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Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 470-479, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927165


Purpose@#Access block due to the lack of hospital beds causes crowding of emergency departments (ED). We initiated the “boarding restriction protocol” that limits the time of stay in the ED for patients awaiting hospitalization to 24 hours from arrival. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the boarding restriction protocol on ED crowding. @*Materials and Methods@#The primary outcome was ED occupancy rate, which was calculated as the ratio of the number of occupying patients to the total number of ED beds. Time factors, such as length of stay (LOS), treatment time, and boarding time, were investigated. @*Results@#The mean of the ED occupancy rate decreased from 1.532±0.432 prior to implementation of the protocol to 1.273±0.353 after (p<0.001). According to time series analysis, the absolute effect caused by the protocol was -0.189 (-0.277 to -0.110) (p=0.001). The proportion of patients with LOS exceeding 24 hours decreased from 7.6% to 4.0% (p<0.001). Among admitted patients, ED LOS decreased from 770.7 (421.4–1587.1) minutes to 630.2 (398.0–1156.8) minutes (p<0.001); treatment time increased from 319.6 (198.5–482.8) minutes to 344.7 (213.4–519.5) minutes (p<0.001); and boarding time decreased from 298.9 (109.5–1149.0) minutes to 204.1 (98.7–545.7) minutes (p<0.001). In pre-protocol period, boarding patients accumulated in the ED during the weekdays and resolved on Friday, but this pattern was alleviated in post-period. @*Conclusion@#The boarding restriction protocol was effective in alleviating ED crowding by reducing the accumulation of boarding patients in the ED during the weekdays

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915709


Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate whether the number of parity is associated with the prevalence of sarcopenia in postmenopausal women. @*Methods@#This study was performed using data from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey that included 1,338 postmenopausal women aged 46-70 years. The prevalence of sarcopenia was analyzed according to the number of births. Modifiable risk factors were evaluated to determine the association of parity with sarcopenia in susceptible population. @*Results@#The sarcopenia group (n=343) had lower number of parity, lower body mass index, more frequent previous history of diabetes mellitus, higher Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and higher education level than the non-sarcopenia group (n=995). The sarcopenia risk was significantly lower in postmenopausal women with a higher number of parity (≥3 births) (model 1: odds ratio [OR]=0.308; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.115–0.827, p=0.0194; model 2: OR=0.269; 95% CI=0.109–0.66, p=0.0042; model 3: OR=0.640; 95% CI=0.428–0.957, p=0.0295; model 4: OR=0.636; 95% CI=0.413–0.980, p=0.0403). In subgroup analysis of the lower parity group, moderate aerobic activity was associated with a lower sarcopenia prevalence (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.317–0.852; p=0.0095). @*Conclusion@#A lower number of parity increases the risk of sarcopenia in postmenopausal Korean women. Moderate aerobic activity may be effective in preventing sarcopenia in postmenopausal women with lower parity who are more susceptible to sarcopenia.

Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 190-201, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835755


Purpose@#This study sought to investigate the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in relation to tumor location within the stomach. @*Materials and Methods@#The densities and prognostic significance of TIL subsets were evaluated in 542 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD4, CD8, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Foxp3), and granzyme B was performed. @*Results@#Cardia cancer was associated with significantly lower densities of CD8 T-cells and higher densities of Foxp3 and granzyme B T-cells than non-cardia tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.023; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.006–1.040), advanced T classification (HR, 2.029; 95% CI, 1.106–3.721), lymph node metastasis (HR, 3.319; 95% CI, 1.947–5.658), low CD3 expression (HR, 0.997; 95% CI, 0.994–0.999), and a high Foxp3/CD4 ratio (HR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.001–1.012) were independent predictors of poor overall survival in cardia cancer patients. In non-cardia cancer patients, total gastrectomy (HR, 2.147; 95% CI, 1.507–3.059), advanced T classification (HR, 2.158; 95% CI, 1.425–3.266), lymph node metastasis (HR, 1.854; 95% CI, 1.250–2.750), and a low Foxp3/CD4 ratio (HR, 0.978; 95% CI, 0.959–0.997) were poor prognostic factors for survival. @*Conclusions@#The densities and prognostic effects of TILs differed in relation to the location of tumors within the stomach. The contrasting prognostic effects of Foxp3/CD4 ratio in cardia and non-cardia gastric cancer patients suggests that clinicians ought to consider tumor location when determining treatment strategies.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715832


PURPOSE: This descriptive study was aimed to examine trends in the incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The nationwide incidence data for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer was obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Age-standardized rates were calculated and analyzed, using a Joinpoint regression model. RESULTS: The incidence of basal cell carcinoma has increased dramatically both in men (average annual percentage change [AAPC], 8.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.0 to 10.1]) and women (AAPC, 9.0 [95% CI, 7.5 to 10.4]). Squamous cell carcinoma has also steadily increased both in men (AAPC, 3.3 [95% CI, 2.6 to 4.0]) and women (AAPC, 6.8 [95% CI, 5.3 to 8.4]). Cutaneous melanoma increased continuously from 1999 to 2014 inwomen (AAPC, 3.5 [95% CI, 2.4 to 4.6]), whilst rapidly increasing in men until 2005 (APC, 7.9 [95% CI, 2.4 to 13.7]) after which no increase has been observed (APC, -0.2 [95% CI, -2.3 to 2.0]). CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer have increased over the past years, with the exception of melanoma in men. Further studies are required to investigate the reasons for the increased incidence of these skin cancers in South Korea.

Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Female , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Male , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Skin
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1127-1139, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176907


PURPOSE: Metastatic biliary tract cancer (mBTC) has a dismal prognosis. In this study, an independent dataset of patients with mBTC was used to implement and validate a routine clinico-laboratory parameter-based scoring model for risk group identification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2006 to February 2015, 482 patients with mBTC were assigned randomly (ratio, 7:3) into investigational (n=340) and validation datasets (n=142). The continuous variables were dichotomized using a normal range or the best cutoff values determined using the Contal and O'Quigley statistical methods. Following a Cox’s proportional hazard model, the scoring model was derived by summing the rounded chi-square scores for the factors identified by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 3-4), hypoalbuminemia (< 3.4 mg/dL), carcinoembryonic antigen (≥ 9 ng/mL), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (≥ 3.0), and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (≥ 120 U/mL) were identified as independent prognosticators (Harrell’s C index, 0.682; integrated area under the curve, 0.653). Survival was clearly correlated with the risk groups (low, intermediate, and high, 14.0, 7.3, and 2.3 months, respectively; p < 0.001). The prognosis was also discriminative in the validation data set (median survival, 16.7, 7.5, and 1.9 months, respectively; p < 0.001). Chemotherapy did not offer any survival benefits for high-risk patients. CONCLUSION: These proposed prognostic criteria for mBTC can facilitate accurate patient risk stratification and treatment-related decision-making.

Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Biliary Tract , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Dataset , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Reference Values , Social Identification
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61892


PURPOSE: We investigated ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)-derived parameters as prognostic indices for disease progression and survival in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the effect of high-dose radiotherapy for a subpopulation with PET-based poor prognoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven stage III and Iva-b NPC patients who underwent definitive treatment and PET were reviewed. For each primary, nodal, and whole tumor, maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were evaluated. RESULTS: Based on the C-index (0.666) and incremental area under the curve (0.669), the whole tumor TLGwas the most useful predictorfor progression-free survival (PFS); thewhole tumor TLG cut-off value showing the best predictive performance was 322.7. In multivariate analysis, whole tumor TLG was a significant prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14 to 0.65; p=0.002) and OS (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.79; p=0.02). Patients with low whole tumor TLG showed the higher 5-year PFS in the subgroup for only patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy (77.4% vs. 53.0%, p=0.01). In the subgroup of patients with high whole tumor TLG, patients receiving an EQD₂≥ 70 Gy showed significantly greater complete remission rates (71.4% vs. 33.3%, p=0.03) and higher 5-year OS (74.7% vs. 19.6%, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that whole tumor TLG could be an independent prognostic factor and high-dose radiotherapy could improve outcomes for NPC showing high whole tumor TLG.

Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Electrons , Glycolysis , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Tumor Burden