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1.
Chinese Journal of Hospital Administration ; (12): 398-401, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756631

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of carbapenem antimicrobial management programs (ASP). Methods 671 patients who were discharged from the emergency department of the hospital from January 2017 to April 2018 were enrolled. These patients were subject to before-and-after self-control studies, using such intervention measures as MDT proactive management-feedback-training. January-September of 2017 was set as the pre-intervention stage, and September 2017-April 2018 as the post-intervention stage. The two stages were compared in such indicators as the monthly antibacterial use, quality of care and hospital acquired infection. Results Thanks to the ASP measure against antibiotics like carbapenems, the use rate of carbapenems at the emergency department ward fell from 36.7% to 18.6% , the defined drug doses (DDDs) of carbapenems fell from 211.92 to 82.22, and the antibiotics use density (AUD) of carbapenems fell from 29. 18 DDDs/100 day/patient to 11. 56. The pathogen detected rate increased significantly (0.61 ± 0.08 versus 0.78 ± 0.16), with a difference of statistical significance (P=0.020). On the other hand, the mean days of stay, average cost per hospitalization, proportion of antibiotics use, incidence of hospital acquired infections, and the infection/colonization rate of carbapenem-resistant organisms ( CROs ) present no significant changes. There was a moderate positive correlation between carbapenem DDDs and mean days of stay ( P=0.034), and also a moderate positive correlation between hospital acquired infection incidence and CROs infection/colonization rate ( r = 0.545, P = 0.029 ). Conclusions The carbapenem ASP at the hospital proves safe and effective. CROs infection/colonization may be the cause of hospital acquired infection. Prevention and control against multi-drug resistant bacteria on the basis of ASP may add to the effect of ASP.

2.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 674-678, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756488

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the performance of Xpert C. difficile multiplex real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infections in Chinese hospital settings. Methods This study was performed in Huashan Hospital, Ruijin Hospital, Beijing Hospital, Nanfang Hospital and Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital using a standard study protocol. Unique unformed stools from patients with acute hospital-acquired diarrhea were simultaneously analyzed by toxigenic anaerobic cultures and the Xpert C. difficile assay. All specimens displaying discordant results between the Xpert assay and toxigenic culture were sent for Sanger tcdB gene sequencing. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), total concordance rate, and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated before and after resolution of discordant results using SAS 9.3. Results A total of 745 stool specimens were collected and 46 were excluded due to failure of C. difficile recovery. The remaining 699 specimens were included. Compared to the results of toxigenic culture, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of Xpert C. difficile assay were 94.1% (144/153)(95%CI:89.1%-97.3%), 93.2% (509/546)(95%CI:96.7%-99.2%), 79.6% (144/181)(95%CI:72.9%-85.2%)and 98.3% (509 / 518) (95%CI: 96.7%-99.2%), respectively. Both methods had a Kappa of 0.819. Xpert C. difficile assay showed sensitivity of 98.4%(62/63) (95% CI: 90.3%-99.9%) and specificity of 93.2%(509/546) (95% CI: 90.8%-95.2%) for toxin A-negative toxin B-positive strains. After the discordant results resolved by tcdB gene sequencing, PCR assay provided better performance with high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value [98.8% (171 / 173), 98.1% (516 / 526), 94.5% (171/181) and 99.6% (516/518), respectively]. Conclusions Compared to the results of toxigenic culture, the sensitivity, specificity and NPV of Xpert C. difficile assay were 94.1% (144/153) and 93.2%(509/546), respectively. With the results available within 1 h, Xpert C. difficile assay provides prompt and precise laboratory diagnosis in Chinese clinical settings.

3.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 241-251, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753828

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile of the clinical isolates collected from selected hospitals across China. Methods Twenty-nine general hospitals and five children's hospitals were involved in this program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to a unified protocol using Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems. Results were interpreted according to CLSI 2017 breakpoints. Results A total of 190 610 clinical isolates were collected from January to December 2017, of which gram negative organisms accounted for 70.8% (134 951/190 610) and gram positive cocci 29.2% (55 649/190 610). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains was 35.3% in S. aureus (MRSA) and 80.3% in coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) on average. MR strains showed much higher resistance rates to most of the other antimicrobial agents than MS strains. However, 91.6% of MRSA strains were still susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while 86.2% of MRCNS strains were susceptible to rifampin. No staphylococcal strains were found resistant to vancomycin. E. faecalis strains showed much lower resistance rates to most of the drugs tested (except chloramphenicol) than E. faecium. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) was identified in both E. faecalis and E. faecium. The identified VRE strains were mainly vanA, vanB or vanM type based on phenotype or genotype. The proportion of PSSP or PRSP strains in the non-meningitis S.pneumoniae strains isolated from children decreased but the proportion of PISP strains increased when compared to the data of 2016. Enterobacteriaceae strains were still highly susceptible to carbapenems. Overall, less than 10% of these strains (excluding Klebsiella spp.) were resistant to carbapenems. The prevalence of imipenem-resistant K. pneumoniae increased from 3.0% in 2005 to 20.9% in 2017, and meropenem-resistant K. pneumoniae increased from 2.9% in 2005 to 24.0% in 2017, more than 8-fold increase. About 66.7% and 69.3% of Acinetobacter (A. baumannii accounts for 91.5%) strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. Compared with the data of year 2016, P. aeruginosa strains showed decreasing resistance rate to carbapenems. Conclusions Bacterial resistance is still on the rise. It is necessary to strengthen hospital infection control and stewardship of antimicrobial agents. The communication between laboratorians and clinicians should be further improved in addition to surveillance of bacterial resistance.

4.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 595-600, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-621515

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the reliability of using imipenem,meropenem,cefoperazonesulbactam,piperacillin-tazobactam in the treatment of hospital-acquired Gram-negative bacterial infections with Monte Carlo simulation(MCS).Methods The MIC of the four agents collected from hospital-acquired infections were detected in accordance with broth dilution method of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI).MCS were conducted with MICs and the pharmacokinetics parameters of the four agents based on conventional dose regimens.The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) of time over MIC target attainment in different dosing regimen were generated.Results A total of 2 541 strains,including 2 093 strains of Enterobacteriaceae and 448 strains of glucose non-fermentative bacilli were collected.The MIC90 of imipenem and meropenem against Enterobacteriaceae were less than 1 mg/L in general,whereas MICg0 of two agents with β-1actamase inhibitors was around 64 mg/L.As to glucose non-fermenting bacteria,MICs of all the four agents were very high,especially to Acinetobacter baumannii,which indicated MIC50 more than 32 mg/L.MCS revealed that carbapenems had significantly higher CFR than those with β-1actamase inhibitors.Imipenem and meropenem (1 g,q8 h) obtained CFRs of 74.69% and 81.42%,respectively.The CFR of cefoperazone-sulbactam (2 g,q8 h) and piperacillin-tazobactam (4 g,q6 h) (both excluding β-1actamase inhibitors) were just 49.59% and 27.66% respectively,which increased after excluding A.baumannii in piperacillin-tazobactam.Conclusions The conventional dose regimens of imipenem and meropenem are reliable for the empiric therapy of Gram-negative hospital-acquired bacterial infections.Piperacillin-tazobactam is suggested to use with higher doses or prolonged infusion time to satisfy the time of drug concentration exceeded the MIC (T > MIC) requirement.More clinical studies of cefoperazone-sulbactam should be conducted to optimize its regimen and guarantee its efficacy.

5.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 267-274, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493494

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the changing pattern of antibiotic resistance inKlebsiella strains isolated from the patients in 19 hospitals across China based on the data from CHINET Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program during the period from 2005 through 2014.Methods Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and automated susceptibility testing methods were used to test the susceptibility ofKlebsiella isolates to the commonly used antibiotics. The results were interpreted according to the criteria of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (CLSI-2014).Results A total of 61 406Klebsiella strains were identified between 2005 and 2014, includingK. pneumoniae (56 281 strains), K. oxytoca(4 779),Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.Ozaenae (300) and otherKlebsiella species (46). Most (89.0%, 54 664/61 406) of theKlebsiella strains were isolated from inpatients, and 60.0% (36 835/61 406) were from respiratory tract speciems. About 16.7% (10 248/61 406) of the strains were isolated from pediatric patients aged 0-17 years and 83.3% (51 158/61 406) from adult patients. The prevalence ofKlebsiella spp. increased with time from 10.1% in 2005 to 14.3% in 2014. Based on the surveillance data during the 10-year period, we found a marked increase of resistance to imipenem (2.9% to 10.5%) and meropenem (2.8% to 13.4%) inKlebsiella spp. The prevalence of ESBLs-producing isolates inK. pneumoniae andK. oxytoca decreased from 39.0% in 2005 to 30.1% in 2014. The resistance to amikacin, ceftazidime, ciprolfoxacin, pipracillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam was on decline. The resistance rate to cefotaxime remained high about 49.5%. Carbapenem resistantance was identiifed in 5 796 (9.4%) of the isolates, including 5 492 strains ofK. pneumoniae and 280 strains ofK. oxytoca. Overall, 4 740 (7.8%) strains were identiifed as extensively-drug resistant (XDR), including 4 520 strains ofK. pneumoniae and 202 strains ofK. oxytoca. The carbapenem-resistant strains showed high (>60%) resistance rate to majority of the antimicrobial agents tested, but relatively low resistance to tigecycline (16.8%), amikacin (54.4%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (55.5%).Conclusions During the 10-year period from 2005 through 2014, carbapenem resistance amongKlebsiella isolates has increased dramatically in the hospitals across China. The level of resistance to other antibiotics remains stable.

6.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 275-283, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493493

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance proifle of clinicalEnterobacter isolates using the data from CHINET during the period from 2005 through 2014.Methods A total of 20 558 clinical strains ofEnterobacter spp. were collected from 2005 to 2014 in CHINET Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with Kirby-Bauer or minimum inhibitory concentration method. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2014 breakpoints.ResultsEnterobacter cloacae andEnterobacter aerogenes accounted for 71.1% (14 617/20558) and 20.1% (4 129/20 558) of all theEnterobacterisolates, respectively. The proportion ofEnterobacter spp. increased with time from 3.5% in 2005 to 4.3% in 2014. The main source of the isolates was respiratory tract, accounting for 55.2% (11 358/20 558). More than 90% of theEnterobacterisolates were resistant to cefazolin and cefoxitin, but less than 30% of the strains were resistant to cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoperazone-sulbactam, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprolfoxacin, meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem. TheEnterobacterisolates showed a trend of declining resistance to most antibiotics except ertapenem and meropenem. The resistance proifle ofEnterobacterisolates varied with departments where they were isolated. The strains from ICU and Department of Surgery were relatively more resistant to antibiotics. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains was decreasing, but the prevalence of carbapenem-resistantEnterobacter (CRE, resistant to any of imipenem, meropenem or ertapenem) was increasing. The MDR and CRE strains were primarily isolated from ICU and Department of Surgery. At least 30% of the MDREnterobacter strains were resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested except meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem and at least 35% of the CRE strains were resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested except amikacin and ciprolfoxacin.Conclusions TheEnterobacter isolates in CHINET Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program showed decreasing resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents tested since 2011, but the prevalence of CRE strains increased progressively. Effective measures should be carried out to prevent the spread of CRE strains in hospitals.

7.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 284-293, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493492

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the changing resistance proifle ofProteus,Serratia,Citrobacter,Morganella andProvidencia in hospitals across China according to the data from CHINET Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program 2005-2014.Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by using Kirby-Bauer method or automatic minimum inhibitory concentration determination according to a uniifed protocol.Results A total of 21 663 clinical isolates were collected from January 2005 to December 2014. The proportion ofProteus andSerratia isolates increased with time from 1.41% in 2005 to 2.09% in 2014, and from 0.99% in 2005 to 1.28% in 2014 among all the isolates. No change was found for the proportion ofCitrobacter,Morganella, orProvidencia. Less than 10% of theProteus isolates were resistant to cefoperazone-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, amikacin and tigecycline. Less than 10% of theSerratia isolates were resistant to cefoperazone-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin and tigecycline. Less than 20% of theCitrobacter isolates were resistant to cefoperazone-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, amikacin and tigecycline. Less than 10% of theMorganella isolates were resistant to cefoperazone-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, amikacin and tigecycline. Less than 20% of theProvidencia isolates were resistant to cefoperazone-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, cefoxitin and tigecycline.Conclusions The antibiotic resistance ofProteus,Serratia, Citrobacter,Morganella andProvidencia isolates in hospitals across China is growing during the period from 2005 to 2014. Strengthening infection control and rational antibiotic use are effective to slow the growth of drug resistance.

8.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 294-301, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493488

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution and changing resistance proifle ofSalmonella isolates in hospitals across China during the period from January 2005 to December 2014.Methods Seventeen general hospitals and two children’s hospitals were involved in this program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by means of a unified protocol using Kirby-Bauer method or MIC determination. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2014 breakpoints.Results The proportion ofSalmonella isolates increased with time from 0.2% in 2005 to 0.7% in 2014. A total of 3 478Salmonella strains were collected from 19 hospitals. The proportion ofSalmonella typhimurium andSalmonella enteritidis was 27.4% and 24.4%, respectively. During the 10-year period, theSalmonella strains showed highest resistance rate to ampicillin (33.3%-64.8%), but low resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam (0-5.3%) and ciprofloxacin (2.4%-14.3%).S. typhimurium showed higher resistance rate thanS. typhi,S. paratyphi andS. enteritidis. About 76.8% and 50.5% ofS. typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The average prevalence of multi-drug resistantSalmonellawas 3.9% in the ten-year period, the highest (7.5%) was in 2005, the lowest (1.5%) in 2013.Conclusions During the period from 2004 to 2015, majority of theSalmonella isolates in hospitals across China wasS. typhimurium andS. enteritidis. Ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer appropriate for empirical treatment ofS. typhimurium infection due to high resistance rate.Salmonella isolates are relatively more susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones. Ongoing monitoring is necessary to identify multi-drug resistant strains ofSalmonella.

9.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 302-314, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493486

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the resistance proifle of bacterial strains isolated from geriatric patients in 17 hospitals across China from 2005 to 2014.Methods A total of 17 representative general hospitals were involved in this program. Bacterial susceptibility testing was carried out by means of a uniifed protocol using Kirby-Bauer method and MIC determination. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2014 breakpoints.Results The proportion of the strains isolated from geriatric patients among all the clinical isolates increased with time from 30.0% in 2005 to 32.7% in 2014. A total of 159 888 clinical isolates were collected from geriatric patient during the period from 2005 to 2014, about 33.1% of the whole patient population. Gram negative organisms and gram positive cocci accounted for 77.1% (123 229/159 888) and 22.9% (36 659/159 888), respectively. Majority (92.8%, 148 376/159 888) of the isolates were from inpatients and more than half (55.2%, 88 201/159 888) of the isolates were from sputum or other respiratory tract specimens. Methicillin-resistant strains inS. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase negativeStaphylococcus (MRCNS) accounted for an average of 67.1% and 75.9%, respectively. The resistance rates of methicillin-resistant strains to β-lactams and other antimicrobial agents were much higher than those of methicillin-susceptible strains. No staphylococcal strains were found resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. Some strains ofE. faecalis (0.4%) andE. faecium (4.6%) were resistant to vancomycin, which was higher than average national level (0.3%, 3.2%). Vancomycin-resistant strains ofE. faecalisandE. faecium were mainly VanA type and VanB type based on their phenotype. The prevalence of penicillin-susceptibleS. pneumoniae strains was 78.2%, slightly lower than the 95.0% in Chinese adults in year 2014. The prevalence of ESBLs-producing strains was 67.5% inE. coli, 40.4% inKlebsiella (K. pneumoniae andK. oxytoca) and 34.3% inProteus mirabilis isolates on average. The strains ofEnterobacteriaceae were still highly susceptible to carbapenems (<10% resistant), followed by amikacin and the beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Overall, 35.9% and 33.0% of theP. aeruginosa strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem. More than 50% of theA. baumannii strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem. The prevalence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR)P. aeruginosa (4.0%-1.8%) was higher than the average national level (2.1%-1.6%). The prevalence of XDR A. baumannii (19.2%-15.5%) and XDREnterobacteriaceae (0.1%-1.0%) was lower than the average national level (21.4%-19.7% and 0.3%-3.2%).Conclusions The proportion of clinical isolates from geriatric patients is different from average national level at the same period. The isolates from geriatric patients are more likely from inpatients, respiratory tract specimens and more likely non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli compared to average national level. The proportion of fastidious bacteria andEnterobacteriaceae species is generally lower than average national level. MRSA, VRE, ESBLs-producing strains and XDRP. aeruginosa are more prevalent in geriatric patients than in general Chinese patient population. This study suggests that surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for the clinical isolates from geriatric patients is very important for rational antimicrobial therapy.

10.
Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 611-613, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-502341

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the changes of pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility in patients with biliary tract infection during the past 30 years.Methods During the periods of 1981-1984,1988-1998 and 2003-2013,each 100 patients treated with common bile duct exploratoration were selected from every period.Biopsied bile specimens were performed with bacteria culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests.This study reviewed the changes in bilary pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility test.Results From 1981 to 1984,the most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (59.2%) and Klebsiella pneumonia (28.9%).Mixed infection of these pathogens accounted for 16.9%.From 1988 to 1998,the types of pathogens significandy increased.Escherichia coli (33.1%) and Klebsiella pneumonia (16.5%) accounted for less than 50%.Mixed infection with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common type.From 2003 to 2013,gram-negative bacteria were still the main pathogens,accounting for 61.8%.Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounted for 20.1% and 10.4%,respectively.Gram-positive bacteria increased sigrnificantly.Enterococcusfaecium (22.2%) ranked the first.Mixed infection increased (36%),of which more than 50% was mixed pathogens of Escherichia coli and Enterococcusfaecium.The incidence of fungi infection also increased (5.6%).Conclusions There was a remarkable change of pathogen category in the biliary infections over the past years.With an increase of gram-positive bacteria and fungi infection in clinical practice,antimicrobial susceptability results could be considered in choosing appropriate drug to avoid bacterial resistance.

11.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 612-614, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-496035

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the detection rates,species distribution and drug-resistance of urinary fungal infection in elderly patients at Beijing Hospital from 2011 to 2013,in order to provide the basis for the reasonable clinical use of anti-epiphyte medicines.Methods Totally 263 patients with an average of 79.6 years old were collected from Beijing Hospital.The urine from freshly voided midstream or bladder puncture was collected under aseptic condition for fungal culture,then the strains of epiphytes were identified by using API 20C AUX.The drug sensitivity was tested with ATB fungus3.Results 263 strains of epiphytes were isolated from the 2 983 urine samples,of which 92 were C.tropicalis,85 were C.glabrata,77 were Candida albican,and 9 were other fungus candida.The rates of drug resistance to fluconazole were 14.1 % (13 strains),37.6 % (32 strains) and 15.6% (12 strains),and to itraconazole were 16.3%(15 strains),35.3%(30 strains) and 9.1%(7 strains),respectively.All of the 263 strains were not found to have drug resistance to amphotericin.Conclusions The isolation rate of urinary fungal infections is 8.8% in Beijing Hospital.The majority of the tested fungal are C.glabrata,C.tropicalis and Candida albican,the former has higher resistance rate to azoles,and the two latter have better sensitivity to azole,and all of them have the sensitivity to amphotericin.

12.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 401-410, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-478033

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the susceptibility and resistance of clinical isolates from hospitals in several regions of China .Methods Fifteen general hospitals and two children′s hospitals were involved in this program . Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to a unified protocol using Kirby‐Bauer method or automated systems .Results were analyzed according to CLSI 2014 breakpoints .Results A total of 78 955 clinical isolates were collected from January to December 2014 ,of which gram negative organisms and gram positive cocci accounted for 72 .6% and 27 .4% ,respectively . Methicillin‐resistant strains in S .aureus(MRSA)and coagulase negative Staphylococcus(MRCNS)accounted for an average of 44 .6% and 83 .0 % ,respectively .The resistance rates of methicillin‐resistant strains to β‐lactams and other antimicrobial agents were much higher than those of methicillin‐susceptible strains .However ,92 .0% of MRSA strains were still susceptible to trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole ,while 85 .6% of MRCNS strains were susceptible to rifampin .No staphylococcal strains were found resistant to vancomycin ,teicoplanin or linezolid .In Enterococcus spp .,the resistance rates of E .f aecalis strains to most tested drugs (except chloramphenicol) were much lower than those of E . f aecium .Some strains of both species were resistant to vancomycin .Vancomycin resistant strains of E . f aecalis and E . f aecium were mainly V anA ,V anB or V anM type based on their phenotype or genotype .Regarding non‐meningitis S .pneumoniae strains ,the prevalence of penicillin‐susceptible S .pneumoniae strains isolated from both adults and children were higher than those isolated in 2013 ,but the prevalence of penicillin‐intermediate S . pneumoniae or penicillin‐resistant S . pneumoniae strains decreased . The prevalence of ESBLs producingstrainswas55.8% in E.coliand29.9% in Klebsiellaspp.(K.pneumoniaeand K.oxytoca)and24.0% in Proteus mirabilis isolates on average . ESBLs‐producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were more resistant than non‐ESBLs‐producing strains in terms of antibiotic resistance rates . The strains of Enterobacteriaceae were still highly susceptible to carbapenems .Overall less than 10 % of these strains were resistant to carbapenems . About 62 .4% and 66 .7% of Acinetobacter spp .(A .baumannii accounts for 93 .0 % ) strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem ,respectively . Compared with the data of year 2013 ,extensively‐drug resistant strains in K . pneumoniae and A .baumannii increased . Conclusions The antibiotic resistance of clinical bacterial isolates is growing .The disseminated multi‐drug or pan‐drug resistant strains in a special region poses a serious threat to clinical practice and implies the importance of strengthening infection control .

13.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 94-99, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-448100

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the resistance of clinical Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from 15 hospitals in several regions of China during 2011.Methods Fifteen repre-sentative general hospitals were involved in this program. Bacterial susceptibility testing was carried out by means of a unified protocol using Kirby-Bauer method and MIC determi-nation.Results were analyzed according to CLSI 2011 break-points.Results Majority (93.3%) of the 1 889 clinical strains of S.maltophilia were isolated from inpatients.On-ly 6.7% of the isolates were from outpatients.About 62.9% of these S .maltophilia strains were isolated from old patients whose age was 60 years or older.Only 8.2% of the strains were from the patients younger than 18 years old.Sputum and re-spiratory tract secretion were the most common specimen source,accounting for 82.6%.Another 4.2% isolates were from blood,abdominal fluid and other sterile body fluids.The percentage of the S .maltophilia strain resistant to trimethoprim-sul-famethoxazole,levofloxacin and minocycline was 16.6%,10.0% and 1.8%,respectively.The strains resistant to cefopera-zone-sulbactam accounted for 19.0%.About 37.1% of the strains isolated from blood or sterile body fluids were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,significantly higher than the strains from urine or wound specimens (P < 0.01).Conclusions S.maltophilia strains are mainly isolated from inpatients.The most common source is sputum and other respiratory speci-mens.Most of the patients with S.maltophilia isolate are 60 years of age or older.The S.maltophilia strains are constitu-tively resistant to several antibacterial agents,but showed relatively lower resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,levo-floxacin and minocycline.Cefoperazone-sulbactam is still active against these strains.The antimicrobial therapy targeting S. maltophilia infections should be selected cautiously according to the results of antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

14.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 365-374, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-456810

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the susceptibility and resistance of clinical isolates collected from hospitals in several regions of China . Methods Fourteen general hospitals and two children ’ s hospitals were involved in this program . Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to a unified protocol using Kirby-Bauer method or automated Systems .Results were analyzed according to CLSI 2013 breakpoints .Results A total of 84 572 clinical isolates were collected from January to December 2013 ,of which gram negative organisms and gram positive cocci accounted for 73 .0% and 27 .0%respectively .Methicillin-resistant strains in S .aureus (MRSA) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) accounted for an average of 45 .2% and 73 .5% respectively .The resistance rates of methicillin-resistant strains to β-lactams and other antimicrobial agents were much higher than those of methicillin-susceptible strains .However ,92 .2% of MRSA strains were still susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole while 87 .4% of MRCNS strains were susceptible to rifampin . No staphylococcal strains were found resistant to vancomycin ,teicoplanin or linezolid .In Enterococcus spp .,the resistance rates of E . f aecalis strains to most tested drugs (except chloramphenicol) were much lower than those of E . f aecium .Some strains of both species were resistant to vancomycin .Vancomycin-resistant strains of E . f aecalis and E . f aecium were mainly VanA type based on their phenotype .Regarding non-meningitis S . pneumoniae strains ,the prevalence of penicillin-susceptible S . pneumoniae and penicillin-intermediate S . pneumoniae strains isolated from both adults and children were lower than those isolated in 2012 ,but the prevalence of penicillin-resistant S .pneumoniae strains increased .The prevalence of ESBLs producing strains was 54 .0% in E .coli ,31 .8% in Klebsiella spp .(K .pneumoniae and K .oxytoca) and 16 .5% in Proteus mirabilis isolates on average . ESBLs-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were more resistant than non-ESBLs-producing strains in terms of antibiotic resistance rates .The strains of Enterobacteriaceae were still highly susceptible to carbapenems .Overall less than 7 .0% of these strains were resistant to carbapenems .About 62 .8% and 59 .4% of Acinetobacter spp .(A .baumannii accounts for 89 .2% ) strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem ,respectively .Compared with the data of year 2012 , extensively-drug resistant strains in K . pneumoniae and A . baumannii decreased .Conclusions The antibiotic resistance of clinical bacterial isolates is growing in 2013 .The disseminated multi-drug or pan-drug resistant strains in a special region poses a serious threat to clinical practice and implies the importance of strengthening infection control .

15.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 382-386, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-456806

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution and susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates in 2012 from CHINET surveillance .Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to a unified protocol using Kirby-Bauer method or automated Systems .Results were analyzed according to the breakpoints of CLSI 2012 M100-S22 .Results A total of 1 499 CRE isolates were collected from January to December 2012 ,of which K lebsiella spp .,Enterobacter spp .and E .coli accounted for 63 .5% ,15 .1% and 13 .7% ,respectively .Of the 1 499 isolates , 48 .2% and 29 .3% were from respiratory tract and ICU , respectively . The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the resistance rate of CRE isolates to most antimicrobial agents was 70 .0%-100% except amikacin (46 .9% ) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (49 .8% ) .CRE isolates from adults were more resistant to ciprofloxacin ,aminoglycosides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than those from children .Conclusions The antibiotic resistance of CRE isolates is very high . The spread of CRE strains in a specific region such as ICU and neurosurgery ward poses a serious threat to clinical practice and implies the importance of strengthening infection control .

16.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 387-391, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-456804

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance of clinical Enterobacter isolates .Methods A total of 3 031 clinical strains of Enterobacter were collected from 15 hospitals from January 1 through December 31 , 2012 . Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with Kirby-Bauer or minimum inhibitory concentration method .The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2012 breakpoints .Results Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes accounted for 73 .0% (2 212/3 031) and 23 .9% (725/3 031) of all the Enterobacter strains .The isolates of other Enterobacter species accounted for 3 .1% (94/3 031 ) . The main source of the isolates was respiratory tract specimen , accounting for 53 .2% (1 612/3 031) .Most (> 89% ) of the Enterobacter strains were resistant to cefazolin and cefoxitin . Generally ,54 .4% ,47 .5% and 34 .3% of the strains were resistant to cefuroxime ,cefotaxime and cefazidime ,respectively . About 6 .6% to 26 .3% of the strains were resistant to amikacin ,gentamicin ,piperacillin-tazobactam ,cefepime ,cefoperazone-sulbactam ,ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole .Imipenem ,meropenem and ertapenem showed the highest activity , to which only 3 .5% ,3 .7% and 10 .3% of the strains were resistant ,respectively .About 8 .9% (269/3 031) of the strains were resistant to at least imipenem ,meropenem or ertapenem .Four Enterobacter strains were extensive-drug resistant (XDR) .Conclusions The prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacter isolates decreased slightly in 2012 compared to the data in 2011 ,but the situation is still very serious .We should continue to take effective measures to control the resistant strains .

17.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 392-397, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-456803

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial resistance in the A cinetobacter baumannii strains in different parts of China during 2012 .Methods A total of 8 739 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter were collected from 13 general hospitals and two children’s hospitals ,of which most were A . baumannii (89 .6% , 7 827/8 739 ) . Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by means of Kirby-Bauer method according to the unified protocol . The susceptibility testing data were analyzed by WHONET 5 .6 software according to CLSI 2013 breakpoints .Results Majority (85 .4% ) of the Acinetobacter strains were isolated from inpatients .The remaining 14 .6% were from outpatients and emergency room patients .Of the 7 827 strains of A .baumannii , 10 .9% ,35 .2% ,35 .7% and 43 .4% were resistant to tigecycline ,minocycline ,cefoperazone-sulbactam and amikacin , respectively .The percentage of A .baumannii resistant to imipenem and meropenem was 63 .5% and 68 .2% ,respectively . The antimicrobial resistant pattern varied in different hospitals . The resistance of A . baumannii varied between different clinical departments .A number of pandrug resistant (PDR) (20 .0% ,1 567/7 827) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) (45 .0% , 3 521/7 827 ) A . baumannii were identified . Conclusions A . baumannii is the most popular pathogenic bacteria among Acinetobacter .The antibiotic resistance of A .baumannii is still increasing .Cefoperazone-sulbactam and minocycline has good in vitro antibacterial activity against A .baumannii .The antibiotic resistance of A .baumannii varies greatly with hospital and department .

18.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 398-404, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-456802

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial resistance of clinical strains of K lebsiella spp .isolated from 15 hospitals in China CHINET during 2012 .Methods Kirby-Bauer method and automatic microbiology analysis system were employed to study the antimicrobial resistance . WHONET 5 .6 software was applied for data analysis according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2012 breakpoints .Results A total of 9 621 clinical K lebsiella isolates were analyzed ,including 8 772 strains of K . pneumoniae and 804 strains of K . oxytoca . About 54 .9% (5 285/9 621) of the K lebsiella strains were isolated from sputum ,and 16 .3% (1 564/9 621) were isolated from pediatric patients .Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that about 8 .9% ,10 .8% and 12 .9% of the strains were resistant to imipenem ,meropenem and ertapenem ,respectively .About 14 .1% and 17 .0% of the strains were resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam , respectively . Carbapenem-resistant K lebsiella strains were identified from all the 15 hospitals ,including 945 strains of K .pneumoniae and 45 strains of K .oxytoca ,which were resistant to either imipenem ,meropenem or ertapenem .Conclusions The Klebsiella isolates collected from 15 hospitals in China during 2012 are relatively sensitive to carbapenems ,cefoperazone-sulbactam and piperacillin-tazobactam .The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant strains is still increasing in China ,about 10 .3% in 2012 ,and relatively higher in Eastern China .More efforts should be made to control the superbug .

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Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 425-429, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-435172

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Objective To investigate the resistant mechanism of Streptococcus pyogenes to ciprofloxacin and its homology.Methods Forty-eight isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes were collected from patients diagnosed with scarflet fever in districts of Beijing in March,2012 and MIC to ciprofloxacin and other 7 common antibiotics in clinic were detected by using blood M-H agar dilution method.Thirteen isolates,which have MICs≥4 mg/L against ciprofloxacin,were detected for mutations of Fluoroquinolone resistance genes gyrA,gyrB,parC,parE.At the same time,4 isolates,with MIC ≤ 0.25 mg/L against ciprofloxacin,were used for comparison.Homology analysis of 17 isolates from different areas of Beijing was performed by using the method of pulsed field gel electrophoresis.Results Sensitive rates of Streptococcus pyogenes to levofloxacin,ampicillin and penicillin were all 100%.The resistance rates to tetracycline,erythromycin and clindamycin were 91.7% (44/48),91.7% (44/48) and 89.6% (43/48),respectively.MIC50 of ciprofloxacin,levofloxacin and moxifloxacin was 2 mg/L,1 mg/L and ≤ 0.25 mg/L,respectively ; MIC90 was 4 mg/L,2 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L,respectively.Of the 48 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes,12 isolates showed the MIC at 4 mg/L,while one isolate has a MIC against ciprofloxacin at 8 mg/L,which isolated from Chaoyang district.Analysis of sequence of chromosome mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes in those 13 ciprofloxacin non-susceptible isolates exhibited that there were 12 isolates that harbored Ser79Phe/Tyr mutation and 10 isolates harbored Ala121Val in parC gene.It is shown that one isolate contained Ser79Phe mutation in parC gene in the occurring of Ser371Leu mutation in parE gene for the first time,but there was no marked increase in ciprofloxacin MIC (MIC =4 mg/L).There were no mutations in gyrA and gyrB genes.The PFGE results demonstrated that the 17 tested isolates could be divided into 7 clones.The clone A isolates from Chaoyang,Daxing,Fengtai,Shunyi and Shijingshan district have a MIC ≥ 4 mg/L against ciprofloxacin,which covered 69.2% of all MIC ≥4 mg/L isolates.The clone C isolates from Huairou district were MIC ≥4 mg/L isolates.B,D,E,F and G clones isolates come from different districts.Conclusions The mutation of parC gene was the main reason that contribute to the slightly increase of ciprofloxacin MIC in Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from Beijing.The PFGE analysis showed that there was a small scale prevalence caused by the infection of Streptococcus pyogenes in some districts.

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Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 685-689, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-429237

ABSTRACT

To help the clinical microbiology laboratories understanding the standards of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) ; discuss when to perform AST,how to confirm unusual or inconsistent results and adopt the suitable AST method,how to interpret the information of continuous monitoring development of resistance and testing of repeat isolates,how the drug-resistance mechanism influence the report and treatment.This will provide accurate and timely AST results for clinicians.

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