrit levels in the shock stage were recorded. Total urine output, base excess, and the volume of fluid infused per kg per %TBSA at PBH 24 were recorded. Rates of complication and mortality were recorded. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Hematocrit level of group A at PBH 24 was decreased to about 0.45, while that of group B was decreased to about 0.55. The urine output in group A at PBH 24 [(61 ± 22) mL/h] was higher than that in group B [(53 ± 20) mL/h, t = 2.212, P < 0.05]. Base excess in group A at PBH 24 [(-6.1 ± 2.9) mmol/L] was significantly higher than that in group B [(-9.0 ± 3.8) mmol/L, t = 4.888, P < 0.01]. The volume infused per kg per %TBSA was higher in group A [(1.9 ± 0.4) mL·kg(-1)·%TBSA(-1)] than in group B [(1.7 ± 0.4) mL·kg(-1)·%TBSA(-1), t = 2.472, P < 0.05]. The rates of complication and mortality in group A [11.3%(9/80), 8.8%(7/80), respectively] were significantly lower than those in group B [27.5%(14/51), 21.6%(11/51), with χ(2) values respectively 5.648 and 4.318, P values all below 0.05].</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Hematocrit can indirectly reflect resuscitation effect in the burn shock stage. Whether hematocrit level can be lowered to 0.45-0.50 during the first 24 hours after burn may be an important index for evaluation of fluid resuscitation effect in the early shock stage after severe burn.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Burns , Blood , Therapeutics , Female , Fluid Therapy , Hematocrit , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Resuscitation , Retrospective Studies , Shock , Blood , Therapeutics
6.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 245-248, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284109

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the changes in aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) expression in myocardium of scalded rats in early stage of a burn injury, and to analyze its relationship with myocardial edema.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-six healthy Wistar rats were divided into normal control (n = 6, without scald) and scald (n = 30) groups according to the random number table. Rats in scald group were inflicted with 30%TBSA full-thickness scald on the back, and intraperitoneally injected with Ringer's solution for antishock treatment. Myocardium tissue from left ventricle and serum specimen in rats of scald group were collected at post scald hours (PSH) 2, 8, 12, 24, and 48 (with 6 rats at each time point). Myocardial water ratio was determined by dry-wet weight method. The distribution of AQP-1 protein in myocardium was observed with immunohistochemical staining. The expression of myocardial AQP-1 mRNA was assessed with quantitative real-time PCR. The serum content of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) was determined with ELISA. The rats in normal control group were detected with above-mentioned method. Data were processed with one way analysis of variance and LSD test. Correlation analysis was performed between AQP-1 mRNA and myocardial water ratio, AQP-1 mRNA and the serum content of cTnI in scald group at each time point.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with that in normal control group, the myocardial water ratio in scald group was markedly increased during PSH 8-48 (P values all below 0.01), and it peaked at PSH 12 [(80.79 ± 0.12)%]. In both groups, AQP-1 was mainly expressed in endothelial cells of capillaries and pericellular membrane of myocardial cells. The expression of AQP-1 in scald group was markedly increased from PSH 2 to PSH 48. The expression of myocardial AQP-1 mRNA in scald group was markedly higher from PSH 2 to PSH 48 than that in normal control group (P values all below 0.01), and it peaked at PSH 12 [(6.2 ± 0.7)%]. The serum content of cTnI in scald group was obviously higher from PSH 2 to PSH 48 than that in normal control group (P values all below 0.01), and it peaked at PSH 12 [(5.83 ± 0.51) µg/L]. There were statistically positive correlations between AQP-1 mRNA expression and myocardial water ratio (r = 0.849, P < 0.01), AQP-1 mRNA expression and the serum content of cTnI (r = 0.973, P < 0.01) in scald group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>AQP-1 may play a key role in the development of myocardial edema in rats with scald.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquaporin 1 , Metabolism , Burns , Metabolism , Pathology , Cardiomyopathies , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Edema , Metabolism , Myocardium , Metabolism , Pathology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Troponin I , Blood
7.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 267-271, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284105

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of antisense p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (hereinafter referred to as p38α) on myocardial cells exposed to hypoxia and burn serum.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty adult SD rats were inflicted with 40% TBSA full-thickness burn on the back to obtain burn serum. The myocardial cells were isolated from 80 neonatal SD rats and cultured, then they were divided into 4 groups according to the random number table: normal control group (N, ordinary culture without any treatment), hypoxia+burn serum group (HB, exposed to hypoxia after being treated with 10% burn rat serum), hypoxia+burn serum+infection group (HBI, exposed to hypoxia and 10% burn rat serum after being infected with antisense p38α gene-carrying adenovirus), hypoxia+burn serum+empty vector infection group (exposed to hypoxia and 10% burn rat serum after being infected with adenovirus empty vector). At post hypoxia hour (PHH) 1, 3, 6, and 12, mRNA and protein expression levels of p38α in the latter 3 groups were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, cell viability was determined by methylthianolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was assayed at the same time point. At PHH 1, 6, and 12, apoptosis rate of myocardial cells was assessed by annexin V staining method. The indexes of group N were determined with the methods mentioned-above. Three wells were set at each time point in each group. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and LSD- t test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) At PHH 1, 3, and 6, the p38α mRNA level was higher in group HB than in group N and group HBI (with t values from 2.725 to 4.375, P values all below 0.05). (2) At PHH 1, 3, and 6, the p38α protein level was higher in group HB than those in group N and group HBI (with t values from 5.351 to 7.981, P values all below 0.01). (3) At PHH 3, 6, and 12, the cell viability in group HB (0.115 ± 0.007, 0.104 ± 0.006, 0.094 ± 0.005) was lower than that in group N (0.141 ± 0.014) and group HBI (0.136 ± 0.009, 0.124 ± 0.010, 0.112 ± 0.007, with t values from 2.357 to 6.812, P values all below 0.05). (4) The LDH activity was up-regulated in group HB as compared with that in group N and group HBI at each time point (with t values from 22.753 to 201.273, P values all below 0.01). (5) At PHH 1, 6, and 12, the apoptosis rate of myocardial cells in group HB [(5.4 ± 0.7)%, (8.7 ± 1.1)%, (13.6 ± 1.7)%] was higher than that of group N [(3.1 ± 0.3)%] and group HBI [(4.3 ± 0.5)%, (5.1 ± 0.7)%, (7.2 ± 0.9)%, with t values from 2.345 to 9.700, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01].</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Antisense p38α can protect the myocardial cells from the injury of hypoxia and burn serum.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antisense Elements (Genetics) , Genetics , Apoptosis , Cell Hypoxia , Cells, Cultured , Female , Male , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14 , Genetics , Metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac , Metabolism , Pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serum , Transfection
8.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 87-95, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257811

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To provide epidemiological data of the distribution characteristics and drug resistance of the pathogens isolated from burn patients in recent years for guiding rational use of antibiotics in clinic.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 2748 strains of pathogens were isolated from 1977 specimens (blood, catheter, wound excretion, etc.) collected from 478 patients hospitalized in Institute of Burn Research of Southwest Hospital from March 2003 to June 2011. After being identified by API strips, drug resistance of the 2748 isolated pathogens to 55 commonly-used antibiotics including gentamicin, tobramycin, piperacillin, amikacin, etc. was tested by K-B paper disk diffusion method. The WHONET 5.3 software was used to analyze the following subjects: the distribution of the pathogens with different types and different sources each year, the changes in drug-resistant rates of Gram negative bacilli, Gram positive cocci, and fungi to several antibiotics, and the changes in sensitive rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Acinetobacter baumannii (AB), Candida albicans (CA) to several antibiotics.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 2748 strains of pathogens, 1879 strains of Gram negative bacilli accounted for 68.38%, 628 strains of Gram positive cocci accounted for 22.85%, and 241 strains of fungi accounted for 8.77%. The isolation rate of strains from wound excretion ranked the first (1022 strains accounted for 37.19%), followed by those from respiratory tract (995 strains accounted for 36.21%) and blood (421 strains accounted for 15.32%). Strains isolated from other types of specimens were rare. Isolation rate of PA ranked the first (996 strains accounted for 36.24%), followed by SA (495 strains accounted for 18.01%) and AB (395 strains accounted for 14.37%). Isolation rate of AB showed a trend of increase year by year, but that of SA presented the opposite trend. Isolation rate of PA was quite stable. There were 484 strains of methicillin resistant SA among Staphylococci, accounting for 17.61%. Resistant rates of PA and AB to polymyxin B and polymyxin E were below 30.00%, and those of PA and AB to other antibiotics, such as the third generation cephalosporins, β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and quinolones, were from 57.91% to 100.00%. Resistant rate of AB to minocycline was 39.68%. From 2004 to 2011, sensitive rate of PA to quinolone antibiotics showed an increasing trend year by year, but that of AB to minocycline, netilmicin, imipenem, meropenem, tobramycin, and cefoperazone/sulbactam presented the opposite trend. Resistant rates of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and SA to teicoplanin and linezolid were less than 10.00%. Resistant rate of SA, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecium to vancomycin was 0. Resistant rates of SA to quinupristin/dalfopristin, minocycline, fusidic acid, and compound sulfamethoxazole were low, respectively 0.82%, 9.35%, 2.21%, and 31.85%. Sensitive rates of SA to erythromycin, clindamycin, compound sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and minocycline showed an increasing trend year by year. Both infection rate and resistant rate of fungi were low. The resistant rates of CA to 5 kinds of antibiotics were less than 15.00%. The sensitive rate of CA to 5-flucytosine declined slightly, and those of CA to the other 4 antibiotics showed an increasing trend year by year.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The three dominant pathogens that cause infection in burn patients hospitalized in Institute of Burn Research of Southwest Hospital in recent years are PA, SA, and AB in order. PA and AB are outstandingly multidrug-resistant among the isolated strains. AB might replace PA as the main pathogenic bacterium that cause the death of burn patients with infection.</p>


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Burns , Microbiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Infection , Microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Young Adult
9.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 165-169, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257798

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To retrospectively analyze the effect of restrictive fluid management strategy (RFMS) on the early pulmonary function and the prognosis of patients with extremely severe and extensive burn.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirteen patients with extremely severe burn hospitalized from June 2010 to November 2011, being treated with RFMS in the fluid reabsorption stage, were enrolled as treatment group. Twenty-six patients with extremely severe burn hospitalized from March 2008 to November 2011, being treated with normal fluid therapy in the fluid reabsorption stage, were enrolled as control group. The match proportion between treatment group and control group was 1:2. Fluid intake, fluid output, fluid balance (the difference between fluid intake and output), and plasma albumin level from post burn day (PBD) 3 to 10, pulmonary oxygenation index on PBD 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14, occurrence of lung and blood stream infections from PBD 7 to 14, and occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), occurrence of other organ complications, and mortality within 2 weeks post burn (PBW) were recorded and compared. Measurement data were processed with t test and randomized blocks analysis of variance, enumeration data were processed with Fisher's exact test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Daily fluid intake of patients showed a tendency of decrease in both groups from PBD 3 to 10. Except for that of PBD 4, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in fluid intake (with F values from 0.072 to 1.939, P values all above 0.05). Daily fluid output of patients showed a tendency of increase in both groups from PBD 3 to 10. It peaked on PBD 10 in control group and PBD 6 in treatment group. The mean daily fluid output was higher in treatment group than in control group from PBD 4 to 9, but without statistically significant difference (with F values from 0.001 to 3.026, P values all above 0.05). Fluid balance lowered in both groups, and it was the lowest on PBD 10 in control group and PBD 6 in treatment group. Fluid balance was lower in treatment group than in control group from PBD 3 to 7, and it showed statistically significant differences on PBD 4, 5, and 6 (with F values from 4.799 to 8.031, P values below 0.05). Plasma albumin level was higher in treatment group than in control group from PBD 3 to 10, with statistically significant differences observed on PBD 4, 9, and 10 (with F values from 5.691 to 10.551, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Pulmonary oxygenation index was higher in treatment group than in control group from PBD 3 to 14, with statistically significant differences observed on PBD 7 (respectively 372 ± 78 in treatment group and 291 ± 92 in control group, F = 5.184, P < 0.05) and 14 (respectively 354 ± 39 in treatment group and 283 ± 72 in control group, F = 8.683, P < 0.05). Lung infection and blood stream infection were respectively observed in 1 and 4 patient (s) in treatment group, and 9 and 11 patients in control group from PBD 7 to 14. Occurrence of ARDS, occurrence of other organ complications, and mortality were fewer in treatment group than in control group within PBW 2, though the differences were not statistically significant (P values all above 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>RFMS is a useful strategy in improving early pulmonary oxygenation of patients with extremely severe and extensive burn by promoting the process of fluid reabsorption and rebalance. This strategy may be also beneficial for the prevention of organ complications as well as a better prognosis in severely burned patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Burns , Therapeutics , Female , Fluid Therapy , Methods , Humans , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Young Adult
10.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 6-7, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305570

ABSTRACT

Regenerative medicine is presently one of the hottest areas in medical research. Regenerative medicine is to search for effective biotherapeutic strategies to promote self-repair and regeneration, or to construct new tissues and organs hopefully to improve or restore the function of the injured tissues and organs. Regenerative repair, including nonstructural and functional repair, may be classified into exogenous and endogenous regenerative repair when considering its cellular or molecular origin. To strengthen researches on regenerative medicine may precipitate the application of new clinical therapeutic strategies, and supply effective therapeutic means for treatment of severe burns.


Subject(s)
Burns , Therapeutics , Humans , Regenerative Medicine , Tissue Engineering , Wound Healing
11.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 10-13, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305628

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the instant changes in heart function and organ blood flow, and their relations in rats at early stage of severe burn.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-six SD rats were divided into sham injury group (S, n = 6) and burn group (B, n = 30) according to the random number table. Rats in B group were subjected to 30% TBSA full-thickness burn. Five time points for observation: 10 and 30 minutes, and 1, 3, and 6 hour (s) post injury (PIM/H) were set up, with 6 rats at each time point. Rats in S group were sham scalded with 37 degrees C warm water. Hemodynamics indexes including heart rate (HR), mean artery pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), LV + or - dp/dt max were determined. Blood flow of heart, brain, kidney, spleen, stomach, and ileum was determined respectively with fluorescent microspheres method. The correlation between LV + or - dp/dt max and myocardial blood flow was analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Compared with those of S group, HR in B group decreased gradually after injury; MAP, LVSP, LV +dp/dt max, LV -dp/dt max and myocardial blood flow in B group decreased obviously at PIM 10 (with F value respectively 12.062, 12.629, 11.066, 18.374, 9.468, and P values all below 0.01). Among them, myocardial blood flow decreased from (6.8 + or - 0.8) mL x min(-1) g(-1) to (2.6 + or - 0.5) mL x min(-1) x g(-1). Above-mentioned indexes increased gradually as the time after injury went on, with the highest values (except for LV +dp/dt max) observed at PIH 1, which decreased again later, with values at PIH 3 and 6 significantly lower than those in S group (the same F values as above, P values all below 0.01). There was no obvious difference in LVEDP between S group and B group at each time point (F = 1.205, with P values all above 0.05). (2) Compared with those of S group, blood flow of kidney, spleen, stomach, and ileum of rats in B group at PIM 10 declined obviously (with F value respectively 22.694, 20.856, 12.653, 7.293, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), but the decline range was smaller than that in heart. The lowest values of above-mentioned indexes were observed at PIH 1 or PIH 3. Brain blood flow of rats in B group at each time point was close to that in S group (F = 1.812, with P values all above 0.05). (3) The correlation coefficient r between LV +dp/dt max, LV -dp/dt max and myocardial blood flow was respectively 0.651 and 0.617, showing significant positive correlation (with t value respectively 4.456 and 4.222, and P values all below 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The myocardial ischemia and decrease in cardiac function may occur in a very short time after severe burn (PIM 10). The rapid decrease of heart blood flow plays an important role in the change in cardiac function. Myocardial damage and decrease of cardiac function may be one of the important factors result in the decline of blood flow in other organs.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Burns , Disease Models, Animal , Heart , Hemodynamics , Ileum , Kidney , Male , Myocardial Ischemia , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Regional Blood Flow , Spleen , Stomach
12.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 14-17, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305627

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore whether endothelin-1 and NO are involved in the instant changes in cardiac function at early stage of severe burn.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>(1) Thirty-one Wistar rats were divided into sham burn A group (SA, n = 7), burn A group (BA, n = 10), non-selective endothelin A/B receptor antagonist PD142893 group (n = 7), and the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist BQ-123 group (n = 7) according to the random number table. Rats in the latter three groups were inflicted with 30% TBSA full-thickness burn. Immediately after injury, rats in PD142893 group and BQ-123 group were intravenously injected with PD142893 (0.1 mg/kg) and BQ-123 (30 nmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) respectively. Rats in SA group were treated the same as rats in BA group except for sham injury. The cardiac function indexes of rats in BA and SA groups including left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) heart rate (HR) and LV + or - dp/dt max were monitored before injury and 10, 30, 60, 180 minutes post injury (PIM) using physiological signal acquisition and processing system. The respective changes in cardiac function indexes of rate in each group between PIM 10 and pre-injury in the value of percentage were calculated. (2) Another 20 Wistar rats were enrolled and divided into sham burn B group (SB, n = 4) and burn B group (BB, n = 16) according to the random number table, and they were subjected to above-mentioned injury. Heart tissues of rats in BB group were obtained at PIM 10, 30, 60, and 180 respectively (4 rats at each time point), and that in SB group were obtained immediately after injury. Endothelin-1 and NO contents in heart tissues were determined with ELISA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Compared with the pre-injury value, LVSP, HR, LV +dp/dt max, LV -dp/dt max of rats in BA group decreased significantly since PIM 10 (with F value respectively 7.14, 16.40, 14.09 14.98, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). No significant change was observed in above 4 indexes in rats of SB group between above mentioned two time points (with F value respectively 0.59, 0.51, 1.03, 1.04, P values all above 0.05). (2) In BA group, compared with the pre-injury value, LVSP decreased 27%, HR decreased 14%, LV +dp/dt max decreased 51%, LV -dp/dt max decreased 50% at PIM 10. Compared with those in BA group at PIM 10, cardiac function indexes were improved significantly in PD142893 group, with LVSP decreased 14% (F = 8.10, P < 0.01), HR increased 4% (F = 6.50, P < 0.01), LV +dp/dt max decreased 31% (F = 23.67, P < 0.05), LV -dp/dt max decreased 14% (F = 10.39, P < 0.01). In BQ-123 group, compared with the pre-injury value, HR increased 3%, LV -dp/dt max decreased 26% at PIM 10, which were obviously improved as compared with those in BA group (with F value respectively 6.50 and 10.39, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); the percentage changes of LVSP and LV +dp/dt max in BQ-123 group were close to that in BA group (with F value respectively 8.10 and 23.67, P values both above 0.05). (3) Compared with those in SB group, myocardial tissue endothelin-1 content of rats in BB group increased significantly at PIM 10, 60, 180 (F = 2.85, P < 00.05 or P < 0.01), and NO content increased significantly at PIM 60, 180 (F = 1.87, with P values all below 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Endothelin-1 may participate in the instant decline of cardiac function of rats at early stage of severe burn, and plays an important role in the instant myocardial damage after injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Burns , Metabolism , Endothelin-1 , Metabolism , Heart , Male , Myocardium , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar
13.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 18-22, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305626

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the influence of microtubule depolymerization of myocardial cells on distribution and activity of mitochondria, and energy metabolism of cells in adult rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Myocardial cells of SD adult rats and SD suckling rats were isolated and cultured. They were divided into adult and suckling rats control groups (AC and SC, normally cultured without any stimulating factor), adult and suckling rats microtubule depolymerization agent groups (AMDA and SMDA, cultured with 8 micromol/L colchicine containing nutrient solution for 30 minutes) according to the random number table. (1) The expression of polymerized beta tubulin in myocardial cells of adult and suckling rats was detected with Western blot. (2) Myocardial cells of rats in AC and AMDA groups were collected. The expression of cytochrome c was detected with Western blot. Distribution of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) and polymerized beta tubulin in myocardial cells were observed with immunofluorescent staining. Mitochondrial inner membrane potential was determined with immunocytochemical method. Activity of myocardial cells was detected with MTT method. Contents of ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and energy charge of cells were determined with high performance liquid chromatography.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The expression of polymerized beta tubulin:in AMDA group it was 0.52 + or - 0.07, which was obviously lower than that (1.25 + or - 0.12) in AC group (F = 31.002, P = 0.000); in SMDA group it was 0.76 + or - 0.12, which was significantly lower than that (1.11 + or - 0.24) in SC group (F = 31.002, P = 0.000), but was obviously higher than that in AMDA group (F = 31.002, P = 0.009). (2) The expression of cytochrome c in AC group was 0.26 + or - 0.03, which was obviously lower than that (1.55 + or - 0.13) in AMDA group (t = -24.056, P = 0.000). (3) Immunofluorescent staining result: in AC group, microtubules of myocardial cells were in linear tubiform, distributed in parallel with myocardial fiber; VDAC staining result showed that mitochondria were in granular form, distributed in the same direction as microtubules. In AMDA group, the normal distribution regularity of microtubules was destroyed, with weakened immune fluorescence intensity, microtubules structure indistinct, continuity lost, rough in appearance, and the distribution of mitochondria became disrupted. (4) Mitochondrial inner membrane potential in AC group fluorescent intensity was 1288 + or - 84, which was obviously higher than that (331 + or - 27) in AMDA group (t = 26.508, P = 0.000). (5) Cellular activity: in AC group absorbance value was 1.75 + or - 0.11, which was obviously lower than that (0.81 + or - 0.07) in AMDA group (t = 17.348, P = 0.000). (6) Energy metabolism: compared with those in AC group, content of ATP decreased, contents of ADP and AMP increased, and ATP/ADP value and energy charge decreased in AMDA group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Microtubules and mitochondria distribute in the same direction in normal myocardial cells in adult rats. After microtubule depolymerization, mitochondria are arranged in disorder fashion; cytochrome c leaks from mitochondria; mitochondrial membrane potential, energy supply, and cellular activity decrease in the myocardial cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Energy Metabolism , Male , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Microtubules , Metabolism , Mitochondria, Heart , Metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tubulin , Metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 167-169, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305609

ABSTRACT

Translational medicine and regenerative medicine are presently the hottest areas in medical research. Translational medicine is regarded as a two-way model of medical research, i.e. bench to bedside and bedside to bench. The purpose of translational research is to test novel therapeutic strategies developed through experimentation in human beings, and to facilitate the transformation of findings resulting from basic research to clinical practice. Regenerative medicine is to search for effective biotherapy methods to promote self repair and regeneration; or to construct new tissues and organs to improve or restore the function of the injured tissues and organs. To strengthen researches on translational medicine and regenerative medicine in burns may promote the application of new clinical therapeutic strategies, and supply effective therapeutic measures for treatment of severe burns.


Subject(s)
Burns , Therapeutics , Humans , Regenerative Medicine , Translational Research, Biomedical , Wound Healing
15.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 331-334, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305656

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of L-arginine in different doses on the serum levels of helper T lymphocyte1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokines in severely burned patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-nine severely burned patients, with total burn surface area from 50% to 80%TBSA, hospitalized within 20 hours after burn, were randomly divided into control group (10 cases, fed with 5% glucose saline 500 mL), L-arginine 200 mg group (10 cases, fed with 5% glucose saline 500 mL + 200 mg/kg L-arginine), L-arginine 400 mg group (9 cases, fed with 5% glucose saline 500 mL + 400 mg/kg L-arginine). All patients received enteral feeding through nasointestinal tube, started within 22 hours after burn. Fasting venous blood of all patients was harvested on post burn day (PBD) 1 (before enteral feeding), 3, 5, and 7 to determine serum contents of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, TGF-beta(1) and IL-4 by radio-immunity method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Serum contents of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta of patients in all groups increased rapidly after burn, and although contents of TNF-alpha (318 +/- 57) ng/mL and IL-1beta (218 +/- 47) pg/mL of patients in L-arginine 200 mg group peaked on PBD 5, they were still significantly lower than those of patients in control group [(389 +/- 34) ng/mL, (272 +/- 40) pg/mL, P < 0.05], but they decreased on PBD 7. Serum contents of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in L-arginine 400 mg group were close to those of control group (P > 0.05). Serum contents of TGF-beta(1) and IL-4 of patients in each group increased slowly after burn, and content of TGF-beta(1) (110 +/- 16) pg/mL of patients in L-arginine 200 mg group was significantly higher than that of patients in control group [(83 +/- 20) pg/mL, P < 0.05] on PBD 5. There was no statistical significant difference between L-arginine 400 mg group and control group in respect of serum content of TGF-beta(1) (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Compared with the dosage of 400 mg/kg L-arginine, the 200 mg/kg dose is more effective in reducing the release of Th1 cytokines and increasing Th2 cytokines production, hence maintaining Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio to produce better immune opsonization during the infection phase of severe burn.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Arginine , Therapeutic Uses , Burns , Blood , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Interleukin-1beta , Blood , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Metabolism , Th1 Cells , Metabolism , Th2 Cells , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism , Young Adult
16.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 372-376, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305648

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the therapeutic effect and side effects of colistin in treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacillus in patients with severe burn in order to provide the basis for reasonable application of this antibiotic in clinic.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Nine burn patients suffered from infections caused by MDR gram-negative bacillus admitted to our institute from August 2005 to January 2009 were involved in this study. On the premises that isolated bacteria were only sensitive to colistin or not sensitive to other antibiotics, patients were treated with intravenous drip of colistin (100 x 10(4) - 150 x 10(4) U/d), or intravenous drip combined with administration of the drug into respiratory tract by atomization or instillation (50 x 10(4) - 100 x 10(4) U/d). The bacteriologic and therapeutic effects and side effects (including neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, rise in serum levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen and cystatin C were detected and compared before and after administration) of colistin were observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Out of 9 patients, 7 patients were with bloodstream and pulmonary infections, 1 patient was with bloodstream, pulmonary, and invasive wound infections, and 1 patient was with bloodstream and urinary tract infections. The pathogenic bacteria were proved to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas maltophilia. After the administration of colistin, bacteria clearance rate of blood reached 92.3% in 9 patients; isolation rate of MDR gram-negative bacillus of sputum was significantly decreased in 7 patients with pulmonary infection (before treatment 58.2% v.s. after treatment 14.6%, P < 0.01); a complete MDR gram-negative bacillus clearance of urine was observed in 1 patient with urinary tract infection. Colistin was clinically effective in 8 patients but ineffective in 1 patient (effective rate 88.9%). Compared with those before administration, serum levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen were decreased after administration in all patients; no significant difference in serum level of cystatin C among 8 patients was detected, except an obvious elevation in serum level of cystatin C in 1 patient after colistin therapy, and it lowered 1 month after discontinuation. No neurotoxicity or other side effect was observed during medication and 5 days after discontinuation in all patients.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Reasonable application of colistin is a good option for treating infections caused by MDR gram-negative bacillus in patients with severe burn, as no other more effective drug is found.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Burns , Drug Therapy , Microbiology , Colistin , Therapeutic Uses , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Drug Therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
17.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 91-93, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257439

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To address the features of the fungal infection after burn injury in clinic.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Three thousand nine hundred and nine burn patients admitted to our institute from Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2006 were involved in this study. Two thousand two hundred and seventy-one samples were harvested for fungal detection by culture from 467 patients suspected to be infected by fungi based on their clinic manifestations. The collected samples included wound tissue, blood, urine, stool, sputum, catheters and others. The antibiotic sensitivity of the identified fungi were determined by routine method. When same kind of fungus was found from different samples taken from one patient, it was recorded as one positive sample. The samples were ranked in an ascending order as wound secretion, stool, urine, sputum and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, arteriovenous catheter or urinary catheter, blood. Only the positive sample of the highest rank source was recorded as the positive strain of fungus from this particular patient.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>It was found 61 fungal positive samples from the 2271 samples collected. Out of 467 patients, 38 strains of fungi were detected from 36 burn patients during the investigated period, the incidence was 0.92% (36/3909). The most three commonest types among the identified 38 strains of fungi were Candida tropicalis (42.1%), Candida albicans (31.6%) and Candida famata (T. Famata, 10.5%). The drug sensitivity tests demonstrated that most of the strains detected in this investigation, with the exception of candida glabrata, were sensitive to most of the routine antimycotics agents such as Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and Itraconazole etc. Among the 36 fungus positive patients, in 18 patients the burn area exceeded 80% TBSA, 12 patients with 50%-79% TBSA, 4 patients with 30%-49% TBSA, and in 2 patients the burn area was smaller than 30% TBSA. It was found most of the fungal infections (77.78%) occurred 2 weeks after burn injury, and 8 of the 36 fungus-infected patients died (the mortality was 22.22%). Conclusions Further examinations are necessary to confirm the diagnosis in burn patients suspected to have fungal infection. Once fungal infections are confirmed, antimycotic therapy must be started immediately.</p>


Subject(s)
Burns , Microbiology , Candida , Humans , Incidence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses , Drug Therapy , Pathology
18.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 161-163, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257426

ABSTRACT

A series of studies demonstrated that myocardial damage and cardiac dysfunction occur immediately after severe burn even before the intervention of significant reduction in blood volume as a result of increased capillary permeability. Because the heart is the power organ of the circulation, such myocardial damage and cardiac dysfunction lead not only to cardiac deficiency, it is also a precipitating factor of burn shock and ischemic/hypoxic injury. Therefore, we nominate this phenomenon as "shock heart". New measures including "volume replacement" plus "dynamic support" proposed according to this new recognition is of important clinical significance for burn shock resuscitation and prevention and treatment of ischemic/hypoxic injury, as well as reducing organ complications resulting from insufficient or excessive fluid resuscitation during early postburn stage.


Subject(s)
Burns , Humans , Hypoxia , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Shock
19.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 176-179, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257422

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the influence of myocardial inhibition on injury to liver, kidney and intestine and blood perfusion at early stage in rat with severe burn.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into sham scald, propranolol, scald control and scald + propranolol groups, with 8 rats in each group. After intraperitoneal injection of 10 g/L pentobarbital sodium for anesthesia, rats of the former two groups were sham scalded in a water bath of 37 degrees C for 18 s, while the latter two groups were inflicted with 30% TBSA full-thickness scald in a 97 degrees C water bath for 18 s. Rats were resuscitated with Ringer's lactate solution (4 mL x kg(-1) x 1% TBSA(-1), i. p.) following the Parkland formula 30 mins after the injury. At the same time, rats in propranolol and scald + propranolol groups received propranolol 0.75 mg/kg intravenously. After 6 hours, parameters of myocardiac mechanics (SBP, DBP, MAP, LVSP, LVEDP, +/- dp/dt max) were recorded by the multiple channel physiological signal collecting and processing system; blood flow of liver, kidney and intestine were detected with the laser doppler flowmetry; the serum contents of cTnI, TBA, beta2-MG and DAO were determined for reflecting injuries to the heart, liver, kidney and intestine, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Myocardiac mechanics parameters, with the exception of LVEDP, were decreased in propranolol group as compared with those in sham group (P <.05). All myocardiac mechanics parameters in burn control group were lower than those in sham group and higher than those in burn + propranolol group (P < 0.05). Blood flow of organs showed similar changes in above-mentioned 3 groups (P < 0.05). Organ damages as shown in burn control group [cTnI (4.86 +/- 0.29) microg/L, TBA (83.6 +/- 18.2) micromol/L, beta2-MG (2.75 +/- 0.19) mg/L, DAO (1.45 +/- 0.09) x 10(3) U/L] were more serious than those in sham control group [cTnI (1.73 +/- 0.09) microg/L, TBA (24.5 +/- 2.4) micromol/L, beta2-MG (1.15 +/- 0.18) mg/L, DAO (0.87 +/- 0.13) x 10(3) U/L], and less serious than those in scald + propranolol group [cTnI 5.95 +/- 0.42 microg/L, TBA 125.8 +/- 21.3 micromol/L, beta2-MG 3.25 +/- 0.17 mg/L, DAO (1.83 +/- 0.13) x 10(3) U/L] (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Propranolol can aggravate injury to the liver, kidney and intestine at early stage in rat with severe burn, suggesting that "shock heart" may be one of initial factors in lowering blood flow to the organs, thus inducing injury to them.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Pressure , Burns , Metabolism , Intestines , Kidney , Liver , Male , Myocardium , Metabolism , Propranolol , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Shock
20.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 180-183, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257421

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate effects of angiotensin (1-7) [Ang (1-7)] and enalaprilat on function of isolated rat heart perfused by burn serum.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighty SD rats were used to prepare burn serum. Hearts of another 24 SD rats were isolated to reproduce Langendorff perfusion model. The rat hearts were divided into different groups with different perfusion fluids as K-H buffer group, K-H buffer containing 20% burn serum group (burn serum group), K-H buffer containing 20% burn serum and 2 microg/mL enalaprilat group (enalaprilat group), and K-H buffer containing 20% burn serum and 1 nmol/mL Ang (1-7) group [Ang(1-7) group]. The rat hearts were perfused for 30 mins with each of above-mentioned fluids in different groups. Then left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), +/- dp/dt max, coronary flow(CF), level of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in respective coronary effluent were determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with LVSP (11.2 +/- 1.0 kPa, 1 kPa = 7.5 mm Hg), +dp/dt max (642 +/- 53 kPa/s), -dp/dt max (380 +/- 61 kPa/s) and CF level in K-H buffer group, CF, LVSP (5.9 +/- 0.8, 8.0 +/- 1.1, 8.9 +/- 1.3 kPa, respectively), +dp/dt max (275 +/- 37, 454 +/- 48, 479 +/- 63 kPa/s, respectively), -dp/dt max (135 +/- 35, 219 +/- 47, 277 +/- 58 kPa/s, respectively) of burn serum group, those levels in Ang (1-7) group, and enalaprilat group were decreased obviously (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), but LVEDP, level of CK and LDH in coronary effluent were increased. Compared with those parameters in burn serum group, CF, LVSP, +/- dp/dt max of Ang (1-7) group and enalaprilat group were increased obviously (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and LVEDP, level of CK and LDH in coronary effluent were decreased obviously (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Ang (1-7) and enalaprilat can effectively improve left ventricular function of isolated rat heart perfused by burn serum and mitigate myocardial injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Angiotensin I , Pharmacology , Animals , Burns , Blood , Enalaprilat , Pharmacology , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Peptide Fragments , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serum , Ventricular Function, Left
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