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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883166

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the etiology and clinical characteristics of hospitalized severe community-acquired pneumonia(SCAP) in Changchun, and provide scientific basis for its etiology diagnosis and targeted treatment.Methods:The study subjects included 618 children with clinical diagnosis of SCAP who were hospitalized from January 2016 to December 2019.We collected pharyngeal swabs and alveolar lavage fluid from children.Virus isolation, bacterial culture, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, PCR/RT-PCR, colloidal gold method and Optochin test were used to detect the antigen, nucleic acid and protein profiles in the specimen.Results:There were more boys than girls in hospitalized children with SCAP.The peak age of onset was 7 to 12 months.Most cases occurred in winter and spring.The highest detection rate of SCAP virus was 56.15%(347/618); 73.49%(255/347) were positive for one virus, among which the top five were respiratory syncytial virus (27.8%), influenza A virus (23.9%), influenza B virus (16.1%), rhinovirus (12.2%) and metapneumovirus (10.2%). Two viruses were positive for 19.88%(69/347); three viruses were positive for 4.32%(15/347); four viruses were positive for 2.31%(8/347). Atypical microbial infections were 29.77%(184/618), of which Mycoplasma pneumoniae accounted for 95.65%(176/184). Bacterial infections were 17.31%(107/618), mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae(39.25%, 42/107) and Staphylococcus aureus(24.30%, 26/107). The mixed infection of multiple pathogens was 7.61%(47/618), among which the mixed infection rates of Mycoplasma pneumonia with Streptococcus pneumoniae, virus were 40.43% and 34.04%, respectively.High fever, faster breathing, and perioral cyanosis were risk factors for SCAP, with OR and 95% CI of 7.71 and 4.56-13.04, 2.43 and 2.02-2.93, 3.53 and 2.56-4.86, respectively.Viral co-infection occurred in 36.96%(34/92) of complications such as heart failure, toxic encephalopathy, and myocardial damage; Mycoplasma pneumoniae and other pathogens co-infected 35.29% of children with pleural effusion. Conclusion:The pathogens of SCAP in Changchun are mainly viruses notably, respiratory syncytial virus is the dominant pathogen, followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.The bacterial pathogen is mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae.High fever, faster breathing, and cyanosis around the mouth are risk factors for severe pneumonia.Multi-pathogen mixed infection is prone to serious complications.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800108

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the clinical features and pathogenic spectrum of encephalitis and meningitis syndrome in children.@*Methods@#A total of 667 cases of children with encephalitis or meningitis diagnosed and documented at Changchun Children′s Hospital from May 2012 to July 2015 were enrolled.A variety of samples in diffe-rent types were collected and presented, including 335 cerebrospinal fluid specimens, 530 blood samples, and 332 stool samples.All the samples were collected from the patients within 72 hours on admission.Moreover, these samples are analyzed and tested, including PCR for enterovirus(EV), herpesvirus(HSV), mycobacterium tuberculosis(TB) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae(MP) nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid samples; fecal specimens were tested for EV, enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A6 (CA6), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) nucleic acids; degenerate primers to amplify Echovirus 30 (Echo30). Clinical data of children were collected.@*Results@#The peak incidence of encephalitis and meningitis syndrome was from June to August, age distribution was from 0 to 15 years old, the proportion of children aged from 0-6 accounted for 81.41%; the highest proportion was among 0-1 years old infants, occupying 32.38%; 408 males and 259 females; the main symptoms were fever(586 cases), apathy(337 cases), vomiting (307 cases) and headache(203 cases). And clinical signs included drowsiness (103 cases), neck stiffness (71 cases), meningeal irritation (12 cases), and pathological reflex (313 cases), etc.The clinical diagnosis included 272 cases of viral encephalitis, 332 cases of severe hand, foot and mouth disease complicated by encephalitis, 30 cases of bacterial meningitis, and 33 other cases; the etiological detection included: the positive rates of EV, EBV and Echo30 in cerebrospinal fluid specimens were 59.72%, 3.16% and 70.00%, respectively.And EV71, CVA16, CVA6, EV71+ CA16 and EV71+ CVA16+ CVA6 nucleic acids were detected in fecal samples, in which the highest detection rate was EV71(98.96%).@*Conclusions@#In Changchun Children′s Hospital, the children with encephalitis and meningitis are mainly viral encephalitis.The main symptoms were fever, apathetic, drowsiness, vomiting and headache.Signs included, neck stiffness, meningeal irritation, and pathological reflexes, etc.The main pathogen of the disease is EV71.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797161

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the effect of capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex PCR (CEMP) in detecting pathogens for children respiratory tract infection, and to provide scientific basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment rapidly and accurately.@*Methods@#The cases were defined according to the national monitoring program of febrile respiratory syndrome during the 12th Five-Year Plan, and the samples were collected from nasopharyngeal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum of children with respiratory tract infection hospitalized in Changchun Children′s Hospital from January 2017 to February 2018.Multiplex PCR amplification was performed by one-step method, then PCR products were separated by DNA length size with capillary electrophoresis and pathogens were analyzed by "Genemapper software" software.Detecting pathogens included Influenza A virus (InfA), Human Adenovirus (HADV), Boca virus (Boca), Human Rhinovirus (HRV), Novel InfA-09H1 (InfA-09H1) and Seasonal Influenza virus H3N2 (InfA-H3N2), Parainfluenza virus (HPIV), Human metapneumonia virus (HMPV), Influenza B virus (InfB), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp), Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP), Human Coronavirus (HCOV), Human Respiratory Syncytial virus (HRSV).@*Results@#The effective detection rate of the CEMP assay was 95.71%.The positive detection rate of respiratory tract pathogens was 62.84% and the mixed infection rate was 9.61%.The mixed infection was mainly InfA and HRSV.The highest three positive rates were named InfA, HRSV and Mp.The positive rate of HRSV was significantly higher in the 0-3 age group than that in older group.Different pathogens were detected in different age groups, and the high-occurrence season of respiratory tract infection with virus was from December to March of the next year.InfA-09H1 was the main prevalent influenza virus in January, February and March 2017, InfA-H3N2 was the main prevalent influenza virus in November and December 2017, and the outbreak of InfB was happened in Changchun in late 2017 and early 2018.HRSV was detected only in the coldest season in Changchun from November to March of the next year.Different pathogens were detected in different respiratory infection.HRSV was the main pathogen detected in pneumonia; InfA-03H2 and HPIV were the main pathogens detected in acute bronchitis; HRV and InfA were the main pathogens detected in upper respiratory tract infection.@*Conclusion@#CEMP is an efficient, rapid and accurate method for the detection of pathogens in patients with respiratory tract infections, and it will have a broad application prospect to develop reagents suitable for clinical diagnosis.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-790067

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of capillary electrophoresis﹣based multiplex PCR ( CEMP) in detecting pathogens for children respiratory tract infection,and to provide scientific basis for clin﹣ical diagnosis and treatment rapidly and accurately. Methods The cases were defined according to the na﹣tional monitoring program of febrile respiratory syndrome during the 12th Five﹣Year Plan,and the samples were collected from nasopharyngeal swabs,bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum of children with respira﹣tory tract infection hospitalized in Changchun Children′s Hospital from January 2017 to February 2018. Multi﹣plex PCR amplification was performed by one﹣step method, then PCR products were separated by DNA length size with capillary electrophoresis and pathogens were analyzed by"Genemapper software" software. Detecting pathogens included Influenza A virus (InfA),Human Adenovirus (HADV),Boca virus ( Boca), Human Rhinovirus ( HRV), Novel InfA﹣09H1 ( InfA﹣09H1 ) and Seasonal Influenza virus H3N2 ( InfA﹣H3N2),Parainfluenza virus ( HPIV),Human metapneumonia virus ( HMPV), Influenza B virus ( InfB), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp),Chlamydia pneumoniae ( CP),Human Coronavirus ( HCOV),Human Re﹣spiratory Syncytial virus (HRSV). Results The effective detection rate of the CEMP assay was 95. 71%. The positive detection rate of respiratory tract pathogens was 62. 84% and the mixed infection rate was 9. 61%. The mixed infection was mainly InfA and HRSV. The highest three positive rates were named InfA, HRSV and Mp. The positive rate of HRSV was significantly higher in the 0﹣3 age group than that in older group. Different pathogens were detected in different age groups,and the high﹣occurrence season of respiratory tract infection with virus was from December to March of the next year. InfA﹣09H1 was the main prevalent influenza virus in January,February and March 2017,InfA﹣H3N2 was the main prevalent influenza virus in November and December 2017,and the outbreak of InfB was happened in Changchun in late 2017 and early 2018. HRSV was detected only in the coldest season in Changchun from November to March of the next year. Different pathogens were detected in different respiratory infection. HRSV was the main pathogen detec﹣ted in pneumonia; InfA﹣03H2 and HPIV were the main pathogens detected in acute bronchitis; HRV and InfA were the main pathogens detected in upper respiratory tract infection. Conclusion CEMP is an effi﹣cient,rapid and accurate method for the detection of pathogens in patients with respiratory tract infections,and it will have a broad application prospect to develop reagents suitable for clinical diagnosis.

5.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 379-386, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745942

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the difference in the microstructure of gray matter nucleus in basal ganglia of different movement subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) by diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) technique,and to analyze its clinical significance in the process of disease occurrence and development.Methods A total of 44 PD patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) admitted to the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from July 2017 to October 2018 were recruited into the study.The PD patients were classified into tremor dominant (TD) and non-tremor dominant (NTD) subtypes according to motor symptoms.All participants were scanned for DKI sequence.Fractional anisotropy (FA),mean kurtosis (MK),and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained from bilateral red nucleus,substantia nigra,caudate nucleus,globus pallidus,putamen,and thalamus.The DKI of the deep brain nucleus in TD,NTD,HC groups was compared,and relationships between DKI and clinical measures were tested.Results Comparing the two substypes of PD with the HC group,the TD group had lower FA value (0.346±0.006 vs 0.389±0.009,U=-3.052,P=0.007),higher MK value (1.101±0.008 vs 0.981±0.006,U=-5.577,P=0.000) and higher MD value (1.005(0.919,1.082) vs 0.934 (0.899,0.970),U=2.493,P=0.038) in the substantia nigra ipsilateral to the more affected side than the HC group.The NTD group had higher MK value in the bilateral substantia nigra than the HC group (less affected side:1.090±0.022 vs 0.990±0.008,U=-4.102,P=0.000;more affected side:1.071±0.020 vs 0.981±0.006,U=-3.728,P=0.001).In the PD patients,the MK value in the substantia nigra ipsilateral to the more affected side showed a negative correlation with the Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) grade,Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Ⅲ scores,and non-tremor scores (r=-0.299,P=0.048;r=-0.366,P=0.015;r=-0.402,P=0.007).The FA values of the bilateral putamen of the TD group and the NTD group were lower than those of the HC group.The FA value in putamen contralateral to the more affected side was positively correlated with H-Y grade,UPDRS Ⅲ scores,and non-tremor scores (r=0.331,P=0.028;r=0.403,P=0.007;r=0.376,P=0.012).Compared with the HC group,the FA value of the bilateral globus pallidus was lower in the TD group.Comparing different subtypes of PD,only the FA and MK values of the bilateral thalamus were different.The tremor scores of PD patients were negatively correlated with the FA value of bilateral thalamus (less affected side:r=-0.371,P=0.013;more affected side:r=-0.402,P=0.007),and positively correlated with MK value (less affected side:r=0.547,P<0.01;more affected side:r=0.532,P<0.01).Conclusions The microstructure of the deep brain nucleus of PD is changed,while the TD and NTD patients have only differences in the microstructure changes of the thalamus.The changes in the microstructure of the thalamus are related to the severity of tremor in PD patients.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-752329

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the clinical features and pathogenic spectrum of encephalitis and menin﹣gitis syndrome in children. Methods A total of 667 cases of children with encephalitis or meningitis diagnosed and documented at Changchun Children′s Hospital from May 2012 to July 2015 were enrolled. A variety of samples in diffe﹣rent types were collected and presented,including 335 cerebrospinal fluid specimens,530 blood samples,and 332 stool samples. All the samples were collected from the patients within 72 hours on admission. Moreover,these samples are analyzed and tested,including PCR for enterovirus(EV),herpesvirus(HSV),mycobacterium tuberculosis( TB)and My﹣coplasma pneumoniae(MP)nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid samples;fecal specimens were tested for EV,enterovirus 71(EV71),coxsackievirus A6(CA6),coxsackievirus A16(CVA16),coxsackievirus A10( CVA10)nucleic acids;degenerate primers to amplify Echovirus 30(Echo30). Clinical data of children were collected. Results The peak in﹣cidence of encephalitis and meningitis syndrome was from June to August,age distribution was from 0 to 15 years old, the proportion of children aged from 0-6 accounted for 81. 41﹪;the highest proportion was among 0-1 years old in﹣fants,occupying 32. 38﹪;408 males and 259 females;the main symptoms were fever(586 cases),apathy(337 ca﹣ses),vomiting(307 cases)and headache(203 cases). And clinical signs included drowsiness(103 cases),neck stiff﹣ness(71 cases),meningeal irritation(12 cases),and pathological reflex( 313 cases),etc. The clinical diagnosis included 272 cases of viral encephalitis,332 cases of severe hand,foot and mouth disease complicated by encephalitis, 30 cases of bacterial meningitis,and 33 other cases;the etiological detection included:the positive rates of EV,EBV and Echo30 in cerebrospinal fluid specimens were 59. 72﹪,3. 16﹪ and 70. 00﹪,respectively. And EV71,CVA16,CVA6, EV71+CA16 and EV71+CVA16+CVA6 nucleic acids were detected in fecal samples,in which the highest detection rate was EV71(98. 96﹪). Conclusions In Changchun Children′s Hospital,the children with encephalitis and menin﹣gitis are mainly viral encephalitis. The main symptoms were fever,apathetic,drowsiness,vomiting and headache. Signs included,neck stiffness,meningeal irritation,and pathological reflexes,etc. The main pathogen of the disease is EV71.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-481092

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)on a rabbit model of chronic myocardial ischemia.Methods Myocardial ischemia models were created by partial ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in Japanese white male rabbits.Rabbits were subcutaneously injected with G-CSF (G-CSF group)or saline (control group)for 6 days after myocardial ischemia.The percentage of CD34-positive cells in the peripheral blood was evaluated by flow cytometry,and CD34-positive cells homing and vWF expression in the ischemic myocardium were determined by immunohistochemistry.Results Rabbits in G-CSF group had a higher survival rate than those in control group (P <0.05).Immunohistochemistry of the ischemic myocardium showed that compared with control group,G-CSF group had increased homing of CD34-positive cells on day 7 post-surgery,and more vessels on day 28 post-surgery by anti-von Willebrand factor staining.In addition,we observed an increase in the percentage of CD34-positive cells in the peripheral blood in G-CSF group.Conclusion G-CSF produces an obvious protective effect against chronic myocardial ischemia in rabbits by increasing stem cell mobilization,homing to ischemic myocardium and accelerating neovascularization.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-464294

ABSTRACT

AIM:To investigate the effects of pioglitazone on the quantity and function-related factors of regu-latory and effector T cells ( Treg and Teff ) of uremic apolipoprotein E knockout mice in vitro with or without the stimulation of atherosclerotic plaque-specific antigen oxidized low-density lipoprotein ( oxLDL) .METHODS:Uremic apolipoprotein E knockout mouse model was established by 2-step surgical procedure.After intervention with different concentrations ( 2μmol/L and 20μmol/L) of pioglitazone and PPARγantagonist GW9662 (5μmol/L) on splenocytes of uremic mice for 12 h in the presence or absence of oxLDL (2 mg/L), the levels of CD4 +CD25 +Foxp3 +Treg and IFNγ+CD4 +Teff were de-termined by flow cytometry.The mRNA expressions of Foxp3 and IFNγwas detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR.RESULTS:In vitro, oxLDL induced a Treg/Teff imbalance in splenocytes from the uremic mice.Pioglitazone up-regulated the level of Treg and mRNA expression of Foxp3 in the presence of oxLDL, which was not antagonized by GW9662.Meanwhile, pioglitazone downregulated the level of Teff and mRNA expression of IFNγin the presence or ab-sence of oxLDL, which was reversed by GW9662.CONCLUSION:oxLDL induces a Treg/Teff imbalance in uremic apo-lipoprotein E knockout mice.Pioglitazone modulates the Treg/Teff imbalance probably through PPARγ-independent and-dependent mechanisms.

9.
Chongqing Medicine ; (36): 4232-4234, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-458303

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the incidence of poverty ,population carrying rate and its genetic type through the thalasse‐mia screening analysis of 2 650 cases of childbearing women .Methods Hematologic examination and hemoglobin electrophoresis were applied in people who were laboratory tested the crowd ,screening suspected people ,then use the genetic analysis confirm the diagnoses .Results Preliminary screening of the 536 cases which were suspected the thalassemia (or gene carriers) ,hematologic ex‐amination showed that the red blood cells ,reticulocyte counts in the cases were significantly higher than those in the controls ;and hemoglobin ,mean corpuscular volume (MCV)and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were significantly lower .Hemoglobin elec‐trophoresis test showed that in 512 abnormal cases ,68 cases were diagnosed as α thalassemia and 438 cases were β thalassemia(506 cases in total ,accounting for 19 .09% of the total number) .In this area ,Southeast Asia(SEA) heterozygotes(‐SEA /αα) ,right hetero‐zygotes(‐α3 .7 /αα) ,left heterozygotes(‐α4 .2 /αα) ,Hb Constant Spring(‐αCS /αα) were common type of α thalassemia ;CD41‐42 hetero‐zygotes ,CD17 heterozygotes ,CD71‐72 heterozygotes and CD28 heterozygotes were common type of β thalassemia .Conclusion In Guangxi ,there was high incidence rate of thalassemia ,thus ,though premarital and prenancy anterior screening ,guide the rational marriage and pregnancy ,and through the crowd to intervene to prevent common human monogenic death and disabling genetic dis‐orders are of great importance for prepotency promotion and population quality improve .

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-423126

ABSTRACT

Objective To learn the clinical manifestations and pathogenic situation of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Changchun children's hospital from 2009 to 2010.Methods We collected the faeces specimen and oropharyngeal swabs of 1 862 children patients who consulted in Changchun children's hospital from May 2009 to Nov 2010.The enterovirus 71 ( EV71 ) and Coxsackie virus A16 (CoxA16) of 1 514 faeces specimens were amplified with RT-PCR,and 530 oropharyngeal swabs' virus were isolated with rhabdomyosarcoma cell.Results The total HFMD patients were 1 175 in 2010,687 in 2009.The rate of serious patients was 6.26% (43/687) in 2009,and 16.51% ( 194/1 175 ) in 2010.The season of peak incidence in 2009 was June,and in 2010 were June,July and August.The gender distribution was 1 241 males and 621females.The average age of HFMD patients was ( 28.32 ± 15.22 ) months.And the distribution in city and countryside was 1:1.05.Total of 1 862 cases ( 100% ) had rash,55.69% ( 1 037/1 862) had fever,6.07%(113/1 862) had neurologic symptom and 1.41% (26/1 862) had vomiting when the patients admitted in our hospital.And there were 547 cases ( 29.41% ) emerging myocardium injury,548 cases (29.43% ) emerging neurologic complications and 82 cases (4.39% ) emerging respiratory complications during treatment.There were 166 positive with positive rate 31.32% in virus isolation.The positive rate of EV71 and CoxA16 were 9.62% and 10.57 in 2009,and 32.52% and 39.53% in 2010.Conclusion There were more HFMD patients in 2010 than 2009,and the proportion of serious patients was increased too.In summer and autumn,we should pay more attention to HFMD for fever children.HFMD could damage digestive system,respiratory system,circulatory system and nervous system.The nervous system of serious patients is more likely to be damaged.The pathogens of HFMD are diversity,but mainly are EV71 and CoxA16,and the pathogen of serious patients is mostly EV71.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-621619

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a uremic apoE-/- mouse model to observe serum biochemical parameters and features of aortic root atherosclerosis (AS) in the model. Methods A uremic model was induced surgically in apoE-/- mice: electrocautery of the right kidney at 8 weeks of age and nephrectomy (NX) of the left one 2 weeks later. Control mice were sham-operated. Two weeks after NX, renal functions were detected in the uremic and control mice to evaluate the efficiency of the model. After 10 weeks of NX, blood samples were taken to determine serum biochemical parameters, and aortic root was collected for frozen sections to investigate the lesion features of AS. Results Two weeks after NX, renal functions declined significantly in the uremic mice compared with the control ones, and remained stable 8 weeks later either in males or in females. Ten weeks after NX, serum levels of TCH, TG and LDL-C were dramatically higher in the uremic mice than in the controls, whereas no differences in serum HDL-C or glucose concentration were found between the two groups. Aortic root plaque relative area increased significantly in the uremic mice compared with the controls either in males or in females; more-over, the lesion area was larger in female mice than in male ones. Conclusion We established a uremic apoE-/- mouse model successfully, and this model is characterized by accelerated atherogenesis which is associated with an increase in serum lipid profile. This experimental model can be a useful tool to study the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of uremic AS.

12.
China Pharmacy ; (12)2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-526242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of compound glycyrrhizin on hepatic function and hepatic fibrosis of patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: 33 patients with chronic hepatitis B were injected i.v with 80ml compound glycyrrhizin q.d for 4 weeks. The hepatic function, hepatic fibrosis of patients and the clinic effects before and after treatment were observed. RESULTS: The total effective rates for patients with mild, moderate and severe degrees were 100%, 92.3% and 91.7%, respectively. There were significant differences in alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin(P

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-409440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) is a special kind of cell population with totipotency and uninhibited self-renewal property. Researches on induced differentiation of ES cells were received and summed up to provide reasonable and constructive suggestions for clinical application of ES cells.DATA SOURCE: Papers published in Highwire press and Medline database were retrieved with keywords "Embryonic stem cell, differentiation, and induce" from 2000 to 2004. Additionally, papers published in Wanfang database were also retrieved with keywords "Embryonic stem cell" in Chinese from 2000 to 2004.STUDY SELECTION: Data were analyzed firstly in order to select papers related to induced differentiation. The inclusion criteria were selection of the original works, but the summaries and Meta analysis were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: A total of 369 papers were chosen according to correlation with keywords; among them, 364 papers were in foreign language. After reading through summaries of these papers, 15 papers thoroughly discussing induced differentiation of ES cells were chosen for further intensive reading. Papers discussed various kinds of differential models, neural cells, cardiac muscle cells, epithelial cells and hematopoietic cells.DATA SYNTHESIS: The induced differential models of neural cells, cardiac muscle cells, epithelial cells and hematopoietic cells from ES cells were introduced comprehensively in the seven literatures. Based on these references mentioned above and other references which introduced cell model separately, all data were generally studied, sorted out and summed up.CONCLUSION: ES cells can be induced to be various kinds of cell models such as neural cells, epithelial cells, cardiac muscle cells and hematopoietic cells, which may be used to clarify the mechanism of cellular development and differentiation to provide good respects for clinical cellular therapy and screening of medicines.

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