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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834003

ABSTRACT

Background@#There are various reports on the effects of the anesthetic method on neurologic complications. A population-based study was conducted to estimate the effect of anesthetic method on the incidence of postoperative delirium in patients that underwent total hip replacement arthroplasty in South Korea. @*Methods@#The Korean National Health Insurance claims database was used to retrospectively identify and analyze 24,379 cases of total hip replacement arthroplasty, defined as patients having a claim record with the operation code ‘N0711,’ from January 2008 to December 2017. Patients were divided into two groups, a general anesthesia group (n = 9,921) and a regional anesthesia group (n = 14,458). The incidence of delirium was assessed in cases when patients used medications for delirium, such as haloperidol, chlorpromazine, olanzapine, and risperidone. @*Results@#Of the 9,921 patients receiving general anesthesia and 14,458 receiving regional anesthesia, 142 (1.43%) and 209 (0.86%) experienced postoperative delirium after total hip replacement arthroplasty, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.92). In logistic regression analysis, sex (P = 0.038) and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (P = 0.008) were predictors of postoperative delirium. @*Conclusions@#Our results revealed that the anesthetic method was not associated with the incidence of postoperative delirium. In addition, the results suggest that male patients and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome undergoing total hip replacement arthroplasty carefully managed for postoperative delirium after surgery.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832406

ABSTRACT

Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is caused by congenital or acquired causes and occurs in childhood or adulthood. GH replacement therapy brings benefits to body composition, exercise capacity, skeletal health, cardiovascular outcomes, and quality of life. Before initiating GH replacement, GH deficiency should be confirmed through proper stimulation tests, and in cases with proven genetic causes or structural lesions, repeated GH stimulation testing is not necessary. The dosing regimen of GH replacement therapy should be individualized, with the goal of minimizing side effects and maximizing clinical improvements. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology have developed a position statement on the diagnosis and treatment of GH deficiency. This position statement is based on a systematic review of evidence and expert opinions.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816625

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Korea , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma
6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836566

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to investigate celiac plexus neurolysis (CPN) for the treatment of cancerous upper abdominal pain in a tertiary university hospital in Korea. @*Methods@#At the tertiary university hospital in Korea, electronic medical records of cancer patients who underwent CPN and died in the hospital from November 2009 to June 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#The total number of subjects was 51. The 17 patients were from the Department of Gastroenterology (33.0%), followed by 11 patients from the Department of Hemato-oncology (21.6%), 11 patients from the Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (21.6%), 9 patients from the Department of General Surgery (17.6%). The diagnosis was pancreatic cancer in 15 patients (29.4%), stomach cancer in 8 patients (15.7%), hepatobiliary cancer in 20 patients (39.2%), colon cancer in 1 patient (2.0%), esophageal cancer in 2 patient (3.9%) and intra-abdominal metastasis in 5 patients (9.8%). The mean survival time after the surgery was 66.4±55.0 days. The pain intensity before and 1 week after the procedure significantly decreased, but the amounts of opioids consumed before and 1 week after the procedure were not statistically significant. Side effects occurred after the procedure including temporary localized pain in 24 patients (47.0%), hypotension in 12 (23.5%), and diarrhea in 6 (11.8%). @*Conclusion@#CPN is an effective and safe procedure for reducing upper abdominal pain caused by cancer, and it is necessary to perform CPN within the appropriate time by establishing a system of interdepartmental cooperation.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830293

ABSTRACT

Background@#Intravenous dexmedetomidine has been reported to potentiate the anesthetic effect of local anesthetics and improve the quality of postoperative analgesia when used as an adjuvant in neuraxial block. We compared the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine and midazolam for sedation on combined spinal-epidural (CSE) anesthesia. @*Methods@#This study included 50 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. CSE anesthesia was given using 10 mg bupivacaine for all patients. After checking the maximum sensory and motor levels, the patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 25 each to receive intravenous continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine (Group D) or midazolam (Group M) for sedation during surgery. Regression block level, hemodynamic changes, and sedation score were compared between the groups when the patients entered the postanesthetic care unit (PACU). For patient-controlled epidural analgesia, 0.2% levobupivacaine with 650 μg of fentanyl (150 ml in total) was infused at a rate of 1 ml/h, in addition to a 3-ml bolus dose with a 30-min lockout time. The visual analogue scale scores, additional analgesic demand, patient satisfaction, and adverse events between the two groups were also compared postoperatively. @*Results@#A significant difference was observed in relation to the sensory block level in the PACU (Group D: 6.3 ± 2.1; Group M: 3.2 ± 1.9) (P = 0.002). The motor block level and other outcomes showed no significant intergroup differences. @*Conclusions@#Intravenous injection of dexmedetomidine, rather than midazolam, for procedural sedation is associated with prolonged sensory block, with comparable incidences of adverse events during CSE anesthesia.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the changes in cardiovascular risk markers including pulse wave velocity (PWV), microalbuminuria, inflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules after treatment with beraprost sodium (BPS) in patients with diabetic nephropathy.METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with microalbuminuria were included. The primary endpoints were changes in microalbuminuria in spot urine and PWV after BPS or placebo (PCB) treatment for 24 weeks. The secondary endpoints were changes in clinical and metabolic parameters.RESULTS: A total of 52 patients completed the 24-week trial. Changes in PWV were not different significantly in the BPS and PCB groups (right, P=0.16; left, P=0.11). Changes in microalbuminuria were 14.2±157.0 and 34.5±146.6 (µg/mg Cr) in the BPS and PCB groups, respectively (P=0.63). Subgroup analysis in the high blood pressure (BP) group (baseline systolic BP >120 mm Hg and diastolic BP >80 mm Hg), showed that microalbuminuria decreased by −47.6 in the BPS group compared with an increase by 116.4 (µg/mg Cr) in the PCB group (P=0.04). Also, in the large waist circumference group (>95 cm), microalbuminuria decreased significantly in the BPS group (P=0.04).CONCLUSION: Short-term treatment of BPS for patients with diabetic nephropathy did not show significant improvement in various cardiovascular risk factors. However, BPS significantly decreased microalbuminuria in study subjects with higher cardiovascular risk such as high BP or large waist circumference.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Humans , Hypertension , Prospective Studies , Pulse Wave Analysis , Risk Factors , Sodium , Vascular Stiffness , Waist Circumference
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disorder caused by antibodies stimulating the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) measurement is useful for predicting GD relapse after antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment. However, the association of other thyroid autoantibodies with GD relapse remains obscure. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled patients with GD who were initially treated with ATD. TRAb, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured at the initial diagnosis and at the time of ATD discontinuation. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 49.7 years, and 39 patients (70.9%) were female. Antibody positivity at diagnosis was 90.9%, 69.1%, and 61.9% for TRAb, TPOAb, TgAb, respectively. Median ATD treatment period was 15.1 months. At the time of ATD withdrawal, TRAb titers decreased uniformly overall. Conversely, TPOAb and TgAb showed various changes. After withdrawal of ATD, 19 patients (34.5%) experienced relapse. No clinical features or laboratory results were significantly related to relapse in the overall patient group. However, in the TPOAb positive group at diagnosis, increasing titer of TPOAb or TgAb after ATD treatment was significantly and independently related to relapse free survival (TPOAb: hazard ratio [HR], 17.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 195.43; P=0.02) (TgAb: HR, 5.73; 95% CI, 1.21 to 27.26; P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Changes in TPOAb or TgAb titers during treatment might be useful for predicting relapse after ATD treatment in patients with positive TPOAb at diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Autoantibodies , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Female , Graves Disease , Humans , Iodide Peroxidase , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maintenance of tracheal intubation is associated with use of sedatives, stress due to mechanical ventilation, or respiratory complications. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence of delirium between early and late extubation groups after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: Medical records from 247 patients who received LT from January 2010 to July 2017 in a single university hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided with 2 groups: Those who underwent early extubation after LT (E group, n = 52) and those who underwent extubation within few hours of intensive care unit (ICU) admission after surgery (C group, n = 195). The patients’ demographic data, perioperative managements and postoperative complications were collected. Early extubation was defined as performing extubation in the operating room after LT. A propensity score matching analysis was performed to reduce the effects of selection bias. RESULTS: Among them, 4/52 (7.69%) in E group and 30/195 (15.38%) in C group occurred postoperative delirium after LT, respectively (P = 0.180). After propensity score matching, there was no difference of the period of hospitalization in ICU (P = 0.961), time to discharge after surgery (P = 0.117) and incidence of delirium between groups (P = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: Although this study is a retrospective study and limited by the small number of subjects, early extubation does not affect the incidence of delirium after LT. Therefore, further prospective studies on this were needed.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , Delirium , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Intubation , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Medical Records , Operating Rooms , Postoperative Complications , Propensity Score , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Selection Bias
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136425

ABSTRACT

Epidural steroid injection (ESI), which is commonly used for treatment of low back pain with lumbosacral radicular pain, can be performed via transforaminal, interlaminar, or caudal routes. The transforaminal route is generally regarded as more effective than the interlaminar route due to its high level of drug delivery to the ventral epidural space. However, in some postoperative patients, use of the transforaminal route may be difficult. Thus, there is an urgent need for technology that can offer more effective drug delivery to the ventral epidural space with fewer complications. In this context, we describe a case about our new method where patient has undergone oblique interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injection (OIL-ESI) instead of transforaminal ESI. We treated a patient with OIL-ESI instead of transforaminal ESI. Patient was symptomatic improved at postoperative visits. Based on our findings, OIL-ESI may be a suitable alternative to transforaminal ESI.


Subject(s)
Epidural Space , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Injections, Epidural , Low Back Pain , Methods , Pain Management
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136424

ABSTRACT

Epidural steroid injection (ESI), which is commonly used for treatment of low back pain with lumbosacral radicular pain, can be performed via transforaminal, interlaminar, or caudal routes. The transforaminal route is generally regarded as more effective than the interlaminar route due to its high level of drug delivery to the ventral epidural space. However, in some postoperative patients, use of the transforaminal route may be difficult. Thus, there is an urgent need for technology that can offer more effective drug delivery to the ventral epidural space with fewer complications. In this context, we describe a case about our new method where patient has undergone oblique interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injection (OIL-ESI) instead of transforaminal ESI. We treated a patient with OIL-ESI instead of transforaminal ESI. Patient was symptomatic improved at postoperative visits. Based on our findings, OIL-ESI may be a suitable alternative to transforaminal ESI.


Subject(s)
Epidural Space , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Injections, Epidural , Low Back Pain , Methods , Pain Management
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) is a complicated procedure with a high incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Previous studies indicate that even transient or mild post-LT AKI can result in critical conditions, including prolonged stays in hospitals and intensive care units and increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and occurrence of AKI in LT recipients. METHODS: Medical data from 203 patients who received LT surgery from January 2010 to August 2016 in a single university hospital setting were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Patients were classified as either underweight (BMI <20 kg/m²) or normal weight (20 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m²). Demographic data, anesthetic methods, complications, and perioperative laboratory test values of each patient were assessed. Propensity analyses and logistic regression were performed to evaluate the association between BMI and post-LT AKI. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in occurrence of post-LT AKI between underweight and normal weight patients. The underweight patient group had significantly longer hospital stay compared with the normal weight patient group (P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: BMI classification was neither a positive nor negative predictor of postoperative AKI occurrence. However, patients with lower BMI had significantly longer hospital stay compared with their counterparts. Although our study was limited by its retrospective design, our observations suggest that lower BMI might play a role in post-LT AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Body Mass Index , Classification , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Logistic Models , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Thinness
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25086

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to describe rare variants of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and to compare the prognosis with that of conventional ACC. We retrospectively reviewed 8 cases of myxoid variant, 1 sarcomatoid variant, and 14 cases of conventional ACC, who underwent surgical resection at the Asan Medical Center between 1996 and 2014. An analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics, including the Weiss score, Ki-67 labeling index, and reticulin framework assessment is presented. The mean age of patients with myxoid/sarcomatoid ACC was 45 years; 4 out of 9 patients were women. Mean primary tumor size was 12.9 cm and the mean weight was 702.4 g. Seven patients presented in an advanced stage (stage III/IV); 8 of these eventually developed distant metastasis. The mean Weiss score was 5.0 points and the Ki-67 labeling index was 15.6%. The extent of myxoid or sarcomatoid change on histological examination ranged from 10% to 75% of the examined tumor areas; reticulin framework alteration was observed in all cases. Four patients showed venous tumor thrombus. Most of the clinicopathological parameters were not significantly different from those of conventional ACC. However, myxoid or sarcomatoid variant (hazard ratios [HR], 3.59; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.13–11.38; P = 0.030) and Ki-67 labeling index (HR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.18–13.41; P = 0.030) were independent predictors of overall survival after adjusting for age and sex. Myxoid or sarcomatoid histological features or an increased Ki-67 labeling index may be associated with poor overall survival in patients with ACC.


Subject(s)
Adrenocortical Carcinoma , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Reticulin , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tertiary Healthcare , Thrombosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies have suggested that elevated serum vitamin D levels might protect against thyroid cancer. Elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) are suggested to be thyroid cancer promoting factors but have not been well controlled in previous studies. We designed the present study to evaluate whether serum vitamin D levels are associated with thyroid cancer in euthyroid patients with no clinical evidence of AITD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included subjects who underwent routine health check-ups, including serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) levels, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab), and thyroid ultrasonography (US). Inclusion criteria were euthyroid, negative TPO-Ab, and no evidence of AITD by US findings. Thyroid cancer diagnoses were based on fine needle aspiration cytology and/or postsurgical histopathological findings. RESULTS: We enrolled 5,186 subjects (64% male, 37% female) in this study, including 53 patients (1%) with a diagnosis of thyroid cancer (33 males, 20 females). Mean 25(OH)D3 levels were similar between the thyroid cancer and control groups (p = 0.20). Subgroup analysis according to sex or seasonal variation also revealed no differences in 25(OH)D3 levels between the two groups. Based on the levels of 25(OH)D3, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of thyroid cancer; the prevalence was 0.71%, 0.94%, 1.40%, and 0.82% in the deficient, insufficient, sufficient, and excess groups, respectively (p = 0.64). CONCLUSIONS: The levels of serum 25(OH)D3 are not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence in euthyroid subjects with no clinical evidence of AITD.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Cholecalciferol , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Humans , Male , Peroxidase , Prevalence , Seasons , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyrotropin , Ultrasonography , Vitamin D , Vitamins
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) is a complicated procedure with a high incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Previous studies indicate that even transient or mild post-LT AKI can result in critical conditions, including prolonged stays in hospitals and intensive care units and increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and occurrence of AKI in LT recipients. METHODS: Medical data from 203 patients who received LT surgery from January 2010 to August 2016 in a single university hospital setting were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Patients were classified as either underweight (BMI <20 kg/m²) or normal weight (20 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m²). Demographic data, anesthetic methods, complications, and perioperative laboratory test values of each patient were assessed. Propensity analyses and logistic regression were performed to evaluate the association between BMI and post-LT AKI. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in occurrence of post-LT AKI between underweight and normal weight patients. The underweight patient group had significantly longer hospital stay compared with the normal weight patient group (P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: BMI classification was neither a positive nor negative predictor of postoperative AKI occurrence. However, patients with lower BMI had significantly longer hospital stay compared with their counterparts. Although our study was limited by its retrospective design, our observations suggest that lower BMI might play a role in post-LT AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Body Mass Index , Classification , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Logistic Models , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Thinness
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There have been controversial reports linking Helicobacter pylori infection to autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). However, data regarding the relationship are limited for Asian populations, which have an extremely high prevalence of H. pylori infection. We performed this study to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and AITD in Koreans. METHODS: This study involved adults aged 30 to 70 years who had visited a health promotion center. A total of 5,502 subjects were analysed. Thyroid status was assessed by free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori were measured as an indication of H. pylori infection. We compared the prevalence of TPO-Ab in subjects with and without H. pylori infection. RESULTS: H. pylori IgG antibodies were found in 2,875 subjects (52.3%), and TPO-Ab were found in 430 (7.8%). Individuals positive for H. pylori Ab were older than those negative for H. pylori Ab (p < 0.01). The proportion of females was significantly higher in the TPO-Ab positive group (41.0% vs. 64.2%, p < 0.01). Prevalence of TPO-Ab positivity was higher in subjects with H. pylori infection (8.6% vs. 7.00%, p = 0.03), and this association was significant after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.03; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, prevalence of TPO-Ab positivity is more frequent in subjects with H. pylori infection. Our findings suggest H. pylori infection may play a role in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies , Asians , Autoimmunity , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Promotion , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Peroxidase , Prevalence , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48909

ABSTRACT

A nerve block is an effective tool for diagnostic and therapeutic methods. If a diagnostic nerve block is successful for pain relief and the subsequent therapeutic nerve block is effective for only a limited duration, the next step that should be considered is a nerve ablation or modulation. The nerve ablation causes iatrogenic neural degeneration aiming only for sensory or sympathetic denervation without motor deficits. Nerve ablation produces the interruption of axonal continuity, degeneration of nerve fibers distal to the lesion (Wallerian degeneration), and the eventual death of axotomized neurons. The nerve ablation methods currently available for resection/removal of innervation are performed by either chemical or thermal ablation. Meanwhile, the nerve modulation method for interruption of innervation is performed using an electromagnetic field of pulsed radiofrequency. According to Sunderland's classification, it is first and foremost suggested that current neural ablations produce third degree peripheral nerve injury (PNI) to the myelin, axon, and endoneurium without any disruption of the fascicular arrangement, perineurium, and epineurium. The merit of Sunderland's third degree PNI is to produce a reversible injury. However, its shortcoming is the recurrence of pain and the necessity of repeated ablative procedures. The molecular mechanisms related to axonal regeneration after injury include cross-talk between axons and glial cells, neurotrophic factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and their receptors. It is essential to establish a safe, long-standing denervation method without any complications in future practices based on the mechanisms of nerve degeneration as well as following regeneration.


Subject(s)
Axons , Classification , Denervation , Electromagnetic Fields , Extracellular Matrix , Myelin Sheath , Nerve Block , Nerve Degeneration , Nerve Fibers , Nerve Growth Factors , Nerve Regeneration , Neuroglia , Neurons , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Peripheral Nerves , Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment , Recurrence , Regeneration , Sympathectomy , Wallerian Degeneration
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is still controversial. Some studies suggested that molecular basis of the association between HT and PTC. BRAF(V600E) mutation is the most common genetic alteration founded in PTC. This study was to determine a role of BRAF(V600E) mutation in PTC with concurrent HT and their association with other clinicopathological factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 452 patients who underwent thyroid surgery between 2009 and 2012 for classical PTC. The status of BRAF(V600E) mutation was evaluated by direct sequencing. HT was defined as presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis in pathology or positive serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody. RESULTS: Total 139 patients (30%) with PTC had coexistence HT. HT was significantly associated female (p=0.006), and younger age (p=0.045). BRAF(V600E) mutation was confirmed in 264 patients (58%). The frequency of BRAF(V600E) mutation was significantly lower in PTC with coexistence HT (48.2%) compared by PTC without HT (62.9%, p=0.004). However, there was no significant difference in clinicopathological feature of PTC according to the presence of HT in patients with BRAF(V600E) mutated PTC. BRAF(V600E) mutation was less frequent in PTC with coexistence HT. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that HT and BRAF(V600E) mutation might be independent factors in development and progression of PTC.


Subject(s)
Female , Hashimoto Disease , Humans , Pathology , Peroxidase , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune
20.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 217-228, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130329

ABSTRACT

The musculoskeletal system is mainly composed of the bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, in addition to nerves and blood vessels. The greatest difficulty in an ultrasonographic freeze-frame created by the examiner is recognition of the targeted structures without indicators, since an elephant's trunk may not be easily distinguished from its leg. It is not difficult to find descriptive ultrasonographic terms used for educational purposes, which help in distinguishing features of these structures either in a normal or abnormal anatomic condition. However, the terms sometimes create confusion when describing common objects, for example, in Western countries, pears have a triangular shape, but in Asia they are round. Skilled experts in musculoskeletal ultrasound have tried to express certain distinguishing features of anatomic landmarks using terms taken from everyday objects which may be reminiscent of that particular feature. This pictorial review introduces known signature patterns of distinguishing features in musculoskeletal ultrasound in a normal or abnormal condition, and may stir the beginners' interest to play a treasure-hunt game among unfamiliar images within a boundless ocean.


Subject(s)
Anatomic Landmarks , Anisotropy , Asia , Blood Vessels , Education , Leg , Ligaments , Muscles , Musculoskeletal System , Peripheral Nerves , Pyrus , Tendons , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Interventional
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