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2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359851

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>An increase in incidence of the illegal use of tablets containing 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (MDMA) has recently become a widespread social problem. MDMA ingested orally reacts with nitrite in the stomach and is synthesized intoN-nitroso-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (N-MDMA). The aim of this study is to investigate the genotoxic effects of MDMA and N-MDMA on the basis of the results of an in vitro micronucleus (MN) test and an in vitro chromosomal aberration (CA) test using a Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (CHL/IU).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Tablets containing MDMA obtained from the Regional Bureau of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare were purified, and N-MDMA was synthesized from MDMA in our laboratory. To evaluate the effects of MDMA and N-MDMA, the MN test established by our laboratory and the CA test in accordance with the guidelines for toxicity studies of drugs recommended by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare were performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the MN test, no increased frequency of MNs was not found for MDMA. On the other hand, an apparently increased frequency of MNs was observed for N-MDMA. In the CA test, no CA was found for MDMA, but CA was observed for N-MDMA apparently.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>N-MDMA genotoxicity was observed in the MN and CA tests. However, no MDMA genotoxicity was observed.</p>

3.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-372970

ABSTRACT

Purpose<br>Half body bathing is popular among young women as well as elderly people. As a matter of fact, it is reported that half body bathing has a smaller burden than whole-body bathing from the point of physical influence. To clarify the relation between bathing habitude and health maintenance, that is, as an approach to general understanding the physiological effects by repeating bathing stimuli, the physiological changes by continuing half body bathing were studied.<br>Methods<br>Half body bathing was repeated for 4 weeks in healthy female subjects (N=10, age: 30.1±4.8, height: 160.4±6.1cm, weight: 55.6±7.0kg, body mass index: 20.9±1.6kg/m<sup>2</sup>, mean±SD).<br>Bathing was performed for 30 minutes and 3times a week, with a level of epigastrium without immersing arms. Changes of blood flow and energy expenditure were measured during bathing at 0W and 4W.<br>Results and Discussion<br>By continuing bathing, blood flow increased more rapidly and higher during bathing, in addition, resting energy expenditure increased by 200kcal/day with a significant difference.<br>From these findings, it is assumed that repeated half-body bathing enhances the increase of blood flow through repeating thermal stimuli, which leads to elevated basal metabolism.

4.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-361330

ABSTRACT

Objectives: An increase in incidence of the illegal use of tablets containing 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (MDMA) has recently become a widespread social problem. MDMA ingested orally reacts with nitrite in the stomach and is synthesized into N-nitroso-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (N-MDMA). The aim of this study is to investigate the genotoxic effects of MDMA and N-MDMA on the basis of the results of an in vitro micronucleus (MN) test and an in vitro chromosomal aberration (CA) test using a Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (CHL/IU). Methods: Tablets containing MDMA obtained from the Regional Bureau of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare were purified, and N-MDMA was synthesized from MDMA in our laboratory. To evaluate the effects of MDMA and N-MDMA, the MN test established by our laboratory and the CA test in accordance with the guidelines for toxicity studies of drugs recommended by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare were performed. Results: In the MN test, no increased frequency of MNs was not found for MDMA. On the other hand, an apparently increased frequency of MNs was observed for N-MDMA. In the CA test, no CA was found for MDMA, but CA was observed for N-MDMA apparently. Conclusion: N-MDMA genotoxicity was observed in the MN and CA tests. However, no MDMA genotoxicity was observed.


Subject(s)
Manganese , Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359891

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>Ketamine hydrochloride (KT) is a secondary amine that has been safely used as an injectable anesthetic and analgesic to avoid the production of nitroso compounds in the stomach. However, ketamine in the tablet form has recently become an abused, recreational drug. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of N-nitrosoketamine (NKT) and KT on the basis of an in vitro micronucleus (MN) test using a Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (CHL/IU).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>NKT was synthesized from KT in our laboratory. In the MN tests, CHL/IU cells were continuously treated with either NKT or KT for 24, 48, or 72 hours without the S9 mix. The cells were also treated with NKT or KT with or without the S9 mix for 6 hours, followed by a recovery period of 18, 42, or 66 hours (short-term treatment). The results were considered to be statistically significant when the p-values of both Fisher's exact test and the trend test were less than 0.05.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After the short-term treatment with either NKT or KT with and without the S9 mix, the frequency of micronuclei significantly increased. However, the frequency of micronuclei did not significantly increase after the continuous treatment with either NKT or KT. Both NKT and KT were determined to be genotoxic in the short-term treatment with or without the S9 mix, but they were determined to be nongenotoxic in continuous treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our findings suggest that NKT has a stronger genotoxic effect than KT.</p>

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359880

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>It is important to assess the risk of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on human health, because epidemiological studies have indicated that SMFs play a role in the development of diseases such as leukemia and brain tumor. In our environment, we have numerous chances to be exposed to not only SMFs but also many chemicals containing mutagens. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of SMFs on the induction of micronuclei induced by some mutagens.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>BALB/c mice were exposed to 4.7 tesla (T) SMF for 24 hr immediately after the injection of carboquone (alkylating agent), colcemid (spindle poison), mitomycin C (cross-linking agent), vincristine (spindle poison), sodium fluoride (a byproduct of aluminum plants under strong SMF) or 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (brain tumor-, gliomas- and thymic lymphoma-inducing chemical).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The frequency of micronuclei induced by six mutagens increased after co-exposure to SMF.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>An additive/synergistic effect of SMF and chemicals was observed from the results of increased frequency of micronuclei induced by mutagens in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes.</p>

7.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-361376

ABSTRACT

Objectives: It is important to assess the risk of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on human health, because epidemiological studies have indicated that SMFs play a role in the development of diseases such as leukemia and brain tumor. In our environment, we have numerous chances to be exposed to not only SMFs but also many chemicals containing mutagens. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of SMFs on the induction of micronuclei induced by some mutagens. Methods: BALB/c mice were exposed to 4.7 tesla (T) SMF for 24 hr immediately after the injection of carboquone (alkylating agent), colcemid (spindle poison), mitomycin C (cross-linking agent), vincristine (spindle poison), sodium fluoride (a byproduct of aluminum plants under strong SMF) or 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (brain tumor-, gliomas- and thymic lymphoma-inducing chemical). Results: The frequency of micronuclei induced by six mutagens increased after co-exposure to SMF. Conclusions: An additive/synergistic effect of SMF and chemicals was observed from the results of increased frequency of micronuclei induced by mutagens in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes.


Subject(s)
Poisons
8.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-361366

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Ketamine hydrochloride (KT) is a secondary amine that has been safely used as an injectable anesthetic and analgesic to avoid the production of nitroso compounds in the stomach. However, ketamine in the tablet form has recently become an abused, recreational drug. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of N-nitrosoketamine (NKT) and KT on the basis of an in vitro micronucleus (MN) test using a Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (CHL/IU). Methods: NKT was synthesized from KT in our laboratory. In the MN tests, CHL/IU cells were continuously treated with either NKT or KT for 24, 48, or 72 hours without the S9 mix. The cells were also treated with NKT or KT with or without the S9 mix for 6 hours, followed by a recovery period of 18, 42, or 66 hours (short-term treatment). The results were considered to be statistically significant when the p-values of both Fisher's exact test and the trend test were less than 0.05. Results: After the short-term treatment with either NKT or KT with and without the S9 mix, the frequency of micronuclei significantly increased. However, the frequency of micronuclei did not significantly increase after the continuous treatment with either NKT or KT. Both NKT and KT were determined to be genotoxic in the short-term treatment with or without the S9 mix, but they were determined to be nongenotoxic in continuous treatment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that NKT has a stronger genotoxic effect than KT.


Subject(s)
Ketamine , In Vitro Techniques
9.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-361403

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure to environmental and occupational electromagnetic fields (EMFs) contribute to the induction of brain tumors, leukemia, and other neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of exposure to 50-Hz EMFs, and of co-exposure to cisplatin, a mutagen and carcinogen, and 50-Hz EMFs, using an in vivo newborn rat astrocyte micronucleus assay. Methods: Three day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were co-exposed to 50-Hz EMFs and 1.25 or 2.5 mg/kg of cisplatin. Brain cells were dissociated into single cells and cultured for 96 hours, then stained with acridine orange and an antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein. The frequency of micronucleated astrocytes was counted with a fluorescent microscope. Results: The frequency of micronuclei was not increased in rat astrocytes exposed to EMFs alone. However, the frequencies of micronuclei in co-exposure to 2.5 mg/kg cisplatin and EMFs (7.5- and 10-mT) were significantly increased, compared with those in exposure to 2.5 mg/kg cisplatin alone (sham-exposure, 0-mT EMFs) for 72 hours (p<0.01). Conclusion: Exposure to EMFs alone did not have a genotoxic effect but co-exposure to EMFs increased the genotoxic activity induced by cisplatin. Our findings suggest that EMFs enhance the genotoxic effects of cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Cisplatin , Astrocytes , Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-332020

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>Epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure to environmental and occupational electromagnetic fields (EMFs) contribute to the induction of brain tumors, leukemia, and other neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of exposure to 50-Hz EMFs. and of co-exposure to cisplatin, a mutagen and carcinogen, and 50-Hz EMFs, using an in vivo newborn rat astrocyte micronucleus assay.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Three day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were co-exposed to 50-Hz EMFs and 1.25 or 2.5 mg/kg of cisplatin. Brain cells were dissociated into single cells and cultured for 96 hours, then stained with acridine orange and an antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein. The frequency of micronucleated astrocytes was counted with a fluorescent microscope.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The frequency of micronuclei was not increased in rat astrocytes exposed to EMFs alone. However, the frequencies of micronuclei in co-exposure to 2.5 mg/kg cisplatin and EMFs (7.5- and 10-mT) were significantly increased, compared with those in exposure to 2.5 mg/kg cisplatin alone (sham-exposure, 0-mT EMFs) for 72 hours (p<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Exposure to EMFs alone did not have a genotoxic effect but co-exposure to EMFs increased the genotoxic activity induced by cisplatin. Our findings suggest that EMFs enhance the genotoxic effects of cisplatin.</p>

11.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373679

ABSTRACT

Before the introduction of high density barium for contrast studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract, we conducted a survey concerning the adverse reactions to a swallow of barium and barium concentration.<BR>The incidence of side effects rose as the density of barium increased but the effects were transient. There were no cases requiring medical treatment.<BR>Furthermore, the constipation group and the normal group were examined separately.<BR>The ratio of adverse reactions was high in the constipation group even when the barium density was low. In this group stool hardening and delayed excertion were also noticed.<BR>The constancy of barium stool excretion was basically normal, and the barium density had little effect.<BR>The effects of a laxative on the excretion consistency were investigated. The administration of a laxative did not always have a positive affect on excretion. The timing of the administration of the laxative and the amount of water intake should be examined in the future.<BR>We also investigated how the patients feel when they are swallowing barium. We found that whether feel uncomfortable or not depended on the properties of barium rather than its density.<BR>From these results it appears that appropriate guidance is necessary about the use of high density barium, in order to supress the occurrence of side effects, especially in the constipation group.

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