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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882028

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the molluscicidal activity of the of Bacillus Y6 strain against Oncomelania hupensis in laboratory, and to preliminarily investigate its mechanisms of molluscicidal actions. Methods Biological identification of the Y6 strain was performed based on analysis of its morphological and physiochemical features and homology analysis of the 16S rDNA gene sequence. Bacillus Y6 suspensions were formulated at concentrations of 0.005, 0.010 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL, and the molluscicidal activity of Bacillus Y6 suspensions against O. hupensis was tested in laboratory using the immersion method. In addition, the Bacillus Y6 content and glycogen content were detected in O. hupensis following exposure to Bacillus Y6 suspensions to preliminarily explore the molluscicidal mechanism of the Bacillus Y6 strain against O. hupensis. Results The colony of the Bacillus Y6 strain appeared non-transparent milky white, and mycoderma was produced on the surface of the nutrient agar liquid medium. The Y6 stain was Gram positive and rod-shaped, and the endospore was located at the center of the Bacillus Y6 strain and appeared an achromatic, transparent and refractive body, which was encapsulated by the Y6 strain. The Y6 strain was positive for the lecithinase test, and the 16S rDNA gene sequence showed a 100% homology with those of multiple B. velezensisis strains, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis. The Y6 strain was therefore identified as B. velezensisis. Following immersion in the Bacillus Y6 suspensions at concentrations of 0.005, 0.010 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL for 24, 48 h and 72 h, the mortality rates of Oncomelania snails were 28.3%, 31.7% and 81.6%, 43.3%, 58.3% and 93.3%, and 63.3%, 78.3% and 98.3%, respectively. The molluscicidal activity of the Bacillus Y6 suspensions increased with the suspension concentration and duration of immersion. Microscopy and colony counting revealed the highest Y6 content in dead snails and the lowest in living snails following immersion in Bacillus Y6 suspensions, and the mean glycogen contents were (0.68 ± 0.06), (1.09 ± 0.16) μg/mg and (2.56 ± 0.32) μg/mg in the soft tissues of dead, dying and living snails following immersion in Bacillus Y6 suspensions (F = 59.519, P < 0.05), and the mean glycogen content was significantly higher in living snails than in dead (t = 14.073, P < 0.05) and dying snails (t = 10.027, P < 0.05), while the mean glycogen content was significantly higher in dying snails than in dead snails (t = 5.983, P < 0.05). Conclusion The B. velezensisis Y6 strain shows a high molluscicidal activity against O. hupensis snails, and its invasion may cause glycogen metabolism disorders, leading to snail death.

2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 419-425, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827046

ABSTRACT

Alterations of the transmural gradient of repolarization may contribute to the increase of transmural dispersion of repolarization and ventricular arrhythmias. The transmural gradient of repolarization may play an important role in sudden death associated with left ventricular epicardial pacing. To investigate the changes of transmural gradient dispersion of ventricular repolarization with different pacing sites in heart failure (HF) canines, 8 mongrel dogs were randomized into healthy group and HF group (n = 4). We mapped the monophasic action potential duration (MAPD) in the subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-myocardial layers of the left ventricle (LV) in canines of healthy and HF groups during right atrium (RA) pacing, right ventricular apical endocardial (RV) pacing, left ventricular lateral epicardial (LV) pacing and biventricular (Biv) pacing respectively. The results showed that in the healthy group, the MAPDs were significantly different among the three layers during RA pacing (all P 0.05). In the HF group, the MAPDs in all three layers were prolonged compared with those in the same locations in the healthy group (all P 0.05). By MAP recording with our new mapping electrode, we found a transmural MAPD gradient among the three layers of the LV during RA pacing and the gradient between the subendocardial and subepicardial layers vanished during RV, LV or Biv pacing in healthy dogs. In contrast, there was no transmural MAPD gradient during RA, RV, LV or Biv pacing in HF dogs. These results are helpful to understand the mechanism of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with HF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Dogs , Heart , Heart Failure , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Myocardium
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2197-2204, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826412

ABSTRACT

Mechanical power of ventilation, currently defined as the energy delivered from the ventilator to the respiratory system over a period of time, has been recognized as a promising indicator to evaluate ventilator-induced lung injury and predict the prognosis of ventilated critically ill patients. Mechanical power can be accurately measured by the geometric method, while simplified equations allow an easy estimation of mechanical power at the bedside. There may exist a safety threshold of mechanical power above which lung injury is inevitable, and the assessment of mechanical power might be helpful to determine whether the extracorporeal respiratory support is needed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. It should be noted that relatively low mechanical power does not exclude the possibility of lung injury. Lung size and inhomogeneity should also be taken into consideration. Problems regarding the safety limits of mechanical power and contribution of each component to lung injury have not been determined yet. Whether mechanical power-directed lung-protective ventilation strategy could improve clinical outcomes also needs further investigation. Therefore, this review discusses the algorithms, clinical relevance, optimization, and future directions of mechanical power in critically ill patients.

4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2146-2152, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The peripheral perfusion index (PI), as a real-time bedside indicator of peripheral tissue perfusion, may be useful for determining mean arterial pressure (MAP) after early resuscitation of septic shock patients. The aim of this study was to explore the response of PI to norepinephrine (NE)-induced changes in MAP.@*METHODS@#Twenty septic shock patients with pulse-induced contour cardiac output catheter, who had usual MAP under NE infusion after early resuscitation, were enrolled in this prospective, open-label study. Three MAP levels (usual MAP -10 mmHg, usual MAP, and usual MAP +10 mmHg) were obtained by NE titration, and the corresponding global hemodynamic parameters and PI were recorded. The general linear model with repeated measures was used for analysis of variance of related parameters at three MAP levels.@*RESULTS@#With increasing NE infusion, significant changes were found in MAP (F = 502.46, P < 0.001) and central venous pressure (F = 27.45, P < 0.001) during NE titration. However, there was not a significant and consistent change in continuous cardiac output (CO) (F = 0.41, P = 0.720) and PI (F = 0.73, P = 0.482) at different MAP levels. Of the 20 patients enrolled, seven reached the maximum PI value at usual MAP -10 mmHg, three reached the maximum PI value at usual MAP, and ten reached the maximum PI value at usual MAP +10 mmHg. The change in PI was not significantly correlated with the change in CO (r = 0.260, P = 0.269) from usual MAP -10 mmHg to usual MAP. There was also no significant correlation between the change in PI and change in CO (r = 0.084, P = 0.726) from usual MAP to usual MAP +10 mmHg.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Differing MAP levels by NE infusion induced diverse PI responses in septic shock patients, and these PI responses may be independent of the change in CO. PI may have potential applications for MAP optimization based on changes in peripheral tissue perfusion.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870204

ABSTRACT

Objective:To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of lymphocyte subtyping for invasive candidiasis infection (ICI) in critically ill patients with non-neutropenic sepsis.Methods:A prospective observational cohort study was performed at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), 377 patients with non-neutropenic sepsis admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine from January 2017 to November 2019 were enrolled. There were 9.0% (34/377) patients diagnosed as ICI. Vital signs, supportive care therapy and microbiological specimens were collected. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subtypes, serum globulin, complements, inflammatory factors such as interleukin(IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor were detected within 24 hours after sepsis was diagnosed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value and prognostic significance of immunological indicators for ICI. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the independent risk factors for ICI. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyze survival.Results:The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) score was 17.0 (13.0, 21.0) in all 377 patients. The sequential organ failure score (SOFA) was 11.0 (8.0, 13.0), and the 28-day mortality rate was 27.6% (104/377). Peripheral blood CD8 +absolute T lymphocyte count≤177 cells/μl, CD28 +CD8 +T-cell count≤81 cells/μl and 1, 3-β-D-glucan (BDG) ≥88.20 ng/L were closely correlated with the diagnosis of ICI (AUC=0.793,95 %CI 0.749-0.833, P<0.000 1;AUC=0.892,95 %CI 0.856-0.921, P<0.000 1;AUC=0.761, 95 %CI 0.715-0.803, P<0.000 1, respectively), with sensitivity of diagnosis 94.12%, 100.00%, and 88.24%; the specificity of diagnosis 81.34%, 62.39%, 63.56% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified CD8 +T-cell count≤139 cells/μl ( OR=7.463, 95 %CI 1.300-42.831, P=0.024) and CD28 +CD8 +T-cell counts≤52 cells/μl ( OR=57.494, 95 %CI 3.986-829.359, P=0.003) as independent risk factors for higher mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that CD8 +T-cell count ≤139 cells/μl ( P=0.0159) and CD28 +CD8 +T-cell count≤52 cells/μl ( P=0.000 1) were associated with higher mortality within 28 days (68.8%, 91.7%). Conclusions:Low CD28 +CD8 +T cell count in peripheral blood is closely related to the development and clinical outcome of ICI in sepsis patients, which could be used as an effective indicator for the diagnosis and prognosis prediction of ICI.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873301

ABSTRACT

Objective::To study the components of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma of different origins and growth years. Method::Rapid liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) was applied to detect the raw data of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma.After peak extraction, alignment, and normalization, the multivariate statistical analysis was made for the resulted dataset to find out the different compounds.The compounds were identified by using accurate molecular weight and tandem mass spectra, and the standard references were used to further confirm the identification.The changing trends of these components in different ginseng samples were observed. Result::The ginseng samples of different growth years and different origins were divided into different groups in the score plot of PLS-DA, and the variables with the variable importance in projection (VIP) value of more than 1 were considered to contribute more to the separations, then the t-test was applied to determine whether potential biomarkers were statistically significant (P<0.05) between the two groups.The contents of eleven compounds, including ginsenoside Rb1, Rh4, and Rk2, were significantly different between ginseng samples aged 3 and 5 years, and the contents of these compounds increased as the rise of the ginseng growth years.Ginsenosides Rg1, Rf, Rh1, Rb1, and other six compounds were significantly different in ginseng samples from Jilin and Heilongjiang province. Conclusion::LC-MS is a rapid and accurate method for the analysis of ginseng samples, and could help to find out the different components among samples.

7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2621-2627, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure at high altitudes can result in a decline in cognitive function, which may have a serious impact on the daily life of people who migrate to high altitudes. However, the specific HH-induced changes in brain function remain unclear. This study explored changes in brain activity in rats exposed to a sustained HH environment using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).@*METHODS@#Healthy male rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into a model group and a control group. A rat model of cognitive impairment induced by sustained HH exposure was established. The control and model groups completed training and testing in the Morris water maze (MWM). A two-sample t-test for between-group difference comparisons was performed. Repeated measures analyses of variance for within-group comparisons were performed and post-hoc comparisons were made using the Tukey test. Between-group differences in spontaneous brain activity were assessed using a voxel-wise analysis of resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), combined with analyses of the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in statistical parametric mapping.@*RESULTS@#In the MWM test, the escape latencies of the model group were significantly longer compared with those of the control group (control group vs. model group, day 1: 21.6 ± 3.3 s vs. 40.5 ± 3.4 s, t = -11.282; day 2: 13.5 ± 2.2 s vs. 28.7 ± 5.3 s, t = -7.492; day 3: 10.5 ± 2.8 s vs. 22.6 ± 6.1 s, t = -5.099; day 4: 9.7 ± 2.5 s vs. 18.6 ± 5.2 s, t = -4.363; day 5: 8.8 ± 2.7 s vs. 16.7 ± 5.0 s, t = -3.932; all P < 0.001). Within both groups, the escape latency at day 5 was significantly shorter than those at other time points (control group: F = 57.317, P < 0.001; model group: F = 50.718, P < 0.001). There was no within-group difference in average swimming speed (control group, F = 1.162, P = 0.956; model group, F = 0.091, P = 0.880). Within the model group, the time spent within the original platform quadrant was significantly shorter (control group vs. model group: 36.1 ± 5.7 s vs. 17.8 ± 4.3 s, t = 7.249, P < 0.001) and the frequency of crossing the original platform quadrant was significantly reduced (control group vs. model group: 6.4 ± 1.9 s vs. 2.0 ± 0.8 s, t = 6.037, P < 0.001) compared with the control group. In the rs-fMRI study, compared with the control group, rats in the model group showed widespread reductions in fALFF values throughout the brain.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The abnormalities in spontaneous brain activity indicated by the fALFF measurements may reflect changes in brain function after HH exposure. This widespread abnormal brain activity may help to explain and to provide new insights into the mechanism underlying the impairment of brain function under sustained exposure to high altitudes.

8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 285-293, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pulmonary vein (PV) occlusion generally depends on repetitive contrast agent injection when cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). The present study was to compare the effect of cryoballoon ablation for AF guided by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) vs. contrast agent injection.@*METHODS@#Eighty patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) were enrolled in the study. About 40 patients underwent cryoballoon ablation without TEE (non-TEE group) and the other 40 underwent cryoballoon ablation with TEE for PV occlusion (TEE group). In the TEE group during the procedure, PVs were displayed in 3-dimensional images to guide the balloon to achieve PV occlusion. The patients were followed up at regularly scheduled visits every 2 months.@*RESULTS@#No differences were identified between the groups in regard to the procedure time and cryoablation time for each PV. The fluoroscopy time (6.7 ± 4.2 min vs. 17.9 ± 5.9 min, P < 0.05) and the amount of contrast agent (3.0 ± 5.1 mL vs.18.1 ± 3.4 mL, P < 0.05) in the TEE group were both less than the non-TEE group. At a mean of 13.0 ± 3.3 mon follow-up, success rates were similar between the TEE group and non-TEE group (77.5% vs. 80.0%, P = 0.88).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cryoballoon ablation with TEE for occlusion of the PV is both safe and effective. Less fluoroscopy time and a lower contrast agent load can be achieved with the help of TEE for PV occlusion during procedure.


Subject(s)
Aged , Atrial Fibrillation , Diagnostic Imaging , General Surgery , Contrast Media , Cryosurgery , Methods , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional , Methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Veins , Diagnostic Imaging , General Surgery , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 589-596, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Sepsis is a deadly infection that causes injury to tissues and organs. Infection and anti-infective treatment are the eternal themes of sepsis. The successful control of infection is a key factor of resuscitation for sepsis and septic shock. This review examines evidence for the treatment of sepsis. This evidence is combined with clinical experiments to reveal the rules and a standard flowchart of anti-infection therapy for sepsis.@*DATA SOURCES@#We retrieved information from the PubMed database up to October 2018 using various search terms and their combinations, including sepsis, septic shock, infection, antibiotics, and anti-infection.@*STUDY SELECTION@#We included data from peer-reviewed journals printed in English on the relationships between infections and antibiotics.@*RESULTS@#By combining the literature review and clinical experience, we propose a 6Rs rule for sepsis and septic shock management: right patients, right time, right target, right antibiotics, right dose, and right source control. This rule encompasses rational decisions regarding the timing of treatment, the identification of the correct pathogen, the selection of appropriate antibiotics, the formulation of a scientifically based antibiotic dosage regimen, and the adequate control of infectious foci.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This review highlights how to recognize and treat sepsis and septic shock and provides rules and a standard flowchart for anti-infection therapy for sepsis and septic shock for use in the clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Anti-Infective Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , PubMed , Sepsis , Drug Therapy , Shock, Septic , Drug Therapy
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1154-1158, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#At present, there is no available delirium translated assessment method for 3.3 million Tibetans. This study aimed to provide a method for delirium assessment for Tibetan patients speaking this language by validating a translation of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU).@*METHODS@#The study was conducted between July 2018 and November 2018. Patients were screened for delirium by a neurologist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV). Patients were subsequently screened by two nurses using Tibetan translations of the CAM-ICU. With DSM-IV criterion as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to assess the validity of the CAM-ICU criterion. Interrater reliability was determined by comparing the CAM-ICU ratings of nurse 1 vs. nurse 2 using the κ coefficient.@*RESULTS@#Ninety-six patients were assessed independently by two nurses and one neurologist. According to DSM-IV standard, 42 out of 96 (43.8%) patients developed delirium. The sensitivities of Tibetan CAM-ICU were 90.5% for nurse 1 and 92.9% for nurse 2, respectively. Their specificities were 85.2% and 90.7%, respectively. The PPV were 82.6% for nurse 1 and 88.6% for nurse 2. Their NPV were 92.0% and 94.2%, respectively. The Tibetan CAM-ICU was done with good interrater reliability between nurse 1 and nurse 2 (κ = 0.91, P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The Tibetan CAM-ICU shows good validity and might be incorporated into clinical practice in Tibetan Intensive Care Units. CLINICAL TRAIL REGISTRY:: www.chictr.org.cn (No. ChiCTR1800018231).

11.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 285-288, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771314

ABSTRACT

Cases of acute pancreatitis induced by organophosphate intoxication are encountered occasionally in clinics, but very few of them develop into severe pancreas necrosis and irreversible pancreatic function impairment. Here, we report a 47-year-old female organophosphate poisoning case after ingestion of massive insecticides; she was considered to have total necrosis and function failure of the pancreas via serum amylase test, glucose level test, and CT imaging. The patient exhibited no relief under the regular medicine treatment, which included sandostatin, antibiotics, intravenous atropine, and pralidoxime methiodide. She received percutaneous catheterization and drainage of pancreatic zone to expel hazardous necrotic waste, also by which the pathogenic evidence was obtained and the antibiotics were adjusted subsequently. The patient recovered gradually, was discharged after 2 weeks, and was prescribed with oral pancreatin capsules before meals and hypodermic insulin at meals and bedtime to compensate the impaired pancreatic function.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Catheterization , Female , Humans , Insecticides , Poisoning , Middle Aged , Organophosphate Poisoning , Pancreas , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , Pancreatin , Therapeutic Uses , Pancreatitis , Diagnostic Imaging , Therapeutics , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1328-1335, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication in critically ill patients with septic shock treated in the intensive care unit. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a treatment for severe AKI; however, the time of initiation of RRT and factors that affect the recovery of kidney function remains unclear. This study was to explore whether early initiation of RRT treatment for fluid management to reduce central venous pressure (CVP) can help to improve patients' kidney function recovery.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of septic patients who had received RRT treatment was conducted. Patients received RRT either within 12 h after they met the diagnostic criteria of renal failure (early initiation) or after a delay of 48 h if renal recovery had not occurred (delayed initiation). Parameters such as patients' renal function recovery at discharge, fluid balance, and levels of CVP were assessed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 141 patients were eligible for enrolment: 40.4% of the patients were in the early initiation group (57 of 141 patients), and 59.6% were in the delayed initiation group (84 of 141 patients). There were no significant differences in the characteristics at baseline between the two groups, and there were no differences in 28-day mortality between the two groups (χ = 2.142, P = 0.143); however, there was a significant difference in the recovery rate of renal function between the two groups at discharge (χ = 4.730, P < 0.001). More importantly, early initiation of RRT treatment and dehydration to reduce CVP are more conducive to the recovery of renal function in patients with AKI.@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with those who received delayed initiation RRT, patients who received early-initiation RRT for dehydration to reduce CVP have enhanced kidney function recovery.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of intranasal immunization with CTA1-DD as mucosal adjuvant combined with H3N2 split vaccine.@*METHODS@#Mice were immunized intranasally with PBS (negative control), or H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) alone, or CTA1-DD (5 μg/mouse) alone, or H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) plus CTA1-DD (5 μg/mouse). Positive control mice were immunized intramuscularly with H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) and alum adjuvant. All the mice were immunized twice, two weeks apart. Then sera and mucosal lavages were collected. The specific HI titers, IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgG subtypes were examined by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-4 were test by ELISpot. In addition, two weeks after the last immunization, surivival after H3N2 virus lethal challenge was measured.@*RESULTS@#H3N2 split vaccine formulated with CTA1-DD could elicit higher IgM, IgG and hemagglutination inhibition titers in sera. Furthermore, using CTA1-DD as adjuvant significantly improved mucosal secretory IgA titers in bronchoalveolar lavages and vaginal lavages. Meanwhile this mucosal adjuvant could enhance Th-1-type responses and induce protective hemagglutination inhibition titers. Notably, the addition of CTA1-DD to split vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal infection by the H3N2 virus.@*CONCLUSION@#CTA1-DD could promote mucosal, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which supports the further development of CTA1-DD as a mucosal adjuvant for mucosal vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Cholera Toxin , Female , Immunity, Humoral , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Mucosa , Allergy and Immunology , Random Allocation , Recombinant Fusion Proteins
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2621-2627, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803156

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure at high altitudes can result in a decline in cognitive function, which may have a serious impact on the daily life of people who migrate to high altitudes. However, the specific HH-induced changes in brain function remain unclear. This study explored changes in brain activity in rats exposed to a sustained HH environment using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).@*Methods@#Healthy male rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into a model group and a control group. A rat model of cognitive impairment induced by sustained HH exposure was established. The control and model groups completed training and testing in the Morris water maze (MWM). A two-sample t-test for between-group difference comparisons was performed. Repeated measures analyses of variance for within-group comparisons were performed and post-hoc comparisons were made using the Tukey test. Between-group differences in spontaneous brain activity were assessed using a voxel-wise analysis of resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), combined with analyses of the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in statistical parametric mapping.@*Results@#In the MWM test, the escape latencies of the model group were significantly longer compared with those of the control group (control group vs. model group, day 1: 21.6 ± 3.3 s vs. 40.5 ± 3.4 s, t = -11.282; day 2: 13.5 ± 2.2 s vs. 28.7 ± 5.3 s, t = -7.492; day 3: 10.5 ± 2.8 s vs. 22.6 ± 6.1 s, t = -5.099; day 4: 9.7 ± 2.5 s vs. 18.6 ± 5.2 s, t = -4.363; day 5: 8.8 ± 2.7 s vs. 16.7 ± 5.0 s, t = -3.932; all P < 0.001). Within both groups, the escape latency at day 5 was significantly shorter than those at other time points (control group: F = 57.317, P < 0.001; model group: F = 50.718, P < 0.001). There was no within-group difference in average swimming speed (control group, F = 1.162, P = 0.956; model group, F = 0.091, P = 0.880). Within the model group, the time spent within the original platform quadrant was significantly shorter (control group vs. model group: 36.1 ± 5.7 s vs. 17.8 ± 4.3 s, t = 7.249, P < 0.001) and the frequency of crossing the original platform quadrant was significantly reduced (control group vs. model group: 6.4 ± 1.9 s vs. 2.0 ± 0.8 s, t = 6.037, P < 0.001) compared with the control group. In the rs-fMRI study, compared with the control group, rats in the model group showed widespread reductions in fALFF values throughout the brain.@*Conclusions@#The abnormalities in spontaneous brain activity indicated by the fALFF measurements may reflect changes in brain function after HH exposure. This widespread abnormal brain activity may help to explain and to provide new insights into the mechanism underlying the impairment of brain function under sustained exposure to high altitudes.

15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1218-1227, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796453

ABSTRACT

Objective:@#Poor tissue perfusion/cellular hypoxia may persist despite restoration of the macrocirculation (Macro). This article reviewed the literatures of coherence between hemodynamics and tissue perfusion in circulatory shock.@*Data sources:@#We retrieved information from the PubMed database up to January 2018 using various search terms or/and their combinations, including resuscitation, circulatory shock, septic shock, tissue perfusion, hemodynamic coherence, and microcirculation (Micro).@*Study selection:@#The data from peer-reviewed journals printed in English on the relationships of tissue perfusion, shock, and resuscitation were included.@*Results:@#A binary (coherence/incoherence, coupled/uncoupled, or associated/disassociated) mode is used to describe resuscitation coherence. The phenomenon of resuscitation incoherence (RI) has gained great attention. However, the RI concept requires a more practical, systematic, and comprehensive framework for use in clinical practice. Moreover, we introduce a conceptual framework of RI to evaluate the interrelationship of the Macro, Micro, and cell. The RI is divided into four types (Type 1: Macro-Micro incoherence + impaired cell; Type 2: Macro-Micro incoherence + normal cell; Type 3: Micro-Cell incoherence + normal Micro; and Type 4: both Macro-Micro and Micro-cell incoherence). Furthermore, we propose the concept of dynamic circulation-perfusion coupling to evaluate the relationship of circulation and tissue perfusion during circulatory shock.@*Conclusions:@#The concept of RI and dynamic circulation-perfusion coupling should be considered in the management of circulatory shock. Moreover, these concepts require further studies in clinical practice.

16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1154-1158, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796443

ABSTRACT

Background:@#At present, there is no available delirium translated assessment method for 3.3 million Tibetans. This study aimed to provide a method for delirium assessment for Tibetan patients speaking this language by validating a translation of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU).@*Methods:@#The study was conducted between July 2018 and November 2018. Patients were screened for delirium by a neurologist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV). Patients were subsequently screened by two nurses using Tibetan translations of the CAM-ICU. With DSM-IV criterion as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to assess the validity of the CAM-ICU criterion. Interrater reliability was determined by comparing the CAM-ICU ratings of nurse 1 vs. nurse 2 using the κ coefficient.@*Results:@#Ninety-six patients were assessed independently by two nurses and one neurologist. According to DSM-IV standard, 42 out of 96 (43.8%) patients developed delirium. The sensitivities of Tibetan CAM-ICU were 90.5% for nurse 1 and 92.9% for nurse 2, respectively. Their specificities were 85.2% and 90.7%, respectively. The PPV were 82.6% for nurse 1 and 88.6% for nurse 2. Their NPV were 92.0% and 94.2%, respectively. The Tibetan CAM-ICU was done with good interrater reliability between nurse 1 and nurse 2 (κ= 0.91, P < 0.001).@*Conclusion:@#The Tibetan CAM-ICU shows good validity and might be incorporated into clinical practice in Tibetan Intensive Care Units.@*Clinical Trail Registry:@#www.chictr.org.cn (No. ChiCTR1800018231)

17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1139-1146, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796441

ABSTRACT

Background:@#Increased extravascular lung water (EVLW) in shock is common in the critically ill patients. This study aimed to explore the effect of cardiac output (CO) on EVLW and its relevant influence on prognosis.@*Methods:@#The hemodynamic data of 428 patients with pulse-indicated continuous CO catheterization from Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The patients were assigned to acute respiratory distress syndrome group, cardiogenic shock group, septic shock group, and combined shock (cardiogenic and septic) group according to their symptoms. Information on 28-day mortality and renal function was also collected.@*Results:@#The CO and EVLW index (EVLWI) in the cardiogenic and combined shock groups were lower than those in the other groups (acute respiratory distress syndrome group vs. cardiogenic shock group vs. septic shock group vs. combined shock group: CO, 5.1 [4.0, 6.2] vs. 4.7 [4.0, 5.7] vs. 5.5 [4.3, 6.7] vs. 4.6 [3.5, 5.7] at 0 to 24 h, P=0.009; 4.6 [3.8, 5.6] vs. 4.8 [4.1, 5.7] vs. 5.3 [4.4, 6.5] vs. 4.5 [3.8, 5.3] at 24 to 48 h, P=0.048; 4.5 [4.1, 5.4] vs. 4.8 [3.8, 5.5] vs. 5.3 [4.0, 6.4] vs. 4.0 [3.2, 5.4] at 48 to 72 h, P=0.006; EVLWI, 11.4 [8.7, 19.1] vs. 7.9 [6.6, 10.0] vs. 8.8 [7.4, 11.0] vs. 8.2 [6.7, 11.3] at 0 to 24 h, P < 0.001; 11.8 [7.7, 17.2] vs. 7.8 [6.3, 10.2] vs. 8.7 [6.6, 12.2] vs. 8.0 [6.6, 11.1] at 24 to 48 h, P < 0.001; and 11.3 [7.7, 18.7] vs. 7.5 [6.3, 10.0] vs. 8.8 [6.3, 12.2] vs. 8.4 [6.4, 11.2] at 48 to 72 h, P < 0.001. The trend of the EVLWI in the septic shock group was higher than that in the cardiogenic shock group (P < 0.05). Moreover, there existed some difference in the pulmonary vascular permeability index among the cardiogenic shock group, the septic shock group, and the combined shock group, without statistical significance (P > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference in tissue perfusion or renal function among the four groups during the observation period (P > 0.05). However, the cardiogenic shock group had a higher 28-day survival rate than the other three groups [log rank (Mantel-Cox) = 31.169, P < 0.001].@*Conclusion:@#Tissue-aimed lower CO could reduce the EVLWI and achieve a better prognosis.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of jejunal-ileal bypass(JIB) in addition to sleeve gastrectomy(SG) on glycemic regulation and body weight in Zucker Diabetic Fatty(ZDF) rats and underlying mechnisms. METHODS: Twelve ZDF(fa/fa) rats were randomly divided into two groups based upon the procedure performed including sleeve gastrectomy plus jejunal-ileal bypass surgery group(SG+JIB,n=6) and sleeve gastrectomy plus sham procedure group(SG+Sham,n=6). In addition,five healthy ZDF(fa/+) rats were employed as normal controls. Body weight,fasting blood glucose,food intake,oral glucose tolerance test and plasma GLP-1 levels were measured before surgery and at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: Preoperatively,all baseline parametes had no statistical difference between SG+JIB and SG+Sham groups. In comparison with SG+Sham group,fasting plasma glucose levels at postoperative week 2(17.3 mmol/L vs. 8.7 mmol/L) and 4(21.4 mmol/L vs. 11.9 mmol/L)were significantly lower in SG + JIB group(P<0.0001). Oral glucose tolerace was significantly improved,represented by glucose excursion area under curve for 180 minutes period(4221 vs.2964,P<0.0001 at postoperative week 2;and 4104 vs. 3388,P<0.01 at postoperative week 4). Simutaneously,plasma GLP-1 levels were significantly higher in SG + JIB group than SG + Sham group(64.58 pmol/L v.s.30.52 pmol/L,P<0.001). However,SG + JIB had less food intake and body weight only decreased at postoperative week 2,but not at week 4. CONCLUSION: By adding JIB onto SG,the metabolic regulation capability is able to be furtherly enhanced. However,it seems that there is not additional benefit in weight loss.Therefore,based upon these results,we suggest that SG + JIB should be recommended to the patients who needs additional metabolic effects,but not to the patients for the purpose of additional weight loss above SG alone.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756555

ABSTRACT

Objective 3D-scanning system is put in use to evaluate the comparative effect be-tween the cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL) and traditional autologous fat transplantation ,which aims to definitize the survival rate of fat after CAL and provide a reference for the clinic .Methods Fourteen cases were collected among patients aquiring facial autologous fat transplantation from February to May 2016 from the hospital out-patient department ,which were then divided into two groups equally and randomly .7 patients used traditional autologous fat transplantation form the control group and the rest 7 used the CAL .Autologous fat sample of the CAL group was grafted with stromal vascular frac-tion (SVF) .All the patients received follow-up examination and the period lasted at least 6 months . 3D-scanning of facial models were conducted sometime before surgery ,a week after surgery and also 3 months after surgery .Results The average transplantation volume of CAL group was 13 .86 ml while the control group was 12 .14 ml .There were no significantly differnt in the transplantation volumes of the fat (P > 0 .05) .The survival rate of fat in CAL group was 37 .82% while the control group was 27 .54% after calculating the changing volume from the facial models .The survival rate of fat in CAL group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0 .05) .Conclusions 3D-scanning system can provide the data concerning the lipotransfer and calculate the survival rate of the fat .CAL can raise the survival rate of the fat .

20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1139-1146, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Increased extravascular lung water (EVLW) in shock is common in the critically ill patients. This study aimed to explore the effect of cardiac output (CO) on EVLW and its relevant influence on prognosis.@*METHODS@#The hemodynamic data of 428 patients with pulse-indicated continuous CO catheterization from Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The patients were assigned to acute respiratory distress syndrome group, cardiogenic shock group, septic shock group, and combined shock (cardiogenic and septic) group according to their symptoms. Information on 28-day mortality and renal function was also collected.@*RESULTS@#The CO and EVLW index (EVLWI) in the cardiogenic and combined shock groups were lower than those in the other groups (acute respiratory distress syndrome group vs. cardiogenic shock group vs. septic shock group vs. combined shock group: CO, 5.1 [4.0, 6.2] vs. 4.7 [4.0, 5.7] vs. 5.5 [4.3, 6.7] vs. 4.6 [3.5, 5.7] at 0 to 24 h, P = 0.009; 4.6 [3.8, 5.6] vs. 4.8 [4.1, 5.7] vs. 5.3 [4.4, 6.5] vs. 4.5 [3.8, 5.3] at 24 to 48 h, P = 0.048; 4.5 [4.1, 5.4] vs. 4.8 [3.8, 5.5] vs. 5.3 [4.0, 6.4] vs. 4.0 [3.2, 5.4] at 48 to 72 h, P = 0.006; EVLWI, 11.4 [8.7, 19.1] vs. 7.9 [6.6, 10.0] vs. 8.8 [7.4, 11.0] vs. 8.2 [6.7, 11.3] at 0 to 24 h, P  0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference in tissue perfusion or renal function among the four groups during the observation period (P > 0.05). However, the cardiogenic shock group had a higher 28-day survival rate than the other three groups [log rank (Mantel-Cox) = 31.169, P < 0.001].@*CONCLUSION@#Tissue-aimed lower CO could reduce the EVLWI and achieve a better prognosis.

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