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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885089

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the association between metabolically healthy obesity(MHO) and atherosclerosis risk among Chinese community population aged 40 or older.Methods:A total of 9 525 participants without cardiovascular diseases (3 621 men and 5 904 women) from Jiading community in Shanghai were enrolled to complete questionnaires, undergo extensive physical examination including brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and blood pressure (BP) assessment, and laboratory screening. According to body mass index (BMI) and metabolic status, these participants were categorized into 4 groups including metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO), metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO), MHO, and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). High baPWV was defined as baPWV>1 400 mm/s, and high pulse pressure (PP) was defined as PP above fourth quartile of the population. Multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between MHO and high baPWV as well as high PP after adjusting for confounders. Results:After multivariable adjustment, such as sex, age, current smoking, current drinking, and education, logistic regression analysis showed that MHO was significantly correlated with high baPWV ( OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37) and high PP ( OR=1.72, 95% CI 1.43-2.08) in comparison with MHNO. Otherwise, both MUNO and MUO subjects were at higher risk for suffering from high baPWV (MUNO: OR=3.02, 95% CI 2.60-3.50; MUO: OR=3.26, 95% CI 2.87-3.70) and high PP (MUNO: OR=2.56, 95% CI 2.17-3.02; MUO: OR=3.49, 95% CI 3.01-4.06). Conclusion:On the basis of Chinese community population, there was a pronounced correlation between the MHO phenotype and the increased risk of developing atherosclerosis.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870112

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between exposure to famine in early life and later risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.Methods:A cluster sampling method was used to include 8 868 residents who were lived in the Jiading community of Shanghai during the Great Famine from 1959 to 1962 in China. Subjects were divided into non-exposed group, fetal exposure group, childhood exposure group, and adolescent exposure group. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between famine exposure in early life and the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Results:Famine exposure during childhood and adolescent both increased the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood in women. No significant correlation was observed in men. In subjects with less physical activity and lower education level, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood was significantly higher in the famine-exposed group than that of non-exposed groupand the interactions were statistically significant.Conclusion:Early life famine exposure increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adults, especially in women.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870046

ABSTRACT

As the aging process accelerates, cognitive dysfunction has become a significant public health problem. Recently, oxidative stress has been recognized as a critical factor contributing to the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, uric acid, as an important antioxidant in vivo, might correspondingly play cognitive protection roles. However, uric acid was regarded as a risk factor for cognitive deterioration in some studies. The uric acid paradox, together with the pathophysiological differences between cognitive disorders, adds to the complexity of their association. So far, the impact of uric acid on cognitive function has been debated. This article tried to review the impact of uric acid on different cognitive disorders and to discuss the possible mechanisms.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870021

ABSTRACT

Delineation of the relationship between insulin resistance, β cell dysfunction, and obesity is crucial for the prevention and effective management of diabetes. Previous studies have indicated that, compared with type 2 diabetes in Caucasian, type 2 diabetes in East Asians is characterized primarily by β cell dysfunction rather than insulin resistance. This pathophysiological characterization of diabetes in East Asians is mainly derived from Japanese and Asian-American populations, whereas data from mainland China are scarce. Over the past four decades, China has witnessed a substantial rise in obesity, in parallel with the transitions from principally active lifestyles and calorie-restricted diets to sedentary life styles and energy-dense, western diets. Obesity is an insulin resistance state and the major factor driving the worldwide epidemic of diabetes. It is unknown whether, and if so how, obesity affects the two primary mechanisms, insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction, responsible for the development of diabetes in the Chinese population. Recently, the Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology published an original research paper from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study (4C). From a public health perspective, the results of this study reinforce the urgency of tackling obesity as a major preventive strategy for the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in China.

5.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 802-810, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880936

ABSTRACT

The association between serum uric acid and the risk of incident diabetes in Chinese adults remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate this association in a community-dwelling population aged ≥ 40 years in Shanghai, China. Oral glucose tole3rance test was conducted during baseline and follow-up visits. Relative risk regression was utilized to examine the associations between baseline gender-specific serum uric acid levels and incident diabetes risk. A total of 613 (10.3%) incident diabetes cases were identified during the follow-up visit after 4.5 years. Fasting plasma glucose, postload glucose, and glycated hemoglobin A1c during the follow-up visit progressively increased across the sex-specific quartiles of serum uric acid (all Ps < 0.05). The incidence rate of diabetes increased across the quartiles of serum uric acid (7.43%, 8.77%, 11.47%, and 13.43%). Multivariate adjusted regression analysis revealed that individuals in the highest quartile had 1.36-fold increased risk of diabetes compared with those in the lowest quartile of serum uric acid (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.36 (1.06-1.73)). Stratified analysis indicated that the association was only observed in women. Accordingly, serum uric acid was associated with the increased risk of incident diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Uric Acid
6.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 601-607, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771276

ABSTRACT

The incidence of obesity has been rapidly increasing, and this condition has become a major public health threat. A substantial shift in environmental factors and lifestyle, such as unhealthy diet, is among the major driving forces of the global obesity pandemic. Longitudinal studies and randomized intervention trials have shown that genetic susceptibility to obesity may interact with dietary factors in relation to the body mass index and risk of obesity. This review summarized data from recent longitudinal studies and intervention studies on variations and diets and discussed the challenges and future prospects related to this area and public health implications.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Diet , Gene-Environment Interaction , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Life Style , Obesity , Epidemiology , Genetics , Observational Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 678-687, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771273

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with a high prevalence of depression.We aimed to determine the causal relation by performing a Mendelian randomization (MR) study using 34 T2D risk genetic variants validated in East Asians as the instrumental variable (IV). An MR analysis was performed involving 11 506 participants from a large longitudinal study. The T2D genetic risk score (GRS) was built using the 34 typical T2D common variants. We used T2D_GRS as the IV estimator and performed inverse-variance weighted (IVW) and Egger MR analysis. The T2D_GRS was found to be associated with depression with an OR of 1.21 (95% CI: 1.07-1.37) after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, current smoking and drinking, physical activity, education, and marital status. Using T2D_GRS as the IV, we similarly found a causal relationship between genetically determined T2D and depression (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.25-2.70). Though we found no association between the combined effect of the genetic IVs for T2D and depression with EggerMR(OR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.42-2.14), we found an association for T2D and depression with IVW (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.31-2.46) after excluding pleiotropic SNPs. Overall, the MR analyses provide evidence inferring a potential causal relationship between T2D and depression.


Subject(s)
Aged , Causality , China , Epidemiology , Depression , Epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Genetics , Psychology , Female , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Humans , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710009

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the association of age at menarche with the risks of diabetes and metabolic syndrome ( MS) in adulthood in Shanghai community postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 10375 residents over 40 years in Jiading, Shanghai were identified by a cluster sampling method. After taking standardized questionnaire surveys, physical examinations, and biochemical parameters testing, we gathered their lifestyle and medicine information. A total of 4723 postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study. The population was divided into three groups according to age at menarche, and their risks of MS and diabetes in various groups were compared. Results After multivariate adjustment, postmenopausal women with a menarche age<15 years had a 29%increased risk of diabetes(95%CI 1.03-1.61) and a 45% increased risk of MS(95% CI 1.20-1.76) in adulthood, compared with those with menarcheal age at 15-18 years. Among the five components of MS, earlier age of menarche was associated with higher risks of hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and central obesity. Conclusions In Shanghai Jiading community postmenopausal women, age at menarche is associated with the risk of diabetes and MS, independent of the body mass index in adulthood.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709998

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the association between levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the risks of cardiovascular disease in Chinese. Methods A survey of 10 375 subjects aged 40 or older in Jiading District of Shanghai was performed using cluster sampling. All the subjects were recruited to undergo questionnaire interview, anthropometric measurements, and fasting blood sampling. A total of 8 877 participants were included in the final analyses, including 5 664 females and 3 213 males. The mean age of individuals was ( 58.68 ± 9.22)yearsinmenand(57.65±8.93)yearsinwomen(P<0.01).10-yearriskforafirsthardatherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) event was calculated. Results Increased ALT levels were associated with more unfavorable cardiovascular risk profiles and 10-year risk for ASCVD. Increased ALT levels were associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in female participants, while in male participants the prevalence of diabetes mellitus appeared as a U-distribution. The prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia were 66.04%, 52.74%and 64.49%, 47.63% respectively. Increased serum ALT was associated with higher prevalence of 10-year risk for ASCVD. As compared with participants in the first ALT quartile, the risks of 10-year risk for ASCVD were increased by 148%(OR=2.48, 95%CI 1.78-3.45) and 139%(OR=2.39, 95%CI 1.78-3.19), respectively in male and female participants. As compared with participants in the first ALT quartile, higher prevalence of 10-year risk for ASCVD were increased by 96%(OR=1.96, 95%CI 1.30-2.95), while there was no significantly statistical difference in men. Conclusion A high-normal serum ALT level was significantly associated with an increased risk of the cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-616481

ABSTRACT

Objective· To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC) and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged and elderly people without diabetes in Jiading District in Shanghai.Methods· A cross-sectional study was conducted among 4 657 nondiabetic inhabitants aged 40 and above in Jiading District,Shanghai from August 2014 to July 2015.Clinical information collection,anthropometric measurements,and biochemical analyses were performed.The objects were divided into 4 groups according to the quartiles of NC in order to analyze association between NC and cardiovascular risk factors.Results· With increase of NC,the prevalences of abdominal obesity,insulin resistance,hypertension,and dyslipidemia all increased as well as waist circumference,body mass index (BMI),blood pressure,lipid profile,fast blood glucose,and HOMA-IR level (all Ptrend <0.01).Multiple Logistic regression analysis showed that individuals in Q2,Q3 and Q4 group had significantly higher risk of abdominal obesity,insulin resistance,hypertension,and dyslipidemia compared with those in Q1 group after age,sex,smoking,drinking,physical activity,BMI,waist circumference,systolic blood pressure,C-reactive protein,fast blood glucose,and lipid profile were corrected (all Ptrend <0.01).Conclusion· NC is positively and independently correlated with cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and elderly nondiabetic people in Jiading District in Shanghai.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493558

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to investigate the associations between adipose tissue distribution and risks of macro-vascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods The study included T2DM patients either previously diagnosed by questionnaire or newly diagnosed with fasting plasma glucose(FPG)≥7. 0 mmol/L and/or 2 hour postprandial glucose ( 2h PG )≥11. 1 mmol/L from residents older than 40 years from Jiading Community, Shanghai, China(n=10 375). Each participant had gone through anthropometric measurements, blood tests, vascular function tests including carotid intima-media thickness ( CIMT ) , ankle-brachial index ( ABI ) , branchial-ankle pulse wave velocity( baPWV) as well as carotid plaques. Results WHR quartiles was significantly associated with high risks for ten-year cardiovascular disease risks [ ASCVD high risk: OR:1. 17 ( 1. 05-1. 31 );Framingham high risk:1. 13(1. 00-1. 29)]. However, WHR has no significant relations with risks of increased carotid intima-media thickness( CIMT) , abnormal ankle-brachial index( ABI) , increased brachial ankle pulse wave velocity( baPWV) or carotid plaques. Conclusions In type 2 diabetic patients, abdominal adipose tissue has an independent role in high risk for ten-year cardiovascular diseases. However it has no relations with other vascular functions including increased CIMT, abnormal ABI, increased baPWV, or carotid plaque.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-508846

ABSTRACT

Recently, gut microbiota is found to be associated with human health and diseases. Environmental and genetic factors both play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, in which the gut microbiota is regarded as an important environmental factor. In addition, gut microbiota may become a novel therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes. Present review focused on the association between the alterations of gut microbiome and type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance;also summarized the molecular mechanisms underlying microbe-host interactions in the context of diabetes, potential contribution of the gut microbiota to the pharmacological or surgical treatment of type 2 diabetes, and the interaction of human genetics with gut microbiome. Based on the understanding of gut microbiota-host interactions, probiotic and fecal microbiota transplantation will be potential novel therapeutic approaches for type 2 diabetes.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-496193

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the association of elevated carotid intima-media thickness(CIMT)with low-grade albuminuria in a community-based population. Methods A total of 10 375 participants aged 40 years or older were recruited using cluster sampling from Jiading district, Shanghai. Standardized questionnaires were adopted to collect information on health status and lifestyles. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, and blood pressure, and biochemical tests for blood and urine were performed. CIMT was detected by B-mode ultrasound examinations. 9 523 subjects were included for final analysis. All these subjects were divided into 4 groups according to sex-specific urinary albumin to creatinine ratio ( UACR ) quartiles. CIMT≥upper decile of the population was defined as elevated CIMT and low-grade albuminuria was defined as UACR≥sex-specific upper quartile. The relationship between UACR and CIMT was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of elevated CIMT in this population aged 40 years or older with albuminuria in normal range was 21. 44%. Comparing to participants without elevated CIMT, those with elevated CIMT showed higher level of UACR (4. 79 vs 4. 51 mg/g, P<0. 01). The metabolic status was deteriorated with the increment of UACR level. The prevalences of elevated CIMT were 18. 99%, 19. 24%, 20. 20%, and 27. 33% from the lowest to highest UACR quartile, respectively(Ptrend<0. 01). After adjusting for some conventional cardiovascular risk factors, multiple logistic regression revealed that compared with the participants in the lowest quartile of UACR, those in the highest quartile had a 1. 25-fold risk of elevated CIMT. Conclusions This study shows that low-grade albuminuria is positively associated with elevated CIMT, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and elderly adults.

14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 55-58, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337049

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the predictive value of liver enzymes and alcohol consumption for determining risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhengzhou with a total of 2, 693 men.Participants' height, weight, and histories of smoking and drinking were recorded. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and blood glucose, as well as related metabolic indexes were detected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Moderate daily alcohol consumption (more than 35 g ethanol/week and less than 140 g ethanol/week) decreased the risk of type 2 diabetes (OR =0.376, 95% CI:0.306 -0.463, P less than 0.05) but increased risk for higher levels of GGT and ALT (OR GGT =3.012, 95% CI:2.357-3.849, Pless than 0.01; ORALT =1.473, 95% CI:1.043-2.081, Pless than 0.05). In joint analyses of alcohol consumption and liver enzymes, the group of nondrinkers/light drinkers (less than or equal to 35 g ethanol/week) in the fourth quartile of GGT levels had the highest risk for type 2 diabetes (OR =12.219, 95% CI:6.217-24.016, P less than 0.01). The relationship of ALT and daily alcohol consumption with the risk of type 2 diabetes was almost the same as that of GGT (nondrinkers/light drinkers in the fourth quartile of ALT levels (OR =5.357, 95% CI:3.070-9.350, P less than 0.0 1).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>GGT, ALT and daily alcohol consumption were independently associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Nondrinkers/light drinkers with the highest levels ofGGT orALT were at high risk of type 2 diabetes.</p>


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Alcohol Drinking , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood Glucose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Liver , Male , Risk Factors , Smoking , gamma-Glutamyltransferase
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-467477

ABSTRACT

[Summary] It has been believed that both environmental and genetic effects play roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Genetic factors may influence the effect of environmental factors on risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This review focused on the latest evidence of the interaction effect of genes and the environmental factors on type 2 diabetes.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-446966

ABSTRACT

In 2010,Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention conducted collaboratively a 2010 China Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance,and reported the results of diabetes prevalence and control in Chinese adults,which was published in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) in 2013.This article is the interpretation of that report by original authors.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-430359

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the association between peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count and the carotid intimal-medial thickness (cIMT) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese of suburban area of Shanghai.Methods A total of 2 519 subjects aged 40 years or older from Jiading District,Shanghai were recruited to undergo questionnaire interview,anthropometric measurements,fasting blood sampling,and carotid B-mode ultrasonography.After excluding subjects with biochemical index missing,WBC count > 10× 109/L as well as those with known myocardial infarction,cerebral infarction,coronary heart disease,and those taking lipid-lowing agents,2 239subjects were included in this analysis.Results Increased WBC count was associated with more unfavorable metabolic risk profiles.With the increasing quartiles of WBC count,cIMT were 0.558,0.570,0.573,and 0.587mm respectively(P for trend < 0.01).As compared with participants in the first WBC quartile,the risks of cIMT thickening were increased by 79%,109% in males and 29% in females (P> 0.05 in females).Multiple linear regression model showed that peripheral WBC count was an independent risk marker for cIMT thickening,especially for neutrophil and monocyte count.Conclusion A high-normal WBC count was significantly associated with cIMT thickening in middle-aged and elderly Chinese of suburban area of Shanghai,especially in males.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-417678

ABSTRACT

As one of the important environmental endocrine disruptors,the effects of bisphenol A (BPA)are recently focused on its association with endocrine and metabolic diseases.Experimental studies have shed light on the potential mechanisms that BPA affects the development of diabetes and obesity.Epidemiological studies that aimed to provide clinical evidence have contributed substantially to the debate on BPA.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-413838

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand patient pathway and clinical characteristics of chronic diseases in urban areas of Shanghai. Methods A total of 10 002 residents were enrolled and assigned to the chronic disease group (including hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke) and the non-chronic disease group. Body mass index,fasting blood glucose, triglyceride,total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were tested.Difference of patient pathway and clinical characteristics of those chronic diseases was compared. Results Above chronic diseases were observed in 37.7% participants. About 2/3 diseases were confirmed and 80% patients were followed up in healthcare units not far away from home. Patients with coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction showed more outpatient visit to tertiary hospitals (P<0. 05 ). However, patients with ischemic stroke had health check, rehabilitation and pharmacy done mainly in local healthcare centers (P<0. 05 ). Diastolic blood pressure of patients visiting local doctors was significantly decreased (P<0. 05). Conclusion Some differences in patient pathway were found in this study. Communication and cooperation between medical institutions should be intensified for effective chronic disease control.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-390272

ABSTRACT

Objective Measurement of ankle brachial index (ABI) is a simple method of assessing lower limb arterial blood supply,while measurement of toe brachial index (TBI)has only been advocated as an alternative.The aim of this study was to obtain information about whether TBI should be taken in type 2 diabetes,even when ABI is normal,and to evaluate the relationship between TBI and atherosclerosis.Methods In a crosssection study,ABI,TBI,and carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT) were measured on 979 outpatients with type 2 diabetes in Ruijin Hospital.Those with normal ABI (0.9 ≤ABI < 1.3,n = 945) were divided into two groupsnormal TBI group(TBI≥0.6,n=893) and low TBI group(TBI<0.6,n=52),and then the clinical and laboratory data were compared between these two groups.Furthermore,the relationship between TBI and atherosclerosis was investigated.Atherosclerosis was defined as the maximum IMT ≥ 1.1 mm.Results Low ABI and low TBI were detected in 1.3% and 6.6% of the patients,respectively.Comparison of the clinical and laboratory data between the two groups showed that age and HbA1C values were significantly higher in the low TBI group.Furthermore,TBI was inversely associated with IMT(β=-0.217,P<0.01),an indicator for atherosclerosis of the carotid artery.Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that decline of TBI was an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis (OR=1.30,95% CI 1.01-1.69,P<0.05).Conclusion In type 2 diabetes,the decline of TBI is associated with atherosclerosis,indicating the necessity for diabetic patients to detect TBI,even when ABI is within normal range,in order to detect peripheral artery disease in early stage,and reduce the risk for atherosclerosis.

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