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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919474

ABSTRACT

Background@#We evaluated the long-term effects of domiciliary noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) used to treat patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). @*Methods@#Databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials of COPD with NIPPV for longer than 1 year. Mortality rates were the primary outcome in this meta-analysis. The eight trials included in this study comprised data from 913 patients. @*Results@#The mortality rates for the NIPPV and control groups were 29% (118/414) and 36% (151/419), suggesting a statistically significant difference (risk ratio [RR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.95). Mortality rates were reduced with NIPPV in four trials that included stable COPD patients. There was no difference in admission, acute exacerbation and quality of life between the NIPPV and control groups. There was no significant difference in withdrawal rates between the two groups (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.72–1.36; p=0.94). @*Conclusion@#Maintaining long-term nocturnal NIPPV for more than 1 year, especially in patients with stable COPD, decreased the mortality rate, without increasing the withdrawal rate compared with long-term oxygen treatment.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897456

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze whether patients with lung cancer have a higher susceptibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe presentation, and higher mortality than those without lung cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#A nationwide cohort of confirmed COVID-19 (n=8,070) between January 1, 2020, and May 30, 2020, and a 1:15 age-, sex-, and residence-matched cohort (n=121,050) were constructed. A nested case-control study was performed to compare the proportion of patients with lung cancer between the COVID-19 cohort and the matched cohort. @*Results@#The proportion of patients with lung cancer was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort (0.5% [37/8,070]) than in the matched cohort (0.3% [325/121,050]) (p=0.002). The adjusted odds ratio [OR] of having lung cancer was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort than in the matched cohort (adjusted OR, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.10). Among patients in the COVID-19 cohort, compared to patients without lung cancer, those with lung cancer were more likely to have severe COVID-19 (54.1% vs. 13.2%, p < 0.001), including mortality (18.9% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001). The adjusted OR for the occurrence of severe COVID-19 in patients with lung cancer relative to those without lung cancer was 2.24 (95% CI, 1.08 to 4.74). @*Conclusion@#The risk of COVID-19 occurrence and severe presentation, including mortality, may be higher in patients with lung cancer than in those without lung cancer.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889752

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze whether patients with lung cancer have a higher susceptibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe presentation, and higher mortality than those without lung cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#A nationwide cohort of confirmed COVID-19 (n=8,070) between January 1, 2020, and May 30, 2020, and a 1:15 age-, sex-, and residence-matched cohort (n=121,050) were constructed. A nested case-control study was performed to compare the proportion of patients with lung cancer between the COVID-19 cohort and the matched cohort. @*Results@#The proportion of patients with lung cancer was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort (0.5% [37/8,070]) than in the matched cohort (0.3% [325/121,050]) (p=0.002). The adjusted odds ratio [OR] of having lung cancer was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort than in the matched cohort (adjusted OR, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.10). Among patients in the COVID-19 cohort, compared to patients without lung cancer, those with lung cancer were more likely to have severe COVID-19 (54.1% vs. 13.2%, p < 0.001), including mortality (18.9% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001). The adjusted OR for the occurrence of severe COVID-19 in patients with lung cancer relative to those without lung cancer was 2.24 (95% CI, 1.08 to 4.74). @*Conclusion@#The risk of COVID-19 occurrence and severe presentation, including mortality, may be higher in patients with lung cancer than in those without lung cancer.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762170

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma is a common disease that is expensive and burdensome for patients. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most important drugs for asthma treatment and are often prescribed long-term. However, the use of ICS has been reported to increase pneumonia, though this remains controversial. We evaluated whether the use of ICS increases the risk of pneumonia in asthmatic patients using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database in Korea. METHODS: The Asthma Management Adequacy Assessment was performed by the HIRA in Korea. Patients with claimed insurance benefits for asthma disease codes and who were prescribed asthma medications more than 2 times were enrolled. Patient demographics, asthma medications, healthcare use, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: The total number of asthma patients was 831,613. Patients using ICS were older and had more comorbidities than those not using ICS; they also visited outpatient clinics and emergency departments, and were more often hospitalized. Pneumonia and other complications occurred more often in patients using ICS, and they used more respiratory medications, except for theophylline. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ICS prescription was associated with pneumonia (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.41). Age, sex, medical care, use of secondary and tertiary hospitals, and hospitalization due to asthma in the previous year were also associated with pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: ICS use was associated with increasing pneumonia in asthmatic patients in Korea. Therefore, it is critical to acknowledge that the use of ICS may increase the risk of pneumonia and should be meticulously monitored in asthmatics.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Asthma , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demography , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Insurance Benefits , Insurance, Health , Korea , Logistic Models , Pneumonia , Prescriptions , Steroids , Tertiary Care Centers , Theophylline
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use in intensive care units (ICUs) are very limited in South Korea. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in 20 ICUs of university-affiliated hospitals from June 2017 to February 2018. Adult patients (age>18 years) who were admitted to the ICU and received NIV treatment for acute respiratory failure were included. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients treated with NIV were enrolled (mean age, 71.9±11.6 years). The most common indications for NIV were acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF, n=89) and post-extubation respiratory failure (n=44). The main device for NIV was an invasive mechanical ventilator with an NIV module (61.5%), and the majority of patients (87.2%) used an oronasal mask. After the exclusion of 32 do-not-resuscitate patients, NIV success rate was 68.5% (85/124); ICU and hospital mortality rates were 8.9% and 15.3%, respectively. However, the success rate was lower in patients with de novo respiratory failure (27.3%) compared to that of patients with AHRF (72.8%) or post-extubation respiratory failure (75.0%). In multivariate analysis, immunocompromised state, de novo respiratory failure, post-NIV (2 hours) respiratory rate, NIV mode (i.e., non-pressure support ventilation mode), and the change of NIV device were significantly associated with a lower success rate of NIV. CONCLUSION: AHRF and post-extubation respiratory failure were the most common indications for NIV in Korean ICUs. Overall NIV success was achieved in 68.5% of patients, with the lowest rate in patients with de novo respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Masks , Multivariate Analysis , Noninvasive Ventilation , Observational Study , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency , Respiratory Rate , Ventilation , Ventilators, Mechanical
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Beyond its current function as a rescue therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be applied in ARDS patients with less severe hypoxemia to facilitate lung protective ventilation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended ECMO use in ARDS patients. METHODS: This study reviewed 223 adult patients who had been admitted to the intensive care units of 11 hospitals in Korea and subsequently treated using ECMO. Among them, the 62 who required ECMO for ARDS were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to pre-ECMO arterial blood gas: an extended group (n=14) and a conventional group (n=48). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were not different between the groups. The median arterial carbon dioxide tension/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio was higher (97 vs. 61, p<0.001) while the median FiO2 was lower (0.8 vs. 1.0, p<0.001) in the extended compared to the conventional group. The 60-day mortality was 21% in the extended group and 54% in the conventional group (p=0.03). Multivariate analysis indicated that the extended use of ECMO was independently associated with reduced 60-day mortality (odds ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.02–0.64; p=0.02). Lower median peak inspiratory pressure and median dynamic driving pressure were observed in the extended group 24 hours after ECMO support. CONCLUSION: Extended indications of ECMO implementation coupled with protective ventilator settings may improve the clinical outcome of patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Hypoxia , Carbon Dioxide , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Lung , Mortality , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Retrospective Studies , Ventilation , Ventilators, Mechanical
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Data on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use in intensive care units (ICUs) are very limited in South Korea.@*METHODS@#A prospective observational study was performed in 20 ICUs of university-affiliated hospitals from June 2017 to February 2018. Adult patients (age>18 years) who were admitted to the ICU and received NIV treatment for acute respiratory failure were included.@*RESULTS@#A total of 156 patients treated with NIV were enrolled (mean age, 71.9±11.6 years). The most common indications for NIV were acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF, n=89) and post-extubation respiratory failure (n=44). The main device for NIV was an invasive mechanical ventilator with an NIV module (61.5%), and the majority of patients (87.2%) used an oronasal mask. After the exclusion of 32 do-not-resuscitate patients, NIV success rate was 68.5% (85/124); ICU and hospital mortality rates were 8.9% and 15.3%, respectively. However, the success rate was lower in patients with de novo respiratory failure (27.3%) compared to that of patients with AHRF (72.8%) or post-extubation respiratory failure (75.0%). In multivariate analysis, immunocompromised state, de novo respiratory failure, post-NIV (2 hours) respiratory rate, NIV mode (i.e., non-pressure support ventilation mode), and the change of NIV device were significantly associated with a lower success rate of NIV.@*CONCLUSION@#AHRF and post-extubation respiratory failure were the most common indications for NIV in Korean ICUs. Overall NIV success was achieved in 68.5% of patients, with the lowest rate in patients with de novo respiratory failure.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Beyond its current function as a rescue therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be applied in ARDS patients with less severe hypoxemia to facilitate lung protective ventilation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended ECMO use in ARDS patients.@*METHODS@#This study reviewed 223 adult patients who had been admitted to the intensive care units of 11 hospitals in Korea and subsequently treated using ECMO. Among them, the 62 who required ECMO for ARDS were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to pre-ECMO arterial blood gas: an extended group (n=14) and a conventional group (n=48).@*RESULTS@#Baseline characteristics were not different between the groups. The median arterial carbon dioxide tension/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio was higher (97 vs. 61, p<0.001) while the median FiO2 was lower (0.8 vs. 1.0, p<0.001) in the extended compared to the conventional group. The 60-day mortality was 21% in the extended group and 54% in the conventional group (p=0.03). Multivariate analysis indicated that the extended use of ECMO was independently associated with reduced 60-day mortality (odds ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.02–0.64; p=0.02). Lower median peak inspiratory pressure and median dynamic driving pressure were observed in the extended group 24 hours after ECMO support.@*CONCLUSION@#Extended indications of ECMO implementation coupled with protective ventilator settings may improve the clinical outcome of patients with ARDS.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is the most powerful intervention to modify progress of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and nicotine dependence is one of the most important determinants of success or failure in smoking cessation. We evaluated nicotine dependence status and investigated factors associated with moderate to high nicotine dependence in patients with COPD. METHODS: We included 53 current smokers with COPD in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease II cohort enrolled between January 2014 and March 2016. Nicotine dependence was measured by using Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). Cognitive function was assessed by Korean version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment. RESULTS: The median FTND score was 3, and 32 patients (60%) had moderate to high nicotine dependence. The median smoking amount was 44 pack-years, which was not related to nicotine dependence. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high education status (odds ratio, 1.286; 95% confidence interval, 1.036–1.596; p=0.023), age <70 (odds ratio, 6.407; 95% confidence interval, 1.376–29.830; p=0.018), and mild to moderate airflow obstruction (odds ratio, 6.969; 95% confidence interval, 1.388–34.998; p=0.018) were related to moderate to high nicotine dependence. CONCLUSION: Nicotine dependence does not correlate with smoking amount, but with education level, age, and severity of airflow obstruction. Physicians should provide different strategies of smoking cessation intervention for current smokers with COPD according to their education levels, age, and severity of airflow obstruction.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Cohort Studies , Education , Humans , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Nicotine , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Smoke , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169294

ABSTRACT

Spirometry is a physiological test for assessing the functional aspect of the lungs using an objective indicator to measure the maximum amount of air that a patient can inhale and exhale. Acceptable spirometry testing needs to be conducted three times by an acceptable and reproducible method for determining forced vital capacity (FVC). Until the results of three tests meet the criteria of reproducibility, the test should be repeated up to eight times. Interpretation of spirometry should be clear, concise, and informative. Additionally, spirometry should guarantee optimal quality prior to the interpreting spirometry results. Our guideline adopts a fixed normal predictive value instead of the lower limit of normal as the reference value because fixed value is more convenient and also accepts FVC instead of vital capacity (VC) because measurement of VC using a spirometer is impossible. The bronchodilator test is a method for measuring the changes in lung capacity after inhaling a short-acting β-agonist that dilates the airway. When an obstructive ventilatory defect is observed, this test helps to diagnose and evaluate asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by measuring reversibility with the use of an inhaled bronchodilator. A positive response to a bronchodilator is generally defined as an increase of ≥12% and ≥200 mL as an absolute value compared with a baseline in either forced expiratory volume at 1 second or FVC.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchodilator Agents , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Inhalation , Lung , Lung Volume Measurements , Methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Reference Values , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78045

ABSTRACT

There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We generate strong (1) and weak (2) grade of recommendations based on high (A), moderate (B) and low (C) grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A) and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B) to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B) and inhaled nitric oxide (1A) as a standard treatment. We also suggest high positive end-expiratory pressure (2B), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a rescue therapy (2C), and neuromuscular blockage for 48 hours after starting mechanical ventilation (2B). The application of recruitment maneuver may reduce mortality (2B), however, the use of systemic steroids cannot reduce mortality (2B). In mechanically ventilated patients, we recommend light sedation (1B) and low tidal volume even without ARDS (1B) and suggest lung protective ventilation strategy during the operation to lower the incidence of lung complications including ARDS (2B). Early tracheostomy in mechanically ventilated patients can be performed only in limited patients (2A). In conclusion, of 12 recommendations, nine were in the management of ARDS, and three for mechanically ventilated patients.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Incidence , Lung , Mortality , Nitric Oxide , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Steroids , Tidal Volume , Tracheostomy , Ventilation , Ventilators, Mechanical
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770940

ABSTRACT

There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We generate strong (1) and weak (2) grade of recommendations based on high (A), moderate (B) and low (C) grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A) and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B) to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B) and inhaled nitric oxide (1A) as a standard treatment. We also suggest high positive end-expiratory pressure (2B), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a rescue therapy (2C), and neuromuscular blockage for 48 hours after starting mechanical ventilation (2B). The application of recruitment maneuver may reduce mortality (2B), however, the use of systemic steroids cannot reduce mortality (2B). In mechanically ventilated patients, we recommend light sedation (1B) and low tidal volume even without ARDS (1B) and suggest lung protective ventilation strategy during the operation to lower the incidence of lung complications including ARDS (2B). Early tracheostomy in mechanically ventilated patients can be performed only in limited patients (2A). In conclusion, of 12 recommendations, nine were in the management of ARDS, and three for mechanically ventilated patients.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Incidence , Lung , Mortality , Nitric Oxide , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Steroids , Tidal Volume , Tracheostomy , Ventilation , Ventilators, Mechanical
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199930

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency (IgGSCD) is a relatively common primary immunodeficiency disease (PI) in adults. The biological significance of IgGSCD in patients with chronic airway diseases is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study to characterize the clinical features of IgGSCD in this population. This study examined the medical charts from 59 adult patients with IgGSCD who had bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from January 2007 to December 2012. Subjects were classified according to the 10 warning signs developed by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF) and divided into two patient groups: group I (n = 17) met ≥ two JMF criteria, whereas group II (n = 42) met none. IgG3 deficiency was the most common subclass deficiency (88.1%), followed by IgG4 (15.3%). The most common infectious complication was pneumonia, followed by recurrent bronchitis, and rhinosinusitis. The numbers of infections, hospitalizations, and exacerbations of asthma or COPD per year were significantly higher in group I than in group II (P < 0.001, P = 0.012, and P < 0.001, respectively). The follow-up mean forced expiratory volume (FEV1) level in group I was significantly lower than it was at baseline despite treatment of asthma or COPD (P = 0.036). In conclusion, IgGSCD is an important PI in the subset of patients with chronic airway diseases who had recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections as they presented with exacerbation-prone phenotypes, decline in lung function, and subsequently poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Bronchitis , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Lung , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125747

ABSTRACT

There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We generate strong (1) and weak (2) grade of recommendations based on high (A), moderate (B) and low (C) grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A) and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B) to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B) and inhaled nitric oxide (1A) as a standard treatment. We also suggest high positive end-expiratory pressure (2B), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a rescue therapy (2C), and neuromuscular blockage for 48 hours after starting mechanical ventilation (2B). The application of recruitment maneuver may reduce mortality (2B), however, the use of systemic steroids cannot reduce mortality (2B). In mechanically ventilated patients, we recommend light sedation (1B) and low tidal volume even without ARDS (1B) and suggest lung protective ventilation strategy during the operation to lower the incidence of lung complications including ARDS (2B). Early tracheostomy in mechanically ventilated patients can be performed only in limited patients (2A). In conclusion, of 12 recommendations, nine were in the management of ARDS, and three for mechanically ventilated patients.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Incidence , Lung , Mortality , Nitric Oxide , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Steroids , Tidal Volume , Tracheostomy , Ventilation , Ventilators, Mechanical
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postoperative admission to the surgical intensive care unit (S-ICU) is commonly planned to prevent and treat complications, unnecessary admission to the S-ICU increases medical costs and length of hospital stay. This study aimed evaluated outcome and the predictive factors for mortality in patients admitted to the S-ICU after abdominal surgery. METHODS: The 168 patients admitted to the S-ICU immediately after abdominal surgery were reviewed retrospectively from January to December 2011. RESULTS: The mortality rate of patients admitted to the S-ICU after abdominal surgery was 8.9% (15 of 168). Two preoperative factors (body mass index [BMI] < 18.5 kg/m2 [p < 0.001] and serum albumin < 3.0 g/dL [p = 0.018]), two operative factors (the need for transfusion [p = 0.008] or vasopressors [p = 0.013] during surgery), and three postoperative variables (mechanical ventilation immediately following surgery [p < 0.001], sequential organ failure assessment [p = 0.001] and SAPS II [p = 0.001] score) were associated with mortality in univariate analysis. After adjusting for age, gender, and SAPS II by a Cox regression, which revealed that BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (p < 0.001, hazard ratio [HR] 9.690, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.990-25.258) and the use of mechanical ventilation on admission to S-ICU (p < 0.001, HR 34.671, 95% CI 6.440-186.649) were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: In patients in S-ICU after abdominal surgery, low BMI and postsurgical mechanical ventilation should be considered important predictors of mortality.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Body Mass Index , Humans , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Mortality , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Serum Albumin , Ventilation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postoperative admission to the surgical intensive care unit (S-ICU) is commonly planned to prevent and treat complications, unnecessary admission to the S-ICU increases medical costs and length of hospital stay. This study aimed evaluated outcome and the predictive factors for mortality in patients admitted to the S-ICU after abdominal surgery. METHODS: The 168 patients admitted to the S-ICU immediately after abdominal surgery were reviewed retrospectively from January to December 2011. RESULTS: The mortality rate of patients admitted to the S-ICU after abdominal surgery was 8.9% (15 of 168). Two preoperative factors (body mass index [BMI] < 18.5 kg/m2 [p < 0.001] and serum albumin < 3.0 g/dL [p = 0.018]), two operative factors (the need for transfusion [p = 0.008] or vasopressors [p = 0.013] during surgery), and three postoperative variables (mechanical ventilation immediately following surgery [p < 0.001], sequential organ failure assessment [p = 0.001] and SAPS II [p = 0.001] score) were associated with mortality in univariate analysis. After adjusting for age, gender, and SAPS II by a Cox regression, which revealed that BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (p < 0.001, hazard ratio [HR] 9.690, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.990-25.258) and the use of mechanical ventilation on admission to S-ICU (p < 0.001, HR 34.671, 95% CI 6.440-186.649) were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: In patients in S-ICU after abdominal surgery, low BMI and postsurgical mechanical ventilation should be considered important predictors of mortality.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Body Mass Index , Humans , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Mortality , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Serum Albumin , Ventilation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is one of the most common causes of chronic cough and is a potential risk factor for the exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for reflux esophagitis (RE) in COPD patients. METHODS: From our hospital database, between September 2006 and April 2010, we searched for subjects who were 40 years old or older and had undergone both postbronchodilator spirometry and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). COPD was defined as having a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity < 0.7 in postbronchodilator spirometry and no abnormality causing airway obstruction, except emphysematous changes, on a chest X-ray. The diagnosis of RE was based on a mucosal break surrounding the distal esophageal sphincter through EGD. RESULTS: In total, 253 patients with COPD were enrolled. The prevalence of RE in COPD was 30% (76/253). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that age (odds ratio [OR], 0.950; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.918 to 0.983; p = 0.003), smoking pack-years (OR, 1.015; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.025; p = 0.006), and inhaled anticholinergics (OR, 0.516; 95% CI, 0.271 to 0.982; p = 0.044) were independently associated with RE in COPD patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of RE in our COPD patients was higher than that reported previously in the Korean general population. In COPD, smoking increased the risk of RE, whereas inhaled anticholinergics may be associated with a reduced risk of RE.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Aged , Chi-Square Distribution , Cholinergic Antagonists/administration & dosage , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophagitis, Peptic/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Protective Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Spirometry
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69087

ABSTRACT

Patients with tracheostomies requiring prolonged home mechanical ventilation are increasing in number rapidly. A tracheoesophageal fistula is a relatively unusual complication, but this case resulted in a fatal outcome. We describe a tracheoesophageal fistula with tracheal dilation in a 72-year-old female who had a prolonged tracheostomy and nasogastric tube, using a home mechanical ventilator. On enhanced CT images, the tracheostomy tube was well located within the trachea with no abnormal finding. However, chest enhanced CT images obtained 5 months later showed marked circumferential wall thickening of the trachea with tiny ulceration, a markedly increased diameter of the tracheal lumen, and a tracheoesophageal fistula. In patients using home mechanical ventilators, the location and cuff pressure of the tracheostomy tube and the nasogastric tube should be evaluated routinely.


Subject(s)
Aged , Dilatation , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Thorax , Trachea , Tracheoesophageal Fistula , Tracheostomy , Ulcer , Ventilators, Mechanical
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthy individuals who develop nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease are likely to have specific susceptibility factors which can lead to a NTM infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying innate immune responses, including the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease. METHODS: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK expression in monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured by Western blot analysis after stimulation by Mycobacterium avium in five patients with M. abscessus lung disease and seven healthy controls. A M. avium-induced cytokine assay was performed after inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. RESULTS: Mycobacterium avium induced p38 and ERK1/2 expression in monocytes from healthy controls and subsequently upregulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 production. In monocytes from patients with M. abscessus lung disease, however, induction of p38 and ERK1/2 expression, and the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly lower. CONCLUSION: Decreased activity of MAPK and cytokine secretion in monocytes from patients with M. abscessus lung disease may provide an explanation regarding host susceptibility to these uncommon infections.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Down-Regulation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Lung , Lung Diseases , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Monocytes , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium avium , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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