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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915877

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Previous studies have shown that participation in social activities (SA) can prevent cognitive decline (CD) and that living arrangements (LA) can affect cognitive function. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of SA and LA on CD, as well as their interactions, using longitudinal data. @*Methods@#Data were used from the 2006-2018 Korean Longitudinal Study for Aging, which followed 10 254 adults older than 45 years over a 12-year period. CD was defined as a ≥4-point score decrease in the Mini-Mental Status Exam over 2 years. We developed an extended Cox proportional hazards model for time-dependent covariates to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of CD in 4 groups: (1) socially active and living with others, (2) socially active and living alone, (3) socially inactive and living with others (SILO), and (4) socially inactive and living alone (SILA). The model was stratified by gender and adjusted for important confounders. @*Results@#The HR of CD was significantly higher in the SILO group in men (HR,1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.78) and in the SILA group in women (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.75). However, the interaction term for gender was not significant. @*Conclusions@#Among socially inactive elderly adults, the HR of CD was elevated in men who lived with others and in women who lived alone, although the interaction term for gender was not significant. Socially inactive men who live with others and socially inactive women who live alone are particularly encouraged to participate in SA to prevent CD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899926

ABSTRACT

Background@#The prevalence of congenital anomalies in newborns in South Korea was 272.9 per 100,000 in 2005, and 314.7 per 100,000 in 2006. In other studies, the prevalence of congenital anomalies in South Korea was equivalent to 286.9 per 10,000 livebirths in 2006, while it was estimated 446.3 per 10,000 births during the period from 2008 to 2014. Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses analyzing the factors contributing to congenital anomalies have been reported, but comprehensive umbrella reviews are lacking. @*Methods@#We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases up to July 1, 2019, for systematic reviews and meta-analyses that investigated the effects of environmental and genetic factors on any type of congenital anomalies. We categorized 8 subgroups of congenital anomalies classified according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Two researchers independently searched the literature, retrieved the data, and evaluated the quality of each study. @*Results@#We reviewed 66 systematic reviews and meta-analyses that investigated the association between non-genetic or genetic risk factors and congenital anomalies. Overall, 269 associations and 128 associations were considered for environmental and genetic risk factors, respectively. Congenital anomalies based on congenital heart diseases, cleft lip and palate, and others were associated with environmental risk factors based on maternal exposure to environmental exposures (air pollution, toxic chemicals), parental smoking, maternal history (infectious diseases during pregnancy, pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, and gestational diabetes mellitus), maternal obesity, maternal drug intake, pregnancy through artificial reproductive technologies, and socioeconomic factors. The association of maternal alcohol or coffee consumption with congenital anomalies was not significant, and maternal folic acid supplementation had a preventive effect on congenital heart defects. Genes or genetic loci associated with congenital anomalies included MTHFR, MTRR and MTR, GATA4, NKX2-5, SRD5A2, CFTR, and 1p22 and 20q12 anomalies. @*Conclusion@#This study provides a wide perspective on the distribution of environmental and genetic risk factors of congenital anomalies, thus suggesting future studies and providing health policy implications.

3.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 377-383, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903382

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the longitudinal associations between the degrees of positive and negative spillover in work–life balance (WLB) at baseline and reports of depressive mood at a 2-year follow-up in Korean women employees. @*Methods@#We used a panel study design data of 1386 women employees who participated in the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Families in both 2014 and 2016. Depressive mood was measured using the “10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.” Associations between the positive and negative spillover in WLB at baseline and reports of new incidence of depressive mood at 2-year follow-up were explored using a multivariate logistic regression model. @*Results@#Negative spillover in WLB at baseline showed a significant linear association with reports of depressive mood at 2-yearfollow-up after adjusting for age, education level, marital status, number of children, and positive spillover (P = 0.014). The highest scoring group in negative spillover (fourth quartile) showed a significant higher odds ratio of 1.95 compared with the lowest scoring group (first quartile; P = 0.036). @*Conclusion@#Positive spillover in WLB showed a U-shaped association with depression. The degrees of positive and negative spillover in WLB among Korean women employees at baseline were associated with new incidence of depressive mood within 2 years. To prevent depression of female workers, more discrete and differentiated policies on how to maintain healthy WLB are required.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 770-778, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903172

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The current study examined the differential empathic capacity, post-traumatic symptoms, and coping strategies in healthcare workers (HCWs) according to the exposure of verbal or physical workplace violence (WPV). @*Methods@#Using online survey, a total of 422 HCWs employed at a training general hospital of South Korea participated and completed self-reporting questionnaires including the WPV questionnaire with coping strategy, the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. @*Results@#Those who experienced either only verbal violence or both physical and verbal violence had lower Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy scores (p<0.05). Posttraumatic stress symptom severity was higher among people who experienced verbal violence than physical violence. HCWs’ exposure to verbal violence was associated with severe posttraumatic symptoms and a low level of empathy with patients (p<0.05). More than half of the victims of verbal violence responded that they did not take any action, receive organizational protection, or peer support, while most physically-abused HCWs received institutional intervention or help from others. @*Conclusion@#Our findings highlight the critical importance of reducing verbal violence, which may represent a larger psychological burden compared to physical violence, by actively implementing effective strategies and policies at the institutional level.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874917

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the electrical, mechanical, medical, and food industries. Previous studies have suggested that BPA is an endocrine disruptor. Regulation of BPA has led to increased use of bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS). However, few studies have investigated the associations of BPF and BPS with thyroid dysfunction in children. Our study investigated the associations of prenatal BPA and early childhood BPA, BPF, and BPS exposure with thyroid function in 6-year-old children. @*Methods@#Prenatal BPA concentrations were measured during the second trimester of pregnancy in an established prospective birth cohort. We measured urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS concentrations and thyroid hormone levels (thyroid-stimulating hormone, total T3, and free T4) in 6-year-old children (n=574). We examined the associations between urinary bisphenol concentrations and percentage change of thyroid hormone concentrations using multivariate linear regression. We also compared thyroid hormone levels by dividing the cohort according to BPA, BPF, and BPS concentrations. @*Results@#The associations between prenatal BPA and total T3 levels were statistically significant in all models, except for girls when using a crude model. The associations between urinary BPA and BPS concentrations and levels of all thyroid hormones were not statistically significant. However, we observed that lower free T4 levels (-1.94%; 95% confidence interval, -3.82 to -0.03) were associated with higher urinary BPF concentrations in girls only. @*Conclusions@#Our findings identified significant associations between prenatal BPA exposure and total T3 levels in all children and between BPF exposure and free T4 levels in girls only.

6.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021029-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Although previous studies have investigated the correlation between fruit and vegetable consumption and depression, the results remain inconclusive. The present study aimed to investigate the association between weekly fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms in elderly Koreans. @*METHODS@#A multiple covariate linear regression analysis was performed using the data of 1,226 elderly individuals ≥ 60 years of age who participated in the Korean Elderly Environmental Panel II study from 2012 to 2014. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Korean version of the Short form Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS-K). Generalized linear mixed-effects models were constructed to analyze the repeated measurements of 305 people who participated in the survey every year. @*RESULTS@#After adjusting for confounders, SGDS-K scores were negatively associated with the frequency of weekly fruit consumption as follows (β [95% confidence interval; CI]: -0.17 [-0.28 to -0.05], -0.17 [-0.27 to -0.07], -0.42 [-0.54 to 0.29], and -0.33 [-0.44 to -0.21]) for less than 1 time/wk, 1-3 times/wk, 4-6 times/wk, and daily, respectively, compared to no consumption. The SGDS-K scores were also negatively associated with the frequency of vegetable consumption (β [95% CI]: -0.86 [-1.18 to -0.55], -0.18 [-0.35 to -0.01], -0.36 [-0.53 to -0.18], and -0.15 [-0.29 to 0.00]) in the above order, respectively. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Fruit consumption was inversely associated with depression levels in a dose-dependent manner. Although there was no dose-response relationship between vegetable consumption and the level of depression, it was negatively associated with SGDS-K scores.

7.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 377-383, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895678

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the longitudinal associations between the degrees of positive and negative spillover in work–life balance (WLB) at baseline and reports of depressive mood at a 2-year follow-up in Korean women employees. @*Methods@#We used a panel study design data of 1386 women employees who participated in the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Families in both 2014 and 2016. Depressive mood was measured using the “10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.” Associations between the positive and negative spillover in WLB at baseline and reports of new incidence of depressive mood at 2-year follow-up were explored using a multivariate logistic regression model. @*Results@#Negative spillover in WLB at baseline showed a significant linear association with reports of depressive mood at 2-yearfollow-up after adjusting for age, education level, marital status, number of children, and positive spillover (P = 0.014). The highest scoring group in negative spillover (fourth quartile) showed a significant higher odds ratio of 1.95 compared with the lowest scoring group (first quartile; P = 0.036). @*Conclusion@#Positive spillover in WLB showed a U-shaped association with depression. The degrees of positive and negative spillover in WLB among Korean women employees at baseline were associated with new incidence of depressive mood within 2 years. To prevent depression of female workers, more discrete and differentiated policies on how to maintain healthy WLB are required.

8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 770-778, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895468

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The current study examined the differential empathic capacity, post-traumatic symptoms, and coping strategies in healthcare workers (HCWs) according to the exposure of verbal or physical workplace violence (WPV). @*Methods@#Using online survey, a total of 422 HCWs employed at a training general hospital of South Korea participated and completed self-reporting questionnaires including the WPV questionnaire with coping strategy, the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. @*Results@#Those who experienced either only verbal violence or both physical and verbal violence had lower Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy scores (p<0.05). Posttraumatic stress symptom severity was higher among people who experienced verbal violence than physical violence. HCWs’ exposure to verbal violence was associated with severe posttraumatic symptoms and a low level of empathy with patients (p<0.05). More than half of the victims of verbal violence responded that they did not take any action, receive organizational protection, or peer support, while most physically-abused HCWs received institutional intervention or help from others. @*Conclusion@#Our findings highlight the critical importance of reducing verbal violence, which may represent a larger psychological burden compared to physical violence, by actively implementing effective strategies and policies at the institutional level.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892222

ABSTRACT

Background@#The prevalence of congenital anomalies in newborns in South Korea was 272.9 per 100,000 in 2005, and 314.7 per 100,000 in 2006. In other studies, the prevalence of congenital anomalies in South Korea was equivalent to 286.9 per 10,000 livebirths in 2006, while it was estimated 446.3 per 10,000 births during the period from 2008 to 2014. Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses analyzing the factors contributing to congenital anomalies have been reported, but comprehensive umbrella reviews are lacking. @*Methods@#We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases up to July 1, 2019, for systematic reviews and meta-analyses that investigated the effects of environmental and genetic factors on any type of congenital anomalies. We categorized 8 subgroups of congenital anomalies classified according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Two researchers independently searched the literature, retrieved the data, and evaluated the quality of each study. @*Results@#We reviewed 66 systematic reviews and meta-analyses that investigated the association between non-genetic or genetic risk factors and congenital anomalies. Overall, 269 associations and 128 associations were considered for environmental and genetic risk factors, respectively. Congenital anomalies based on congenital heart diseases, cleft lip and palate, and others were associated with environmental risk factors based on maternal exposure to environmental exposures (air pollution, toxic chemicals), parental smoking, maternal history (infectious diseases during pregnancy, pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, and gestational diabetes mellitus), maternal obesity, maternal drug intake, pregnancy through artificial reproductive technologies, and socioeconomic factors. The association of maternal alcohol or coffee consumption with congenital anomalies was not significant, and maternal folic acid supplementation had a preventive effect on congenital heart defects. Genes or genetic loci associated with congenital anomalies included MTHFR, MTRR and MTR, GATA4, NKX2-5, SRD5A2, CFTR, and 1p22 and 20q12 anomalies. @*Conclusion@#This study provides a wide perspective on the distribution of environmental and genetic risk factors of congenital anomalies, thus suggesting future studies and providing health policy implications.

10.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021029-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890610

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Although previous studies have investigated the correlation between fruit and vegetable consumption and depression, the results remain inconclusive. The present study aimed to investigate the association between weekly fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms in elderly Koreans. @*METHODS@#A multiple covariate linear regression analysis was performed using the data of 1,226 elderly individuals ≥ 60 years of age who participated in the Korean Elderly Environmental Panel II study from 2012 to 2014. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Korean version of the Short form Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS-K). Generalized linear mixed-effects models were constructed to analyze the repeated measurements of 305 people who participated in the survey every year. @*RESULTS@#After adjusting for confounders, SGDS-K scores were negatively associated with the frequency of weekly fruit consumption as follows (β [95% confidence interval; CI]: -0.17 [-0.28 to -0.05], -0.17 [-0.27 to -0.07], -0.42 [-0.54 to 0.29], and -0.33 [-0.44 to -0.21]) for less than 1 time/wk, 1-3 times/wk, 4-6 times/wk, and daily, respectively, compared to no consumption. The SGDS-K scores were also negatively associated with the frequency of vegetable consumption (β [95% CI]: -0.86 [-1.18 to -0.55], -0.18 [-0.35 to -0.01], -0.36 [-0.53 to -0.18], and -0.15 [-0.29 to 0.00]) in the above order, respectively. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Fruit consumption was inversely associated with depression levels in a dose-dependent manner. Although there was no dose-response relationship between vegetable consumption and the level of depression, it was negatively associated with SGDS-K scores.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Individual particulate respirator use may offer protection against exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM(2.5)). Among elderly Korean women, we explored individual particulate respirator use and cardiopulmonary function.@*METHODS@#Recruited in Seoul, Korea, 21 elderly, non-smoking women wore particulate respirators for six consecutive days (exlcuding time spent eating, sleeping, and bathing). We measured resting blood pressure before, during, and after respirator use and recorded systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure, and lung function. We also measured 12-hour ambulatory blood pressure at the end of the 6-day long experiment and control periods. Additionally, we examined physiological stress (heart rate variability and urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine) while wearing the particulate respirators. Person- and exposure-level covariates were also considered in the model.@*RESULTS@#After the 6-day period of respirator use, resting blood pressure was reduced by 5.3 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (P = 0.013), 2.9 mmHg for mean arterial blood pressure (P = 0.079), and 3.6 mmHg for pulse pressure (P = 0.024). However, particulate respirator use was associated with changes in physiological stress markers. A parasympathetic activity marker (high frequency) significantly decreased by 24.0% (P = 0.029), whereas a sympathetic activity marker (ratio of low-to-high frequency) increased by 50.3% (P = 0.045). An oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, increased by 3.4 ng/mg creatinine (P = 0.021) during the experimental period compared with that during the control period. Lung function indices indicated that wearing particulate respirators was protective; however, statistical significance was not confirmed.@*CONCLUSION@#Individual particulate respirator use may prevent PM(2.5)-induced blood-pressure elevation among elderly Korean women. However, the effects of particulate respirator use, including physiological stress marker elevation, should also be considered.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0003526

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individual particulate respirator use may offer protection against exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM(2.5)). Among elderly Korean women, we explored individual particulate respirator use and cardiopulmonary function.METHODS: Recruited in Seoul, Korea, 21 elderly, non-smoking women wore particulate respirators for six consecutive days (exlcuding time spent eating, sleeping, and bathing). We measured resting blood pressure before, during, and after respirator use and recorded systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure, and lung function. We also measured 12-hour ambulatory blood pressure at the end of the 6-day long experiment and control periods. Additionally, we examined physiological stress (heart rate variability and urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine) while wearing the particulate respirators. Person- and exposure-level covariates were also considered in the model.RESULTS: After the 6-day period of respirator use, resting blood pressure was reduced by 5.3 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (P = 0.013), 2.9 mmHg for mean arterial blood pressure (P = 0.079), and 3.6 mmHg for pulse pressure (P = 0.024). However, particulate respirator use was associated with changes in physiological stress markers. A parasympathetic activity marker (high frequency) significantly decreased by 24.0% (P = 0.029), whereas a sympathetic activity marker (ratio of low-to-high frequency) increased by 50.3% (P = 0.045). An oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, increased by 3.4 ng/mg creatinine (P = 0.021) during the experimental period compared with that during the control period. Lung function indices indicated that wearing particulate respirators was protective; however, statistical significance was not confirmed.CONCLUSION: Individual particulate respirator use may prevent PM(2.5)-induced blood-pressure elevation among elderly Korean women. However, the effects of particulate respirator use, including physiological stress marker elevation, should also be considered.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0003526

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834583

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Prenatal cadmium (Cd) exposure may be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the relationship between Cd exposure during gestation and ADHD at 6 years of age. @*Methods@#As part of an ongoing cohort study (the Environment and Development of Children study), 479 mother-child pairs from Seoul, Korea were included for analysis between 2008 and 2011. The whole blood concentration of Cd was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The parents were surveyed about ADHD behaviors in their children at age 6. Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between prenatal exposure to Cd and ADHD at 6 years of age. @*Results@#Increased prenatal Cd concentrations were associated with increased scores for ADHD for girls, but not for boys, at age 6. A 2-fold increase in the prenatal Cd level was significantly associated with a 22.3% (95% confidence interval, 11.6 to 34.1) increase in ADHD in girls at 6 years of age, as indicated by the linear regression model. @*Conclusions@#Our results identified significant associations between prenatal Cd exposure and ADHD scores in 6-year-old girls.

14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 951-959, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832604

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This cross-sectional study aimed to 1) explore the relationships among work-life balance (WLB), burnout, and empathy and 2) investigate the roles of the subtypes of burnout relating to WLB and empathy. @*Methods@#A total of 105 health care professionals from a general hospital in Seoul were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, and a one-sentence-question on subjective WLB. Multiple questions on psychiatric problems, including sleep problems, anxiety, depressive symptom, and alcohol problems, were also included. @*Results@#In the mediation analyses, personal achievement was considered as a potential mediating variable between WLB and empathy. The direct effect (β=3.93, 95% CI: 1.21–6.64) and the indirect effect (β=1.95, 95% CI: 0.52–3.76) of WLB on empathy were also significant. @*Conclusion@#Interventions encouraging personal achievement may help mitigate burnout of health professionals.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Individual particulate respirator use may offer protection against exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM(2.5)). Among elderly Korean women, we explored individual particulate respirator use and cardiopulmonary function.@*METHODS@#Recruited in Seoul, Korea, 21 elderly, non-smoking women wore particulate respirators for six consecutive days (exlcuding time spent eating, sleeping, and bathing). We measured resting blood pressure before, during, and after respirator use and recorded systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure, and lung function. We also measured 12-hour ambulatory blood pressure at the end of the 6-day long experiment and control periods. Additionally, we examined physiological stress (heart rate variability and urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine) while wearing the particulate respirators. Person- and exposure-level covariates were also considered in the model.@*RESULTS@#After the 6-day period of respirator use, resting blood pressure was reduced by 5.3 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (P = 0.013), 2.9 mmHg for mean arterial blood pressure (P = 0.079), and 3.6 mmHg for pulse pressure (P = 0.024). However, particulate respirator use was associated with changes in physiological stress markers. A parasympathetic activity marker (high frequency) significantly decreased by 24.0% (P = 0.029), whereas a sympathetic activity marker (ratio of low-to-high frequency) increased by 50.3% (P = 0.045). An oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, increased by 3.4 ng/mg creatinine (P = 0.021) during the experimental period compared with that during the control period. Lung function indices indicated that wearing particulate respirators was protective; however, statistical significance was not confirmed.@*CONCLUSION@#Individual particulate respirator use may prevent PM(2.5)-induced blood-pressure elevation among elderly Korean women. However, the effects of particulate respirator use, including physiological stress marker elevation, should also be considered.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0003526

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#In recent years, serious concerns have been raised regarding the impacts of rising temperatures on health. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between elevated temperatures and kidney disease through a systematic review and meta-analysis.@*METHODS@#In October 2017, 2 researchers independently searched related studies in PubMed and Embase. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model, including only studies that presented odds ratios, relative risks, or percentage changes, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The characteristics of each study were summarized, and the Egger test and funnel plots were used to evaluate publication bias.@*RESULTS@#Eleven studies that met the criteria were included in the final analysis. The pooled results suggest an increase of 30% (95% CI, 20 to 40) in kidney disease morbidity with high temperatures. In a disease-specific subgroup analysis, statistically significant results were observed for both renal colic or kidney stones and other renal diseases. In a study design–specific subgroup analysis, statistically significant results were observed in both time-series analyses and studies with other designs. In a temperature measure–specific subgroup analysis, significant results were likewise found for both studies using mean temperature measurements and studies measuring heat waves or heat stress.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results indicate that morbidity due to kidney disease increases at high temperatures. We also found significant results in subgroup analyses. However, further time-series analyses are needed to obtain more generalizable evidence.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740721

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In recent years, serious concerns have been raised regarding the impacts of rising temperatures on health. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between elevated temperatures and kidney disease through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: In October 2017, 2 researchers independently searched related studies in PubMed and Embase. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model, including only studies that presented odds ratios, relative risks, or percentage changes, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The characteristics of each study were summarized, and the Egger test and funnel plots were used to evaluate publication bias. RESULTS: Eleven studies that met the criteria were included in the final analysis. The pooled results suggest an increase of 30% (95% CI, 20 to 40) in kidney disease morbidity with high temperatures. In a disease-specific subgroup analysis, statistically significant results were observed for both renal colic or kidney stones and other renal diseases. In a study design–specific subgroup analysis, statistically significant results were observed in both time-series analyses and studies with other designs. In a temperature measure–specific subgroup analysis, significant results were likewise found for both studies using mean temperature measurements and studies measuring heat waves or heat stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that morbidity due to kidney disease increases at high temperatures. We also found significant results in subgroup analyses. However, further time-series analyses are needed to obtain more generalizable evidence.


Subject(s)
Hot Temperature , Infrared Rays , Kidney Calculi , Kidney Diseases , Kidney , Odds Ratio , Publication Bias , Renal Colic
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Workers spend most of their social lives at work and have relationships of varying nature with people in the workplace. Direct supervisors, in particular, have a direct and lasting impact on workers, which may influence workers' mental health. Depression is very prevalent worldwide, and social concern about the disease is on the rise. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of direct supervisors' behavior on the depressive mood of Korean wage workers. METHODS: We used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey held in 2014; 22,212 participants were included in the analysis. The quality of a direct supervisor's behavior was categorized from 0 (= lowest) to 5 (= highest) points. The degree of depressive mood was measured on a scale from “normal mood” to “likely depression” based on the 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the quality of the direct supervisor's behavior and the depressive mood of wage workers. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for likely depression was found in the 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0 points of the quality of the direct supervisor's behavior compared to 5 points. After stratification for the level of satisfaction with working conditions, the OR of the unsatisfied groups was higher than that of the satisfied groups. CONCLUSIONS: Likely depression was found to be significantly associated with a low quality of direct supervisor's behavior. This association was stronger in workers who were not satisfied with their working conditions. This study suggests that proper management of the direct supervisor's behavior is needed to reduce the risk of depression among Korean wage workers.


Subject(s)
Depression , Logistic Models , Mental Health , Odds Ratio , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , World Health Organization
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916090

ABSTRACT

Particulate matter is an air pollutant emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and its adverse health effects have been well documented in time-series analyses and cohort studies. The effect size of particulate matter exposure—a roughly 0.5% increase in mortality for each 10 µg/m³ increment of short-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm and approximately a 10% increase for each 10 µg/m³ increment of long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm—is small compared to other risk factors, but the exposure is involuntary and affects the entire population, which makes particulate matter pollution an important public health issue. The World Health Organization and Korean government have both established guidelines for particulate matter concentrations, but the Korean guideline is less stringent than that of the World Health Organization. The annual mean concentration of particulate matter in Korea is decreasing, but the trend seems to be slowing. In addition to policy efforts to reduce particulate matter emission, personal approaches such as the use of face masks and air purifiers have been recommended. Personal approaches may not solve the fundamental problem, but can provide temporary mitigation until efforts to reduce emission make progress.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal trends of the health burden attributable to particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) in the metropolitan cities and provinces of the Korea. METHODS: We used modeled PM2.5 concentration data for the basic administrative levels, comprising the cities and the provinces of Korea, the corresponding annual population census data for each level, and the age and cause specific mortality data. We applied cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions to calculate the premature mortality attributable to ambient PM2.5 for four disease end points (ischemic heart disease [IHD], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], lung cancer [LC], and cerebrovascular disease [stroke]) for the year 2015. Moreover, the temporal trends of the health burden from 2006 to 2015 were assessed. RESULTS: The annual average PM2.5 concentration for Korea was 24.4 μg/m3, and 11,924 premature deaths were attributable to PM2.5 exposure in 2015. By simulating the reduction in the annual mean values of PM2.5 to 10 µg/m3, about 8,539 premature deaths were preventable. There was spatial variation in mortality burden attributable to PM2.5 across the sub-national regions of Korea. In particular, the high burden was concentrated at Seoul and Gyeonggi province due to the high population density. However, decreasing trends were noted for most of the metropolitan cities and provinces of Korea since 2006. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that further actions to improve air quality in Korea would substantially improve the health burden due to particulate matter.


Subject(s)
Censuses , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Heart Diseases , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Mortality , Mortality, Premature , Particulate Matter , Population Density , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Seoul
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