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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878440

ABSTRACT

The maxillofacial skeleton is the basis of the contour of the face. Orthognathic surgery and facial contouring surgery change jaw tissue and affect facial appearance in different manners. Orthognathic surgery is the main method to correct dental and maxillofacial deformities. It changes the shape of the jaw and improves the occlusal relationship by changing the three-dimensional position of the jaw. Facial contouring surgery mainly adopts the method of "bone reduction", which changes the "amount"of the jawbone by cutting a part of the bone tissue to improve the facial appearance, generally without changing oral function. The combined use of orthognathic surgery and facial contouring surgery is becoming increasingly common in clinical practice. This also requires oral and maxillofacial surgeons to have a holistic consideration of the comprehensive correction of maxillofacial bone deformity, and to perform comprehensive analysis of jaw deformities and jaw plastic surgery to achieve the most ideal results. The author's team has been engaged in the clinical work of orthognathic surgery and facial contouring surgery and accumulated rich clinical experience in the comprehensive correction of maxillofacial bone deformity. In this article, the indications, treatment goals, treatment modes, treatment methods, and key points in the surgical operations of comprehensive maxillofacial bone surgery were summarized.


Subject(s)
Face/surgery , Facial Bones , Humans , Maxillofacial Abnormalities , Orthognathic Surgery , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures
2.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 114-118, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787667

ABSTRACT

To investigate the safety and feasibility of longitudinal transpancreatic U-sutures invaginated pancreatojejunostomy (Chen's pancreaticojejunostomy technique) in laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD). Clinical data of 116 consecutive patients who underwent LPD using Chen's pancreaticojejunostomy technique in Hunan Provincial People's Hospital from May 2017 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 66 were males and 50 were females. The median age was 58 years old (32-84 yeas old). All 116 patients underwent pure laparoscopic whipple procedure with Child reconstruction method, using Chen's pancreaticojejunostomy technique. The intraoperative and postoperative data of patients were analyzed. All 116 patients underwent LPD successfully. The mean operative time was (260.3±33.5) minutes (200-620 minutes). The mean time of pancreaticojejunostomy was (18.2±7.6) minutes (14-35 minutes). The mean time of hepaticojejunostomy was (14.6±6.3) minutes (10-25 minutes). The mean time of gastrojejunostomy was (12.0±5.5) minutes (8-20 minutes). The mean estimated blood loss was (106.0±87.6) ml (20-800 ml). Postoperative complications were: 11.2%(13/116) of cases had postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), including 10.3% (12/116) of biochemical fistula and 0.9%(1/116) of grade B POPF, no grade C POPF occurred; 10.3%(12/116) had gastrojejunal anastomotic bleeding; 3.4%(4/116) had hepaticojejunal anastomotic fistula; 3.4%(4/116) had delayed gastric emptying; 4.3% (5/116) had localized abdominal infection; 12.1%(14/116) had pulmonary infection; postoperative mortality were 0(0/116) and 1.7%(2/116) within 30 days and 90 days, respectively. One patient died of massive abdominal bleeding secondary to Gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm rupture, the other patient died of extensive tumor recurrence and metastasis after surgery. Chen's pancreaticojejunostomy technique is safe and feasible for LPD.It is an option especially for surgeons who have not completed the learning curve of LPD.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Mandibular condyle injury usually results in malocclusion and disharmony of facial growth in growing children. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of autogenous coronoid grafts on the facial growth of children with unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis who underwent mandibular condyle reconstruction.@*METHODS@#Ten growing patients with unilateral bony TMJ ankylosis admitted in West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University between January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2016 were followed up and evaluated. These patients include three males and seven females with ages ranging from 5 years to 12 years at the time of surgery. Each patient underwent gap arthroplasty, condyle reconstruction with ipsilateral coronoid, and interposition of the pedicled temporalis fascial flap in a single operation. The postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 years to 8 years with an average of 4.9 years. Postoperative panoramic radiographs determined the growth of the mandibular height and length on the affected side and compared it with those of the healthy side.@*RESULTS@#All patients recovered uneventfully after surgery. At the end of follow-up period, the maximal mouth opening ranged from 32 mm to 41 mm with an average of 35.6 mm. Mandibular height and length continued to grow after the successful treatment of ankylosis using autogenous coronoid grafts for condyle reconstruction. However, growth deficit still existed. The final ramus height and mandibular length of the affected side at the end of follow-up increased by 25.3% (P<0.05) and 26.1% (P<0.05), respectively, compared with the initial values measured immediately after surgery. Growth rates of ramus height and mandibular length of the affected side were 47.1% and 27.2% lower (P<0.05) than those of the healthy side, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mandibular height and length continued to grow after the successful treatment of ankylosis by using autogenous coronoid grafts for condyle reconstruction. However, growth deficit still existed. The growth rate of the affected mandible was reduced compared with that of the undisturbed side even after treatment of ankylosis.


Subject(s)
Ankylosis , Bone Transplantation , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Humans , Male , Mandibular Condyle , Temporomandibular Joint , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1117-1128, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762073

ABSTRACT

Cancer remains to be a major challenge for public health providers, and is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, it is imperative to explore the mechanisms underlying cancer initiation and development, and design novel diagnostics and therapeutics. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), which exhibit a covalently closed loop structure, are involved in a variety of diseases, including cancer. The aberrant expression of circRNAs contributes to the initiation and development of various cancers by disrupting the interplay of specific signaling pathways, including the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which controls a plethora of cellular processes that drive cancer development. The interactions between circRNAs (specifically expressed in different cancer tissues) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway presents potential diagnostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we have summarized research discoveries on the functions of Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related circRNAs in the modulation of oncogenesis and progression of different types of cancer. We anticipate that our findings will contribute to the improvement or development of circRNAs-based strategies for cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinogenesis , Cause of Death , Public Health , RNA
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-790147

ABSTRACT

Objective :To study influence of nimodipine on neurological function and serum levels of aquaporin (AQP) 4 and macrophage migration‐inhibitory factor (MIF) in aged patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH).Methods :A total of 120 aged HICH patients treated in our hospital from Jan 2014 to Jan 2017 were ran‐domly and equally divided into routine treatment group (received puncture removal of hematoma + routine treat‐ment) and nimodipine group (received nimodipine based on routine treatment group ) ,both groups were treated for three weeks.United States National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) score ,brain edema volume ,serum levels of AQP4 ,MIF ,hsCRP and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‐α ,therapeutic effect and incidence of adverse reac‐tion were measured and compared between two groups before and after treatment .Results :Total effective rate of nimodipine group was significantly higher than that of routine treatment group (88.33% vs .70.00%) , P=0.013. Compared with routine treatment group after treatment ,there were significant reductions in NIHSS score [ (17.39 ± 3. 08) scores vs .(12. 26 ± 3.74) scores] ,brain edema volume [ (11. 84 ± 2.31) ml vs .(6.68 ± 1.93) ml] ,serum levels of AQP4 [ (2. 79 ± 0. 64) ng/ml vs .(1. 84 ± 0. 52) ng/ml] ,MIF [ (55.39 ± 7. 65) ng/L vs.(43.25 ± 5. 81) ng/L] ,hsCRP [ (18.83 ± 5. 17) mg/L vs.(12. 53 ± 3.87) mg/L] and TNF‐α [ (8. 42 ± 1.37) ng/L vs.(5. 78 ± 1.96) ng/L ] in nimodipine group , P=0.001 all.There were no severe adverse reactions and no significant differ‐ence in incidence rate of adverse reactions between two groups , P=0.436. Conclusion :Nimodipine can significantly improve therapeutic effect ,neurological function ,reduce serum AQP4 and MIF levels ,relieve brain edema and in‐flammation in aged HICH patients .

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857550

ABSTRACT

Depression has become a serious global public health concern. Almost all the current first-line antidepressants developed are based on the classical "monoamine hypothesis (strategy)". These drugs commonly possess a series of defects, including slow-onset, lower response, cognitive injury and suicidal tendencies. So, by breaking through the classical monoamine strategy framework, developing new antidepressants with fast-onset, cognitive-enhancement and less adverse reactions is a major global demand. In 2019, fast-onset antidepressants S-ketamine(S-Ket) and brexanolone were approved by the FDA of USA, which opened up a new field for the non-monoamine strategy mainly based on the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and y-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors. There are currently two main trends in the research and development of rapid onset antidepressants: the optimized multi-target monoamine strategy (modem monoamine strategy) and the non-monoamine strategy based on glutamate(Glu)-GABA balance regulation. According to the research of our laboratory and foreign colleagues, we propose a candidate hypothesis of the "monoamine (5-HT)-nonmonoamine (Glu/ GABA) long feedback neural circuit". It is believed that both monoamine regulatory mechanisms (such as 5-HT neurons located in raphe nucleus) and non-monoamine regulatory mechanisms (Glu/GABA neurons located in the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions) are all part of the rapid-acting antidepressant mechanisms, and both of them form a long-feedback neural loop mediating the fast synaptogenesis of the brain regions including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Based on this hypothesis, we propose five candidate strategies for rapid onset of antidepressant development. (1) By relieving the inhibition of GABA interneurons on glutamatergic pyramidal neurons or directly activating glutamatergic pyramidal neurons, the rapid excitation/inhibition (E/l) balance can be achieved; (2) simultaneous regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity and E/l balance by 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptors such as 5-HT1A (that means simultaneous enhancement of monoamine and nonmonoamine links); (3) direct activation of mammalian sirolimus (rapamycin) target protein complex 1 (mTORCI) and rapid enhance ment of the brain- derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)- mTOR signaling; (4) stimulation of the fast release of BDNF in the brain; (5) positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptor. We hope that these ideas and strategies will bring about a breakthrough for the development of a new generation of antidepressants in China in the future, and provide useful reference for further discovery of candidate targets for rapid antidepressant therapy.

7.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 297-303, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-705035

ABSTRACT

Currently, most commercially available antidepres-sants have one or more chiral centers,and development of chiral antidepressants are of great interest for researchers. Thalidomide induced tragedy promotes drug evaluation centers from various countries to reevaluate their current guidelines and recommend single enantiomer application when developing a chiral antide-pressant. Unfortunately,as far to our knowledge,traditional en-antiomers comparison and active enantiomer selection are real-ized by simple comparison using in vitro targets data. Our team established an integrated system for chiral antidepressant evalua-tion and active enantiomer screening based on four modules,in-cluding pharmacodynamic comparison,pharmacokinetic compar-ison, toxicological comparison, and comprehensive factors. Here,we review this integrated system and make a detailed a-nalysis taking ammoxetine as a realistic example.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324644

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the computer-assisted virtual reduction combined with 3D printing technique as preoperative planning and assess their therapeutic effects.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-five cases of acetabular fracture treated by internal fixation from March 2011 and March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent operations with internal fixations implanted. The patients were divided into 2 groups according whether they used the computer-assisted virtual reduction combined with 3D printing technology. Fifteen patients in the digital group included 9 males and 6 females with a mean age of (39.4±8.8) years old ranging from 22 to 58 years old;time from injury to the operation was (8.8±2.0) days;for Letournel-Judet classification, 4 cases were both column fracture, 5 cases were posterior wall fracture, 4 cases were T-fracture, 2 cases were posterior wall with transverse fracture. Twenty cases in the control group included 12 males and 8 females with a mean age of (38.7±13.1) years old ranging from 19 to 59 years old;time from injury to the operation was(8.2±2.3) days;for Letournel-Judet classification, 6 cases were both column fracture, 8 cases were posterior wall fracture, 3 cases were T-fracture, 3 cases were posterior wall with transverse fracture. The volume of intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion, operative time, satisfaction rate of fracture reduction and excellent and good rate of d`Aubigne Postal function evaluation were compared between the two groups and statistical analysis was conducted.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All the incisions healed without infection occurred. All the fractures healed without breakage or loosening of plates and screws. There was 1 case of postoperative nerve stimulation symptoms in each group. One patient in the digital group was found necrosis of the femoral head at 6 months after operation. One patient in the control group was found heterotopic ossification at 8 months after operation. All patients were follow-up for 13 to 28 months with an average of 17.6 months. The volume of intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion in the digital group were significantly less than those in the control group(<0.05). The operation time in the digital group was shorter than that in the control group(<0.05). The excellent and good rates of fracture reduction were 92.9%(14/15) and 85%(17/20) in the digital group and the control group respectively, and there was no statistical significance (>0.05). The excellent and good rates of Aubigne Postal function evaluation were 86.7%(13/15) and 80%(16/20) respectively, and there was no significant difference(>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The computer-assisted virtual reduction combined with 3D printing technique can reduce the operative time, volume of intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion in acetabular surgeries for patients with acetabular fractures. The technique is an effective method for preoperative planning, which worth promoting.</p>

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-705237

ABSTRACT

Depression has become a serious global public health concern and a prominent social problem.Moreover,the majority of first-line antidepressants that target monoamine neurotransmitter function have significant limitations (ie,low response rates,a time-lag of weeks for a response,cognitive impairment and sexual dysfunction),particularly with the delayed onset of clinical effects which will reduce the patients' clinical compliance and increase the patients' risk of suicide and self-harm.All this highlights a major unmet need for a new generation of antidepressants with fast onset action and low toxic side effects.There has been great progress in the study on pathogenesis of depression and drug targets so far.Recent research has shifted from increasing the level of monoamine neurotransmitter (NE/5-HT) to focusing on regulating the adaptive and plastic change of the nervous system,especially the discovery of new potential fast-onset non-monoaminergic targets including NMDA receptor,AMPA receptor and M choline receptor.This article reviews the investigation into generalized fast antidepressants and their potential targets,in the hope of providing critical information for the development of fastonset antidepressants.

10.
Military Medical Sciences ; (12): 898-901,937, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-694277

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the role of 18 ku translocator protein (TSPO) in the anti-post-traumatic-stress-disorder(PTSD) effects of YL-IPA08 and the value of TSPO as a potential pharmacological target using gene knock out mice.Methods The PCR method was used to genotype TSPO wild type (WT) mice and knock out (KO) mice.Foot shock was used to establish a well-accepted mouse model of PTSD,the open field test (OFT) was used to evaluate the locomotor activity in mice,and freezing measurement was used to evaluate the PTSD-like fear behavior in mice.Results Compared with TSPO WT mice,KO mice had no expressible TSPO gene,but showed similar locomotor activity to WT mice after PTSD modeling.On day 1,day 5 and day 16 after PTSD modeling (day-1-day 0),both WT and KO mice showed significant PTSD-like behavior with enhanced freezing time.However,8 d treatment (day 0-day 7) of YL-IPA08 (0.3 mg/kg,once daily) or positive drug sertraline (15 mg/kg,once daily) after PTSD modeling significantly reduced freezing time selectively in WT mice,but not in KO mice.Conclusion It has been found for the first time that TSPO WT and KO mice can show the same sensitivity to PTSD modeling (namely the same PTSD-like behavior performance).Interestingly,TSPO can mediate the anti-PTSD effects of YL-IPA08.Therefore,the present study provides direct evidence for the value of TSPO as an potential pharmacological target for PTSD.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-693364

ABSTRACT

Objective To prepare a new(alcoxyle cyanoacrylate)-based nanosphere for brain targeting gene delivery and evaluate its physicochemical properties,capability of delivery of transforming growth factor beta 2(TGF-β2)antisense oligonucle?otides(ASON),and its potential use on tumor cell suppression in vitro.Methods The cationic nanospheres(NS)were prepared by emulsion polymerization method with DEAE-dextran as cationic stabilizer.The ASON were adsorbed by charge interaction,and poly?sorbate-80 was used as brain-targeting modification.The morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy(TEM).The average particle size and Zeta potential were determined by dynamic light scattering(DLS). The ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the entrapment efficiency and drug loading.Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the optimal loading ratio of ASON-NS,and also the protection of ASON in DNaseⅠand serum containing environment.The release rate of ASON was deter?mined by dialysis.The cytotoxicity on L929 cells and the anti-tumor activity on A172 cells were evaluated by MTS.Results The TEM showed a typical round nanospheres morphology,and no adhesion was detected.The particle size was(79.04±4.33)nm,the disper?sion coefficient was 0.04 ± 0.03,the Zeta potential was(33.60 ± 0.60)mV. The encapsulation efficiency of ASON-NS was(83.14 ± 1.90)%,and the drug loading of ASON-NS was(11.59±0.56)%.The NS provided ASON protection against the Dnase I and serum containing environment. The NS-ASON could effectively deliver ASON into A172 cells and show anti-tumor activity. Besides,little L929 cytotoxicity was detected.Conclusion A new cyanoacrylate nanosphere with alcoxyle side group for brain targeting gene deliv?ery was prepared successfully. It had good ASON loading and delivery capability,providing new carrier materials for nucleic acid drugs.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-693356

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the anti-post-traumatic-stress-disorder(anti-PTSD)effects of YL-IPA08,a selective 18kDa translocator protein(TSPO)ligand.Methods The time-dependent stress sensitization(TDS)method was used to establish a rat mod?el of PTSD.The open field test(OFT)was used to evaluate the locomotor activity in rats.The contextual freezing(CF)measurement, elevated plus maze(EPM)test and novel objective recognition(NOR)test were used to evaluate the PTSD-like behaviors in rats.The concentration of allopregnanolone in rat hippocampus was detected by ELISA. Results Compared with the control group,neither TDS nor drug treatment affected the locomotor activity in rats(P>0.05).However,PTSD rats showed significant PTSD-like behaviors with enhanced CF time in CF mearsurement,decreased open arm time and open arm entries in EPM test,and dropped object recogni?tion index in NOR test(P<0.05 or 0.01).Moreover,the concentration of hippocampus allopregnanolone was decreased in PTSD rats (P<0.05).YL-IPA08(0.05-0.1mg/kg)or positive drug sertraline(15 mg/kg),administered intragastrically after establishment of PTSD model,significantly reversed the above PTSD-like behavioral changes(P<0.05 or 0.01)and increased the concentration of hip?pocampus allopregnanolone in PTSD rats.Conclusion YL-IPA08 could improve the PTSD-like behavior in rats,and the mechanism may be related to the increased allopregnanolone level in hippocampus.

13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2102-2108, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307460

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Two recent whole-exome sequencing researches identifying somatic mutations in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) gene in pituitary corticotroph adenomas provide exciting advances in this field. These mutations drive increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and promote adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production. This study was to investigate whether the inhibition of USP8 activity could be a strategy for the treatment of Cushing's disease (CD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The anticancer effect of USP8 inhibitor was determined by testing cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, and ACTH secretion. The immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were conducted to explore the signaling pathway by USP8 inhibition.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Inhibition of USP8-induced degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases including EGFR, EGFR-2 (ERBB2), and Met leading to a suppression of AtT20 cell growth and ACTH secretion. Moreover, treatment with USP8 inhibitor markedly induced AtT20 cells apoptosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Inhibition of USP8 activity could be an effective strategy for CD. It might provide a novel pharmacological approach for the treatment of CD.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Physiology , Cell Survival , Physiology , Endopeptidases , Metabolism , Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport , Metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Humans , Indenes , Pharmacology , Mice , Pyrazines , Pharmacology , ErbB Receptors , Metabolism , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase , Metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251575

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To summarize application of rafting K-wires technique for tibial plateau fractures.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From January 2013 to January 2015,45 patients with tibial plateau fractures were treated by locking plate with rafting K-wires, including 33 males and 12 females with an average of 44.2 years old ranging from 22 to 56 years old. According to Schatzker classification, 6 cases were type II, 8 were type Ill, 4 were type IV, 4 were type V, and 5 were type VI. Allogeneic bone graft were performed for bone defects. All patients were fixed with two to five K-wires. Part of weight loading were encouraged at 3 months after operation,and full weight-loading were done at 5 months after operation. Postoperative complications were observed,and Rasmussen clinical and radiological assessment were used to evaluate clinical results.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All Patients were followed up from 10 to 23 months with average of 14 months. According to Rasmussen clinical and radiological assessment, clinical scores 23.58 ± 6.33, radiological scores were 14.00 ± 6.33; and excellent and good rates were 82.2% and 77.8% respectively. Four patients occurred severe osteoporosis and collapse of articular surface; 5 patients occurred traumatic arthritis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Rafting K-wires technique with anatomized armor plate could effective fix and support platform collapse and joint bone fragments, increase support surface area and reduce postoperative reduction loss rate.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Bone Wires , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tibial Fractures , General Surgery
15.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1313-1315, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-641991

ABSTRACT

AlM: To evaluate the clinical effect of 200g/L protein-free calf blood extract eye gel for corneal epithelial defect.METHODS: One hundred and sixty - eight cases of corneal epithelial defect ( 58 cases with herpes simplex keratitis; 24 cases with chemical injury; 85 cases with pterygium operation injury ) were randomly divided into two groups: 84 eyes were treated with protein-free calf blood extract eye gel; 84 cases were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor eye gel ( bFGF ) . The bFGF and protein-free calf blood extract eye gels were used 4 times a day. The treatment course was 7d. Epithelial defect restoration, local symptom and sign were observed. RESULTS: The difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment was significant ( P CONCLUSlON: Protein-free calf blood extract eye gels is valuable and safe for corneal epithelial defect.

16.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1005-1008, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-641901

ABSTRACT

AIM: To understand the relation between the penetrating keratoplasty rejection and the methods of cornea preservation. METHODS: The 30 Wistar rats as donator and 60 SD rats as receptor were used to establish the animal models of penetrating keratoplasty rejection. And 60 SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Donor cornea of Wistar rats preserved in different methods were used separately in 3 groups. The penetrating keratoplasty rejection index ( RI ) , means survival time ( MST ) of corneal grafts and pathological changes in post -operation were analyzed. RESULTS: The MST was ( 10. 4±1. 70 ) d in moist-chamber- preserved group (Ⅰ), ( 12. 9 ± 1. 81 ) d in medium-term-preserved group (II) and (16. 1±2. 57) d in cryopreserved group ( Ⅲ) . The MST in the cryopreserved group was evidently prolonged, showing a significant correlation compared with other two groups (PCONCLUSION: The postoperative rejection of penetrating keratoplasty in rats is decreased and rejection time is delayed in cryopreserved cornea.

17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3156-3160, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263508

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To review the main neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive deficits in patients with Cushing's disease (CD) and the associated pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CD. These mechanistic details may provide recommendations for preventing or treating the cognitive impairments and mood disorders in patients with CD.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>Data were obtained from papers on psychiatric and cognitive complications in CD published in English within the last 20 years. To perform the PubMed literature search, the following keywords were input: cushing's disease, cognitive, hippocampal, or glucocorticoids.</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>Studies were selected if they contained data relevant to the topic addressed in the particular section. Because of the limited length of this article, we have frequently referenced recent reviews that contain a comprehensive amalgamation of literature rather than the actual source papers.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Patients with active CD not only suffer from many characteristic clinical features, but also show some neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive impairments. Among the psychiatric manifestations, the common ones are emotional instability, depressive disorder, anxious symptoms, impulsivity, and cognitive impairment. Irreversible effects of previous glucocorticoid (GC) excess on the central nervous system, such as hippocampal and the basal ganglia, is the most reasonable reason. Excess secretion of cortisol brings much structural and functional changes in hippocampal, such as changes in neurogenesis and morphology, signaling pathway, gene expression, and glutamate accumulation. Hippocampal volume loss can be found in most patients with CD, and decreased glucose utilization caused by GCs may lead to brain atrophy, neurogenesis impairment, inhibition of long-term potentiation, and decreased neurotrophic factors; these may also explain the mechanisms of GC-induced brain atrophy and hippocampal changes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Brain atrophy and hippocampal changes caused by excess secretion of cortisol are thought to play a significant pathophysiological role in the etiology of changes in cognitive function and psychiatric disturbances. The exact mechanisms by which GCs induce hippocampal volume loss are not very clear till now. So, further investigations into the mechanisms by which GCs affect the brain and the effective coping strategy are essential.</p>


Subject(s)
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Genetics , Cognition Disorders , Glucocorticoids , Physiology , Hippocampus , Pathology , Physiology , Humans , Mental Disorders , Neurogenesis , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion , Pathology , Quality of Life , Signal Transduction
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 716-721, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-278194

ABSTRACT

This study is to explore a behavioral and pathological model for depression in mice, and evaluate the anti-depressant-like effect of agmatine. Neonatal Kunming mice were treated with fluoxetine (10 mg x kg(-1), ip, qd) for 17 d (between day 4 and 21 after birth), and then the mice were normally housed till being adult (about 10 weeks after birth). The behaviors of the mice were measured by using open-field test, novelty suppressed feeding test and tail-suspension test. Hippocampal adenylate cyclase (AC) activity was measured by radioimmunoassay. Neonatal exposure to fluoxetine induced a "depression-like" behaviors in the adult mice, shown as the decreased locomotor activity, increased feeding latency and immobility time in the open-field test, novelty suppressed feeding test, and tail-suspension test, respectively. Chronic agmatine treatment (10 mg x kg(-1), ig, bid) for 3 weeks significantly increased the locomotor activity, and decreased the feeding latency in the neonatal fluoxetine exposed mice. Furthermore, single treatment with agmatine (40 mg x kg(-1), ig) also decreased the immobility time in the tail-suspension test, and increased the hippocampal AC activity in the mice. These results indicate that neonatal exposure to fluoxetine induces depressive-like behaviors in the adult mice. Agmatine reverses these behaviors, which may be closely related to the enhancement of the hippocampal AC activity.


Subject(s)
Agmatine , Pharmacology , Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Pharmacology , Depressive Disorder , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fluoxetine , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 467-473, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277829

ABSTRACT

This study is to explore the possible mechanisms of the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine. By using two traditional "behavior despair" model, tail suspension test and forced swimming test, we examined the effects of some monoamine receptor antagonists (including beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist/5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist pindolol, alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonists yohimbine and idazoxan and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron) on the antidepressant-like action of agmatine in mice. Activity of adenylate cyclase (AC) in the synapse membrane from rat frontal cortex was determined by radioimmunoassay. Single dose of agmatine (5-40 mg x kg(-1), ig) dose-dependently decrease the immobility time in tail suspension test in mice, indicating an antidepressant-like effect. The effect of agmatine (40 mg x kg(-1), ig) was antagonized by co-administration of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist/5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist pindolol (20 mg x kg(-1), ip), alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonists yohimbine (5-10 mg x kg(-1), ip) or idazoxan (4 mg x kg(-1), ip), but not beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (5-20 mg x kg(-1), ip) and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron (5-40 mg x kg(-1), ip). Agmatine (5-40 mg x kg(-1), ig) also dose-dependently decrease the immobility time in forced swimming test in mice. The effect of agmatine (40 mg x kg(-1), ig) was also antagonized by pindolol (20 mg x kg(-1), ip), yohimbine (5-10 mg x kg(-1), ip), or idazoxan (4 mg x kg(-1), ip). Incubation of agmatine (0.1-6.4 micromol x L(-1)) with the synaptic membrane extracted from rat frontal cortex activated the AC in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. While the effect of agmatine (6.4 micromol x L(-1)) was dose-dependently antagonized by pindolol (1 micromol x L(-1)) or yohimbine (0.25-1 micromol x L(-1)). Chronic treatment with agmatine (10 mg x kg(-1), ig, bid, 2 w) or fluoxetine (10 mg x kg(-1), ig, bid, 2 w) increased the basic activity, as well as the Gpp (NH)p (1-100 micromol x L(-1)) stimulated AC activity in rat prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that regulation on 5-HT1A/1B and alpha2 receptors, and activation AC in the frontal cortex is one of the important mechanisms involving in agmatine's antidepressant-like action.


Subject(s)
Adenylyl Cyclases , Metabolism , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists , Pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists , Pharmacology , Agmatine , Pharmacology , Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Pharmacology , Behavior, Animal , Depression , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fenclonine , Pharmacology , Idazoxan , Pharmacology , Male , Mice , Pindolol , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Biogenic Amine , Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Antagonists , Swimming , Synapses , Yohimbine , Pharmacology
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1792-1796, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255503

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Xiaobuxin-Tang, a traditional Chinese herbal prescription recorded in a silk scroll unearthed from Mogao Caves of Dunhuang has been indicated that it can remit depressive disorder. The present study was designed to investigate its antidepressant effects in various animal depression models.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Xiaobuxin-Tang was extracted by 70% alcohol, and then three behavioral despair models and 5-Hydroxytryptophan (HTP)-induced head twitch response model were adopted to assess the antidepressant effects of the ethanolic extract of Xiaobuxin-Tang with the study on spontaneous motor activity. Groups of mice and rats received oral treatment with Xiaobuxin-Tang (150 - 1200 mg/kg) only once acutely in all tests. The duration of immobility was measured during the last 4 minutes of the 6-minutes test period in mice forced swimming test, rats forced swimming test and mice tail suspension test. In 5-HTP-induced head twitch response, the mice were intraperitoneally administered with 120 mg/kg of L-5-HTP, and then the cumulative number of head twitches was counted in 20 minutes. Spontaneous motor activities of mice were recorded automatically in 10 minutes by VIDEOMEX-V image analytic system.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The extract at doses of 300 mg/kg (p.o.) and 600 mg/kg (p.o.) significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in a dose dependent manner in mice forced swimming test; also, the extract at dose of 1200 mg/kg (p.o.) significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in rat forced swimming test. Furthermore, the extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg had the same effect in mice tail suspension test. Meanwhile, the extract at the effective doses for behavioral despair models, had no effect on spontaneous motor activity in mice. The extract (300 - 1200 mg/kg, p.o.) also increased the accumulative number of the 5-HTP-induced head twitch response in mice in 20 minutes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our results suggested that the ethanolic extract of Xiaobuxin-Tang exerts antidepressant-like effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Pharmacology , Depression , Drug Therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Hindlimb Suspension , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Motor Activity , Swimming
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