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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874408

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. The bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) to robotic thyroidectomy has been extended to modified radical neck dissection (MRND). This study assessed outcomes in patients who underwent robotic MRND through BABA using the da Vinci Xi system. @*Methods@#. The medical records of 40 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy, bilateral central neck dissection, and MRND from September 2018 to March 2020 were reviewed retrospectively, including 12 who underwent robotic surgery and 28 who underwent open surgery. All operations were performed by a single endocrine surgeon. @*Results@#. The operation time was significantly longer in the robotic group than in the open group (277.08±32.64 vs. 191.43± 60.43 minutes, respectively, P<0.01), but the number of retrieved lymph nodes did not differ significantly (32.58± 9.31 vs. 34.54±10.90, respectively, P=0.569). The incidence of transient hypoparathyroidism was significantly lower in the robotic group (16.7% [2/12] vs. 53.6% [15/28], P=0.041). The mean hospital stay was shorter (3.92±0.90 vs. 4.71±1.63 days) and the pain score on the first postoperative day was lower (2.92±0.29 vs. 3.18±0.67) in the robotic group. Six of the 12 patients (50%) in the robotic group had stimulated thyroglobulin levels <1.0 ng/mL. @*Conclusion@#. Robotic MRND through BABA has several advantages, including excellent cosmetic outcomes and a lower incidence of transient hypoparathyroidism than is the case for open MRND. Robotic MRND through BABA may be a promising surgical approach compared with conventional open MRND.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832294

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The role of serum myokine levels in sarcopenia and the outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are not clear. This study investigated the serum levels of myostatin, follistatin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in HCC patients and their association with sarcopenia and survival. @*Methods@#Using prospectively collected pretreatment samples from 238 HCC patients in a hospital from 2012 to 2015, the serum levels of 3 myokines were determined and compared to 50 samples from age and sex-matched healthy controls. Sarcopenia was evaluated using the psoas muscle index (PMI) measured at the third lumbar level in the computed tomography, and clinical data were collected until 2017. @*Results@#The median levels of the 3 myokines for the male and female HCC patients were as follow: myostatin (3,979.3 and 2,976.3 pg/mL), follistatin (2,118.5 and 2,174.6 pg/mL), and IL-6 (2.5 and 2.7 pg/mL), respectively. Those in the HCC patients were all significantly higher than in the healthy controls. In the HCC patient, the median PMI was 4.43 (males) and 2.17 cm2/m2 (females) with a sarcopenic prevalence of 56.4%. The serum levels of myostatin, IL-6 and follistatin in the HCC patients showed a positive, negative, and no correlation with PMI, respectively. The serum follistatin level was an independent factor for poor survival in HCC patients. @*Conclusions@#The serum levels of myostatin, follistatin, and IL-6 and their correlation with sarcopenia and survival were presented in HCC patients for the first time. The role of the serum follistatin level as a poor prognostic biomarker warrants further study.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830343

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pneumocephalus can originate from accidental dural puncture while performing epidural block using the loss-of-resistance (LOR) technique with an air-filled syringe. Case: We present two cases of pneumocephalus after lumbar epidural block under fluoroscopy for pain control in elderly patients. @*Conclusions@#Lumbar epidural block should be performed under fluoroscopic guidance in elderly patients with severe lesions. The physician should be aware of the increased possibility of a dural puncture occurring due to anatomical changes in older patients. The use of saline is recommended for the LOR technique. A contrast injection should be used together with the LOR technique to locate the epidural space. If a dural puncture occur, the patient should be carefully monitored to determine whether pneumocephalus has developed.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with severe pain postoperatively. Femoral nerve block is commonly used for pain control after TKA. This study investigated whether continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) can improve postoperative analgesia and functional outcome as compared to intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA) in patients with TKA. METHODS: We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent TKA with spinal anesthesia between March 2014 and February 2015. In Group IV, postoperative pain was managed by IV-PCA. Group CFNB received CFNB-PCA via a device. Thirty patients were enrolled per group. Patient outcomes were assessed by analgesia, functional outcomes, and health-related quality of life factors. RESULTS: Additional analgesics and additional nerve block for adequate pain control were significantly more frequent in the IV than CFNB group (P = 0.015 and P = 0.012, respectively). Range of motion up to 105 degrees was prolonged in the IV group than CFNB group (P = 0.013). EuroQol five dimensions score was improved in the CFNB group than IV group postoperative 3 weeks (P = 0.003). The incidence of transfusion due to postoperative bleeding was significantly frequent in the IV group than CFNB group (P = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative low concentration continuous femoral nerve block for analgesia after TKA improves analgesia, functional outcomes, and incidence of transfusion without falling risk.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Analgesia , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Analgesics , Anesthesia, Spinal , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Blood Transfusion , Electronic Health Records , Femoral Nerve , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Patient Outcome Assessment , Quality of Life , Range of Motion, Articular
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The concept of the effect-site concentration of anesthetic agents is important. The effect compartment model can be explained using the concepts of effect-site concentration and effect-site equilibration rate constant (k e0). This study confirms that the time-to-peak effect (tpe ) can be measured easily in clinical practice by applying a priming dose and train-of-four (TOF) during general anesthesia induction, and k e0 can be calculated from the tpe of the four muscle relaxants that are commonly used in general anesthesia. METHODS: Eighty patients who received general anesthesia were divided into the succinylcholine, rocuronium, atracurium, or vecuronium groups. Priming doses of muscle relaxants were administered. The effects of muscle relaxants were quantified by recording the twitch response of the adductor pollicis muscle after stimulating the ulnar nerve. The tpe was measured at the lowest TOF value. k e0 was calculated from the measured tpe . RESULTS: The k e0 values of the succinylcholine, rocuronium, atracurium, and vecuronium groups were 0.076 (0.030)/min, 0.228 (0.122)/min, 0.062 (0.011)/min, and 0.077 (0.019)/min, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to estimate k e0 from the tpe of muscle relaxants using a priming dose and TOF during general anesthesia induction.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics , Atracurium , Humans , Succinylcholine , Ulnar Nerve , Vecuronium Bromide
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a commonly administered procedure in pain clinics. An unintentional lumbar facet joint injection during interlaminar ESI was reported in a previous study, but there has not been much research on the characteristics of an unintentional lumbar facet joint injection. This study illustrated the imaging features of an unintentional lumbar facet joint injection during an interlaminar ESI and analyzed characteristics of patients who underwent this injection. METHODS: From December 2015 to May 2017, we performed 662 lumbar ESIs and we identified 24 cases (21 patients) that underwent a lumbar facet joint injection. We gathered data contrast pattern, needle approach levels and directions, injected facet joint levels and directions, presence of lumbar spine disease as seen on magnetic resonance images (MRI), and histories of lumbar spine surgeries. RESULTS: The contrast pattern in the facet joint has a sigmoid or ovoid contrast pattern confined to the vicinity of the facet joint. The incidence of unintentional lumbar facet joint injection was 3.6%. The mean age was 68.47 years. Among these 21 patients, 14 (66.7%) were injected in the facet joint ipsilaterally to the needle approach. Among the 20 patients who received MRI, all (100%) had central stenosis and 15 patients (75%) had severe stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: When the operator performs an interlaminar ESI on patients with central spinal stenosis, the contrast pattern on the fluoroscopy during interlaminar ESI should be carefully examined to distinguish between the epidural space and facet joint.


Subject(s)
Colon, Sigmoid , Constriction, Pathologic , Epidural Space , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Needles , Pain Clinics , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Stenosis , Spine , Zygapophyseal Joint
7.
Gut and Liver ; : 136-141, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: α-Fetoprotein (AFP) is normally 1 year, and 20 controls with low AFP levels (<0.61 to 2.9 ng/mL) were included in the study. AFP levels were collected from the families of two of the patients. We sequenced five regions that are critical for AFP expression: a promoter, two enhancers, and two silencers. RESULTS: One of the two cases in which family information was represented is the first case of hereditary persistence of AFP in South Korea. Mutations related to AFP overexpression were not found in the transcription regulatory regions among the four patients. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent AFP elevation is a heterogeneous condition with or without a hereditary pattern and may be caused by factors outside of transcription regulatory region changes. Further research on the mechanism of AFP elevation is needed.


Subject(s)
Adult , alpha-Fetoproteins , Biomarkers , DNA Mutational Analysis , Humans , Korea , Liver Regeneration , Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid
8.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 230-239, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152744

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire-OG25 was developed to evaluate the quality of life in patients with stomach and esophageal cancer. The following are included in the OG25 but not in the STO22: odynophagia, choked when swallowing, weight loss, trouble eating with others, trouble swallowing saliva, trouble talking, and trouble with coughing. In this study, we evaluated the quality of life of gastrectomized patients using both, the OG25 and the STO22. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 138 patients with partial gastrectomy (PG) (distal gastrectomy=91; pylorus-preserving gastrectomy= 47) and 44 patients with total gastrectomy (TG) were prospectively evaluated. Body weight and scores from the OG25 and STO22 were evaluated preoperatively and at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: Patients with TG had significant weight loss compared to patients with PG. At 3 months, TG was associated with worse scores for dysphagia, eating, odynophagia, trouble eating with others, trouble with taste, and weight loss on the OG25. TG was also associated with dysphagia, eating restrictions, and anxiety on the STO22. The OG25 helped differentiate between the groups with respect to weight loss, odynophagia, choked when swallowing, and trouble eating with others. The OG25 scores changed over time and were significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: The OG25 is a more sensitive and useful scale than the STO22 for evaluating the quality of life of gastrectomized patients, especially those with total gastrectomy.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Body Weight , Cough , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Eating , Esophageal Neoplasms , Gastrectomy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Saliva , Stomach , Stomach Neoplasms , Weight Loss
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177914

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old woman with an infectious thrombus in her left internal jugular vein (IJV) underwent carotid endarterectomy for stenosis and a highly movable plaque in her right carotid artery. She had been treated with antibiotics for four weeks before surgery due to Lemierre syndrome, a rare septic thrombophlebitis in the IJV secondary to an oropharyngeal infection. The right IJV was in a two-fold dilated state due to compensation for a thrombotic left IJV. Accordingly, superficial cervical plexus block was performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure safety and accuracy. During surgery, the alertness was maintained and the patient did not complain of pain in the absence of additional analgesics. No block-related complications were encountered. The authors report for the first time their regional anesthetic experiences in a patient with Lemierre syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aged , Analgesics , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Carotid Arteries , Cervical Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus , Compensation and Redress , Constriction, Pathologic , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Female , Humans , Jugular Veins , Lemierre Syndrome , Thrombophlebitis , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interscalene brachial plexus block is widely used for pain control and anesthetic purposes during shoulder arthroscopic surgeries and surgeries of the upper extremities. However, it is known that interscalene brachial plexus block is not appropriate for upper limb surgeries because it does not affect the lower trunk (C8-T1, ulnar nerve) of the brachial plexus. METHODS: A low approach, ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (LISB) was performed on twenty-eight patients undergoing surgery of the upper extremities. The patients were assessed five minutes and fifteen minutes after the block for the degree of block in each nerve and muscle as well as for any complications. RESULTS: At five minutes and fifteen minutes after the performance of the block, the degree of the block in the ulnar nerve was found to be 2.8 +/- 2.6 and 1.1 +/- 1.8, respectively, based on a ten-point scale. Motor block occurred in the median nerve after fifteen minutes in 26 of the 28 patients (92.8%), and in all of the other three nerves in all 28 patients. None of the patients received additional analgesics, and none experienced complications. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirmed the achievement of an appropriate sensory and motor block in the upper extremities, including the ulnar nerve, fifteen minutes after LISB, with no complications.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Arthroscopy , Brachial Plexus , Humans , Median Nerve , Shoulder , Ulnar Nerve , Ultrasonography , Upper Extremity
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although opioids are the most commonly used medications to control postoperative pain in children, the analgesic effects could have a large inter-individual variability according to genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the analgesic effect of morphine for postoperative pain in children. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 88 healthy children undergoing tonsillectomy, who received morphine during the operation. The postoperative pain score, frequency of rescue analgesics, and side effects of morphine were assessed in the post-anesthesia care unit. The children were genotyped for OPRM1 A118G, ABCB1 C3435T, and COMT Val158Met. RESULTS: Children with at least one G allele for OPRM1 (AG/GG) had higher postoperative pain scores compared with those with the AA genotype at the time of discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (P = 0.025). Other recovery profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant relationship between genotypes and postoperative pain scores in analysis of ABCB1 and COMT polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphism at OPRM1 A118G, but not at ABCB1 C3435T and COMT Val158Met, influences the analgesic effect of morphine for immediate acute postoperative pain in children.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Child , Genotype , Humans , Morphine , Pain, Postoperative , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prospective Studies , Tonsillectomy
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glypican-3 (GPC3) protein is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. It has been suggested as a diagnostic biomarker, but its inconsistent performance means that it requires further assessment. We therefore investigated the diagnostic value of the plasma GPC3 level compared to the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level as a diagnostic biomarker of HCC. METHODS: We enrolled 157 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed HCC and 156 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) as the control group. GPC3 plasma levels were measured using two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, named as Assay 1 and 2), and AFP levels were measured using an enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunoassay. The diagnostic accuracy was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Plasma GPC3 levels in HCC patients were very low (0–3.09 ng/mL) in Assay 1, while only 3 of the 157 patients (1.9%) showed detectable GPC3 levels in Assay 2. The median GPC3 level was not significantly elevated in the HCC group (0.80 ng/mL) compared with the LC group (0.60 ng/mL). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for GPC3 was 0.559 in Assay 1. In contrast, the median AFP level was significantly higher in HCC (27.72 ng/mL) than in LC (4.74 ng/mL), with an AUC of 0.729. CONCLUSION: The plasma level of GPC3 is a poor diagnostic marker for HCC, being far inferior to AFP. The development of a consistent detection system for the blood level of GPC3 is warranted.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Glypicans/blood , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Male , Neoplasm Staging , ROC Curve , alpha-Fetoproteins/analysis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41318

ABSTRACT

We report on a case of difficult endotracheal intubation in a patient with marked tracheal deviation at an angle of 90 degrees combined with stenosis due to kyphoscoliosis with vertebral body fusion. After induction of general anesthesia, a proper laryngeal view was easily obtained using a videolaryngoscope. But a tracheal tube could not be advanced more than 3 cm beyond the vocal cords due to resistance, despite various attempts, including the use of small size tubes, full rotation of the tube tip, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Ultimately, the airway was successfully secured by placing a tube tip above the area of resistance and by additionally packing saline-soaked gauzes around the tracheal inlet to minimize gas leakage and to fasten the tube in the trachea.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Bays , Bronchoscopy , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Intubation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Kyphosis , Scoliosis , Trachea , Tracheal Diseases , Vocal Cords
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic shoulder operations (ASS) are often associated with severe postoperative pain. Nerve blocks have been studied for pain in shoulder surgeries. Interscalene brachial plexus blocks (ISB) and an intra-articular injection (IA) have been reported in many studies. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of ISB, a continuous cervical epidural block (CCE) and IA as a means of postoperative pain control and to study the influence of these procedures on postoperative analgesic consumption and after ASS. METHODS: Fifty seven patients who underwent ASS under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of three groups: the ISB group (n = 19), the CCE group (n = 19), and the IA group (n = 19). Patients in each group were evaluated on a postoperative numerical rating scale (NRS), their rescue opioid dosage (ROD), and side effects. RESULTS: Postoperative NRSs were found to be higher in the IA group than in the ISB and CCE groups both at rest and on movement. The ROD were 1.6 +/- 2.3, 3.0 +/- 4.9 and 7.1 +/- 7.9 mg morphine equivalent dose in groups CCE, ISB, and IA groups (P = 0.001), respectively, and statistically significant differences were noted between the CCE and IA groups (P = 0.01) but not in between the ISB and CCE groups. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective, randomized study demonstrated that ISB is as effective analgesic technique as a CCE for postoperative pain control in patients undergoing ASS.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthesia, General , Arthroscopy , Brachial Plexus , Equidae , Humans , Injections, Intra-Articular , Morphine , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Prospective Studies , Shoulder
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of elderly patients undergoing surgery is steadily growing. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence and predictors of postoperative complications in patients older than 80 years. METHODS: The medical records of 532 patients above 80 years in age who underwent elective or emergent noncardiac surgery between June 2011 and May 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative concomitant disease, operation site, anesthetic technique, and postoperative complications were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 81.4% of the patients had pre-existing concomitant diseases, while 22.9% had severe systemic diseases. The incidence of severe complications within the first month after operation was 4.1%, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 1.3%. Among the severe postoperative complications, respiratory and cardiovascular complications were commonly observed. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the predictors of postoperative severe complications included American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification of 3 or greater (odds ratio [OR], 5.271; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.019-13.758; p=0.001), neurosurgery (OR, 23.132; 95% CI, 2.528-211.707; p=0.005) and duration of operation (OR, 1.006; 95% CI, 1.001-1.012; p=0.027). CONCLUSION: Proper preoperative evaluation and appropriate treatment for age-related concomitant diseases are suggested for patients older than 80 years in order to reduce postoperative complications. After operation, the respiratory and cardiovascular systems should be carefully monitored.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anesthesia , Cardiovascular System , Classification , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intraoperative Complications , Logistic Models , Medical Records , Neurosurgery , Postoperative Complications , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114280

ABSTRACT

We report on a case of successful management of a patient with abdominal aortic rupture requiring massive blood transfusion during the peri-operative period. The patient had fully recovered 19 days after the operation, through intra-operative cardiac arrest and massive transfusion. We analyze a process of blood transfusion and related complications resulting from massive transfusion in order to establish a treatment for peri-operative patients with hypovolemic shock.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal , Aortic Rupture , Blood Transfusion , Heart Arrest , Humans , Rupture , Shock
18.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 321-325, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidural blocks are widely used for the management of acute and chronic pain. The technique of loss of resistance is frequently adopted to determine the epidural space. A discontinuity of the ligamentum flavum may increase the risk of failure to identify the epidural space. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomic variations of the cervical and high thoracic ligamentum flavum in embalmed cadavers. METHODS: Vertebral column specimens of 15 human cadavers were obtained. After vertebral arches were detached from pedicles, the dural sac and epidural connective tissue were removed. The ligamentum flavum from C3 to T6 was directly examined anteriorly. RESULTS: The incidence of midline gaps in the ligamentum flavum was 87%-100% between C3 and T2. The incidence decreased below this level and was the lowest at T4-T5 (8%). Among the levels with a gap, the location of a gap in the caudal third of the ligamentum flavum was more frequent than in the middle or cephalic portion of the ligamentum flavum. CONCLUSIONS: The cervical and high thoracic ligamentum flavum frequently has midline intervals with various features, especially in the caudal portion of the intervertebral space. Therefore, the ligamentum flavum is not always reliable as a perceptible barrier to identify the epidural space at these vertebral levels. Additionally, it may be more useful to insert the needle into the cephalic portion of the intervertebral space than in the caudal portion.


Subject(s)
Analgesia, Epidural , Cadaver , Chronic Pain , Connective Tissue , Epidural Space , Humans , Incidence , Ligamentum Flavum , Needles , Spine
19.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 210-218, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221028

ABSTRACT

Brachial plexus injury is a potential complication of a brachial plexus block or vessel puncture. It results from direct needle trauma, neurotoxicity of injection agents and hematoma formation. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance or motor loss with poor recovery. The management includes conservative treatment and surgical exploration. Especially if a hematoma forms, it should be removed promptly. Comprehensive knowledge of anatomy and adept skills are crucial to avoid nerve injuries. Whenever possible, the patient should not be heavily sedated and should be encouraged to immediately inform the doctor of any experience of numbness/paresthesia during the nerve block or vessel puncture.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies , Brachial Plexus , Hematoma , Humans , Needles , Nerve Block , Punctures , Subclavian Vein
20.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 266-270, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the anatomical variation of the vertebral artery has clinical importance not only for the performance of interventional or surgical procedures itself but also to ensure their safety. We conducted a study of the anatomical variation by reviewing multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of the cervical spine from 460 Korean patients. METHODS: 16-row MDCT data from 460 patients were used in this study. We observed 920 vertebral arteries. Examination points included level of entrance of the artery into the transverse foramen of the cervical vertebra, origin site of the vertebral artery, course of a vertebral artery with aberrant entrance. RESULT: The vertebral artery in 2 (0.2%) cases in this study entered into the transverse foramen of the 7th cervical vertebra from the left. In 45 (4.9%) cases, the vertebral artery entered into the transverse foramen of the 5th cervical vertebra. Of these, the entrance was on the right in 15 (1.6%) and on the left in 30 (3.3%). We found 17 (1.8%) cases in which the artery entered into the transverse foramen of the 4th cervical vertebra, 10 (1.1%) on the right and 7 (0.7%) on the left side. As is commonly acknowledged, the 6th cervical vertebra was the most common site of entry; the vertebral artery entered the transverse foramen of the 6th cervical vertebra in the remaining 855 (93.0%) cases, on the right in 434 (47.2%) and on the left in 421 (45.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the possibility of an atypical course of the vertebral artery in segments V1 and V2 should be evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT images before carrying out procedures involving the anterior cervical vertebrae.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Cervical Vertebrae , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spine , Vertebral Artery
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