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1.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 702-706, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990101

ABSTRACT

Objective:To illustrate the onset of epileptic seizures in children with brain injury admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and to explore the risk factors and the correlation between epileptic seizures and the prognosis.Methods:Clinical data of pediatric patients with brain injury who were admitted to PICU of Peking University First Hospital from January 2013 to December 2019, and monitored by video electroencephalography (VEEG) were retrospectively collected, including general demographic information, etiological data, clinical seizures prior to VEEG performing, in-hospital mortality, brain function score, VEEG manifestations, etc.Seizures detected by VEEG were the primary outcome, and prognosis when discharged from PICU was the secondary outcome. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with seizures and poor outcome. Results:A total of 284 children were included, involving 54.9%(156/284) males.The median age of included children was 1.7(0.5, 5.0) years.Stratified by the cause of disease, 45.1%(128/284) had epilepsy, 26.1%(74/128) had genetic metabolic disease, and 14.4%(41/284) had central nervous system infection.A total of 82.0%(233/284) children had abnormal VEEG background activities, and 59.5%(169/284) had interictal epileptic discharges.Seizures were detected in 106 cases, including 39.6%(42/106) of non-convulsive seizures and 24.5%(26/106) of non-convulsive epileptic states.There were 12.0% (34/284) had poor prognosis at discharge, including 24 patients died in-hospital, and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scores were increased in 10 survivors.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that seizures existed before VEEG monitoring and interictal epileptiform discharge were the independent risk factors for seizure.Besides, mental retardation, sepsis related encephalopathy, consciousness abnormality during VEEG, abnormal VEEG background activity, and epileptic status were significantly correlated with the poor prognosis of children with brain injury in PICU. Conclusions:The incidence of electrographic seizure is higher in children with brain injury in PICU, and VEEG monitoring is beneficial to children with brain injury that achieves an early identification of seizures and prediction of prognosis.

2.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 653-659, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930491

ABSTRACT

Antipyretic-analgesics are currently one of the most prescribed drugs in children.The clinical application of antipyretic-analgesics for children in our country still have irrational phenomenon, which affects the therapeutic effect and even poses hidden dangers to the safety of children.In this paper, suggestions were put forward from the indications, dosage form/route, dosage suitability, pathophysiological characteristics of children with individual differences and drug interactions in the symptomatic treatment of febrile children, so as to provide reference for the general pharmacists when conducting prescription review.

3.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1333-1337, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907963

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical manifestations and surgical outcomes of pediatric epilepsy patients with epileptic spasms (ES) as the main form of seizure, so as to analyze the correlative factors with prognosis and improve the understanding of the operation and preoperative positioning for such patients.Methods:The clinical data of patients with ES who underwent surgery therapy from June 2014 to December 2015 in Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Peking University First Hospital were collected and retrospectively analyzed.Demographic characteristics, seizure forms, etiology, electroencephalogram (EEG), cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), operative methods, pathological findings as well as surgical outcomes evaluated by Engel classification during follow-up of the subjects were collected.Correlative factors with the prognosis were explored by comparing the data between patients with optimal outcome (Engel Ⅰ) and those with poor outcomes (Engel Ⅱ-Ⅳ).Results:A total of 25 pediatric patients were enrolled, including 16 males (64.0%) and 9 females (36.0%). The age of onset was (0.81±0.68) years, the age at operation was (2.98±1.63) years, and the course of disease was (2.17±1.48) years.Besides, 84.0% (21/25 cases) of the ES patients had multiple forms of seizures and partial seizure (19 cases) was the most common.MRI of the heads of all the children showed definite lesions, including 11 patients (44.0%) with lesions limited to one brain lobe and 14 patients (56.0%) involving multiple brain lobes or hemisphere.The most common etiology was focal cortical dysplasia (13 cases), followed by intracranial developmental tumors (3 cases). All patients underwent resection surgery, including resection of lesion (3 cases), single brain lobe resection (9 cases), multiple brain lobe dissection (3 cases) and hemisphere dissection (10 cases). During a follow-up period of 4.0 to 5.5 years, 1 patient was lost.Among the remaining 24 cases, 18 (75.0%) cases achieved good outcomes and wee classified as EngelⅠ, 2 cases (8.3%) and 4 cases(16.7%) were classified as Engel Ⅱand Ⅳ, respectively.The univariate comparison between the good epilepsy prognosis group and the poor epilepsy prognosis group showed that, patients whose EEG abnormalities are consistent with the anatomical lesions during the inter ictal tend to have good prognosis( P=0.006). Conclusions:(1) Optimal therapeutic effects were observed in ES patients with definite lesions treated by surgical therapy.(2) Interictal EEG consistent with the lesion side may suggest a good prognosis for surgical treatment.(3) Structural causes should be screened as soon as possible if a patient with ES is drug-refractory and presents clues of focal origin.

4.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1086-1090, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907909

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical phenotype and genetic characteristics of children with germline PIGA gene mutations. Methods:The clinical presentations, blood biochemistry, electroencephalogram (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic test results of 10 children diagnosed at the Department of Pediatrics of Peking University First Hospital between January 2014 and June 2020 were analyzed.Results:All these 10 children were male, with seizures and severe developmental delay.Five out of eight cases showed hypotonia.Four out of nine cases had facial deformity or multiple organ abnormalities.The onset age of seizures ranged from one month and 28 days to 10 months, with an average age of 4.8 months.There were various types of seizures, and all patients showed focal seizures.The seizures of 6 patients in these 10 cases could be induced by fever disease.Diffuse slow waves mixed focal or multifocal discharges of interictal EEG in 9 cases with PIGA-deficient.Brain MRI showed enlarged subarachnoid space in 44.4% (4/9 cases) of patients.Slight elevated serum alkaline phosphatase could be seen in 2 cases.Genetic analysis confirmed that a total of 8 different mutation sites were found, 7 of which were unreported.In this group, 4 cases were diagnosed with multiple congenital anomalies -hypotonia -seizures syndrome 2 (MCAHS2), 5 cases were diagnosed with developmental delay and epilepsy without deformity, and one case was not classified, respectively. Conclusions:Focal seizure was common in these patients with PIGA mutations, and often induced by fever disease.Interictal EEG was characterized by diffuse slow waves mixed focal or multifocal discharges.Enlarged subarachnoid space was the most common brain MRI abnormality in these patients.The phenotype of patients only partially conformed to typical MCAHS2 manifestations, and most of them had no deformity.

5.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1081-1084, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-864161

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics, surgical methods, complications and prognosis of children younger than 1 year old who had definite epileptogenic lesions under 1 year old.Methods:A total of 14 children with definite epileptogenic lesions and underwent radical surgery in Pediatric Epilepsy Center of Peking University First Hospital from March 2017 to July 2019 were selected.Their clinical data including operation age, course of disease, etiology, physical examinations, seizure types, seizure frequency, features of interictal electrocorticography(EEG), surgical methods, antiepileptic drugs, and pathology were collected and analyzed.Postoperative efficacy was eva-luated using Engel grading.The Griffiths neurodevelopmental scale and the Peabody motor developmental scale were used to assess motor neurodevelopment.Results:The operation age of 14 children was 119 to 358 days (median: 281 days), and the course of disease ranged from 119 to 352 days (median: 266 days). The age of onset was from 0 to 135 days was (median: 7.5 days), and the postoperative follow-up time was 0.5-2.0 years(median: 1.5 years). None of the patients had seizure recurrence at the last follow-up.During the follow-up period, 1 patient had recurrence, but deve-loped no seizures anymore after drug administration.Cognitive and motor functions improved during follow-up in all children.All the children had no serious complications such as postoperative infection and hydrocephalus.Conclusions:Young children with definite epileptogenic lesions have an early onset of seizures, which has a great influence on development.Multidisciplinary preoperative evaluation shows that surgery is a safe way to terminate progression of seizures, thus helping children to well develop and reducing the use of antiepileptic drugs.

6.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 890-893, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-864135

ABSTRACT

Objective:To follow up and clarify the prognosis of 670 pediatric patients with Dravet syndrome (DS).Methods:The clinical data of DS pediatric patients treated in the Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from February 2005 to August 2016 were recorded, and genetic testing was carried out.DS pediatric patients were followed up via subsequent visits at the outpatient and telephone interview.Results:Among 670 cases with DS, 556 cases (556/670 cases, 83.0%) carried SCN1A mutations.In the follow-up, 608 cases were contacted (608/670 cases, 90.7%) and 62 cases (62/670 cases, 9.3%) were lost.The last follow-up median age was 8 years 5 months.Eighty-two cases (82/608 cases, 13.5%) were seizure-free for more than 1 year, with a median age of 9 years and 2 months.Thirty-eight cases relapsed (38/82 cases, 46.3%), mainly induced by fever (34 cases) or mi-ssing antiepileptic drugs (2 cases). Analysis of the relative factors of patients that were seizure-free for more than 1 year showed that children with missense SCN1A mutations, inherited mutations and an older age had a relatively good outcome for seizure control.Twenty-five cases (25/608 cases, 4.1%) were deceased, with a median age of 4 years.The mortality factors included multiple organ dysfunction syndromes after prolonged status epilepticus (12 cases), possible sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (7 cases), asphyxiation after vomiting with or without a seizure (2 cases), and an accidental injury (1 case). The fatal causes in the remaining 3 cases were unknown. Conclusions:DS is an intractable epileptic syndrome, but few patients may have a seizure remission (seizure free for more than 1 year). Patients with mi-ssense SCN1A mutations, inherited mutations and an older age have a relatively good outcome for seizure control.The mortality rate is high in DS patients.The causes of mortality include multiple organ dysfunction syndromes after prolonged status epilepticus, possible sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, and so on.

7.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 622-627, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-864067

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the clinical phenotype and gene mutation characteristics of male patients with epilepsy caused by mosaic PCDH19 mutation. Methods:The clinical data of 3 male patients with epilepsy caused by mosaic PCDH19 mutation were analyzed.Microdroplet digital polymerase chain reaction (mDDPCR) was used for the detection of mosaicism in the three probands and their family members.Relevant literatures were reviewed. Results:The seizure onset age were 5 months, 9 months and 6 months of life respectively.Focal seizures occurred in 2 cases and multiple seizure types occurred in 1 case.Three patients presented with clusters of seizures.Fever sensitivity was observed in 2 cases out of the 3 cases.Two patients had intellectual disability and 1 patient had autistic manifestation.The clinical phenotype in 2 patient fulfilled the diagnosis of Dravet syndrome. PCDH19 mosaic mutations c. 317T>A(p.M106K), c.158dupT(p.D54Gfs*35) and c. 1639G>C(p.A547P) were detected respectively, and were identified as de novo after parental validation.Mutant allele fractions (MAF) in the blood samples were identified as 81.18%, 37.08%, 77.64%, respectively.The MAF of multiple tissues in 1 patient varied from 78.67% to 98.46%.Review of literature revealed that a total of 11 cases with mosaic PCDH19 mutation were reported.Among them, seizure onset occurred between 5 and 31 months of age.Focal seizures occurred in 9 cases, 3 cases of the 9 cases had only focal seizures.Generalized tonic clonic seizures occurred in 4 cases.Two or more seizures were observed in 6 cases.Clustering of seizures was found in all patient and sensitivity to fever was observed in 9 patients.Seven patients had mild to severe intellectual disability and 5 patients had autistic features. Conclusions:The clinical phenotypes of male patients with epilepsy caused by PCDH19 mosaic mutation are characterized by clustering of seizures, sensitivity to fever, focal seizures in most cases, varied degree of intellectual disability and autistic features in partial.

8.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1851-1854, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803363

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune encephalitis is a group of treatable autoimmune diseases of central nervous system.Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the most common autoimmune encephalitis.Some of autoimmune encephalitis can be confirmed by specific autoantibodies, but excessive dependence on autoantibody detection usually leads to delayed treatment.This article reviews the clinical presentations of pediatric anti-NMDAR encephalitis and the antibody-negative autoimmune encephalitis so as to improve the pediatricians understanding on the diseases.

9.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 857-862, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800738

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with PCDH19-female limited epilepsy (PCDH19-FE).@*Methods@#The clinical data of 60 female epilepsy patients with PCDH19 gene heterozygous variations at the Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from October 2007 to December 2018 were collected and analyzed retrospectively, their clinical manifestations, accessory examination and follow-up treatment were summarized.@*Results@#Data of a total of 60 cases of PCDH19-FE were collected. The seizure onset occurred between 4 and 42 months of age (median: 11 months of age). Focal seizures occurred in 47 patients (78%), generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) occurred in 30 patients (50%), and other rare types of seizures included atypical absence, myoclonic, clonic, tonic, and atonic seizures. Two or more seizures types existed in 24 patients (40%), and seven patients (12%) had attacks of status epilepticus. Sensitivity to fever was observed in 47 out of them (78%) and clustering of seizures as found in all patients. During the interictal phase, focal discharges were monitored in 22 cases (22/45, 49%), multifocal discharges in 12 cases (12/45, 27%), widely discharging in 2 cases (4%), and both focal and widely discharging in 9 cases (20%). Clinical seizures were detected in 30 patients during the electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, including focal seizures in 22 cases, GTCS seizures in 8 cases, tonic seizure in three cases, myoclonic seizure followed by GTCS in one case, and two types of seizures in four cases. Before seizure onset, 57 patients had normal development and three patients had delayed language development. After seizure onset, varied degrees of intelligence disability were present in 38 cases (63%), language delay in 36 cases (60%), and gait instability in 10 cases (17%). Autistic features occurred in 17 cases (28%); and other behavioral problems like learning difficulties, personality, or emotional disorders existed in 33 cases (55%). Age at last follow-up ranged from one year and 3 months to 22 years and 3 months of age, 17 patients (28%) were seizure-free for more than 2 years (5 to 22 years at the last follow-up). The efficiency of antiepileptic drugs were 65% (33/51) in sodium valproate, 63% (27/43) in levetiracetam and 59% (20/34) in topiramate.@*Conclusions@#The clinical features of PCDH19-FE are characterized by clustering of seizures, focal seizures in most cases, sensitivity to fever mostly, focal discharges principally in EEG, varied degrees of intellectual disability or movement disorder, combined with autism spectrum disorders in partial and high efficiency in sodium valproate or levetiracetam treatment.

10.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 837-843, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800735

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To summarize the clinical features of leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter disease (VWM) in children.@*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was performed on 54 genetically diagnosed VWM patients in Peking University First Hospital from January 2007 to March 2019. Paper registration form and electronic medical record system were used to collect the data,and the children were divided into five groups according to the age of disease onset:<1 year, 1-<2 years, 2-<4 years, 4-<8 years and 8-<18 years respectively. The progression of motor function, episodic aggravation, epileptic seizures, survival time, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genotype features were analyzed and compared. Non-parametric test, χ2 test or Fisher′s exact test were used for comparison among groups; Kaplan-Meier survival curve was adopted to delineate the survival status of the children.@*Results@#Fifty-four VWM patients were included in the study, including 34 males and 20 females.The age of disease onset was 2 years and 8 months (ranged from 6 months to 9 years and 7 months). Onset age was less than 1 year in 5 cases; onset age was 1-<2 years in 12 cases; onset age was 2-<4 years in 25 cases; onset age was 4-<8 years, in 10 cases; onset age was 8-<18 years in 2 cases; 94% (51/54) of patients had complaint of motor regression at the first visit; 87% (47/54) of patients suffered from episodic aggravation. Episodic seizures occurred in 43% (23/54) patients. In survivors with disease durations of 1-3 years, in 38% (9/24) patients the disease was classified as grades Ⅳ-Ⅴ by gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). For the onset age 1-<2 years group, 1 patient was classified as GMFCS Ⅳ among 3 survivors with disease durations of 1-3 years. As for the 2-<4 years group, 6 patients were classified as GMFCS Ⅳ-Ⅴ among 15 patients with disease durations of 1-3 years, whereas 1 patient was classified as GMFCS Ⅳ-Ⅴ among 4 patients with disease durations of 1-3 years in the 4-<8 years group. Lesions, liquefaction and diffusion restriction in brain MRI were compared among different groups, and it was revealed that the earlier the age of disease onset was, the more likely the subcortical white matter (frontal lobe P<0.01,temporal and parieto-occipital lobe both P=0.002), internal capsule (anterior limb P<0.01, posterior limb P=0.00) and brain stem (midbrain P=0.001, pons P<0.01) were to be involved. In addition, internal capsule (anterior limb P=0.002, posterior limb P=0.005) and brain stem (midbrain P=0.001, pons P=0.003) showed more diffuse restricted diffusion. Moreover, the subcortical white matter (frontal and parieto-occipital lobe both P<0.01, temporal lobe P=0.005) showed earlier rarefaction. The 1-year and 2-year survival rates of the overall patients were 81% and 75% respectively, while the 15-year survival rate was 45%. EIF2B5 gene variation was the most common, which accounts for 43% (23/54), followed by EIF2B3 (22%, 12/54).@*Conclusions@#The majority of VWM patients complained of motor regression at the first visit, episodic aggravation and epileptic seizures are common in the course. Earlier age at onset is associated with more rapid clinical progression, shorter survival time as well as more extensive lesions, liquefaction and diffusion restriction in brain MRI. The most common variant gene is EIF2B5, followed by EIF2B3.

11.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 907-910, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800103

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To reveal the clinical and genetic features of neonatal/infantile epileptic disorders caused by KCNQ2 mutations and to provide a clue for the treatment and prognosis evaluation.@*Methods@#Twenty-two patients were collected in the Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from April 2007 to July 2016.The phenotype-genotype analysis was conducted of the neonatal/infantile epileptic patients in whom a KCNQ2 mutation was identified by the targeted next generation sequencing.@*Results@#Twenty-two de novo KCNQ2 missense mutations from 22 patients with neonatal/infantile epileptic disorders were found.These patients had an onset of epilepsy in early infancy (median age: 2 days). The seizure type of the first onset was mainly focal seizure.Atypical absence epilepsy, a novel phenotype of KCNQ2 mutation-induced epilepsies was found.The mortality of these patients was high, as 5 patients of the 22 patients died in the follow-up period, 4 of which might result from sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.In the 22 patients, 8 patients with anti-epileptic monotherapy became seizure-free.Of the 8 patients with a monotherapy, 3 patients were treated with valproic acid and no clinical onset was observed.@*Conclusions@#This study expands the phenotype of KCNQ2-related epileptic disorders.These patients have high mortality.Valproate acid is the potentially effective monotherapy for these patients.

12.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 943-949, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799840

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the electroclinical findings in epilepsy children with epileptic negative myoclonus (ENM) restricted to the lower limb as the first seizure type.@*Methods@#Each retrieved electroencephalogram record performed between March 2011 and March 2018 at the Department of Pediatrics of Peking University First Hospital was searched with "midline" . There were 302 records of 175 patients with "benign" or "functional" midline spikes. A retrospective review of each patient′s hospital record was performed. Thirteen patients had ENM restricted to the lower limb as the first seizure type. The clinical and electroencephalogram characteristics of them were analyzed.@*Results@#Thirteen patients manifested ENM restricted to the lower limb as the first seizure type, diagnosed as benign childhood focal epilepsy with vertex spikes (BEVS). Six patients had ENM as the first and only seizure type during the short-time follow-up. Among them, there were 1 male and 5 females. The age at seizure onset was (2.5±0.7) years. One of them had electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) identified on electroencephalogram at theage of 4 years and 8 months. The last follow-up age was (3.8±1.5) years. The remaining 7 patients developed nocturnal focal motor seizures. Among them, there were 4 males and 3 females. The age at seizure onset was (3.5±0.7) years. Two of them were diagnosed as BEVS evolving into benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and 5 were diagnosed as BEVS concurring with BECTS. The age at focal seizures was (4.1±0.6) years. The interval ranged from 1 month to 1 years. Six of 7 patients had electrical ESES with the age of (5.2±1.0) years. All had developmental regression, further diagnosed as atypical benign partial epilepsy (ABPE). The median age at last follow-up was 5.9 years. Five of 13 patients had repeated electroencephalogram records at our apartment, showing that epileptiform discharges in midline regions were significantly reduced either in frequency or amplitude with the improvement of ENM restricted to the lower limb and that independent epileptiform discharges in Rolandic regions from midline regions were noticed with the onset of nocturnal focal seizures.@*Conclusions@#ENM restricted to the lower limb has a close association with vertex (midline) epileptiform discharges. ENM restricted to the lower limb as the first seizure type is a peculiar phenomenon of BEVS. Some patients could evolve into BECTS or overlap with BECTS, and further into ABPE. The age of seizure onset in BEVS with ENM restricted to the lower limb as the first symptom is a little earlier than in BECTS. Ignorance of the close association between midline spikes and ENM restricted to the lower limb may lead to misdiagnosis of these patients.

13.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 118-124, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810421

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore clinical features and the effect of treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) in childhood.@*Methods@#Children who were hospitalized in Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from January 2013 to June 2018 and meeting diagnostic criteria of NMOSD proposed by the International Panel for NMOSD Diagnosis in 2015 were summarized and followed up. The basic information, symptoms of each attack, locations and patterns of new lesions, features of cerebrospinal fluid, serologic markers, treatments and outcomes in these patients were analyzed. Thirty-three children were included in the study, with 13 males and 20 females. The median age of onset was 6.83 (4.25, 8.75) years. Compared aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) associated NMOSD with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G (MOG-IgG) associated NMOSD. Mann-Whitney U test was used for continuous variables and Fisher test for categorical variables in comparison between AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG associated NMOSD. Wilcoxon test was used for annualized relapse rate (ARR) before and after adding disease-modifying drugs.@*Results@#Optic neuritis (39% (13/33) in initial attacks and 49% (62/127) in total attacks) and myelitis (36% (12/33) in initial attacks and 26% (33/127) in total attacks) were the top two symptoms in both the initial attacks and all 127 attacks during follow-up. There was 42% (37/89) of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in acute phase showing new lesions in supratentorial white matter, with 43% (16/37) showing acute disseminated encepha lomyelitis (ADEM)-like or leukodystrophy-like patterns. AQP4-IgG was detected in 30% (10/33) patients, and MOG-IgG was detected in 55% (11/20) patients, with no combined positive case. In 20 patients treated with rituximab, two were treated after the initial attack. In the other 18 patients, the median annualized relapse rate decreased from 1.86 (1.52, 2.60) before treatment to 0.28 (0, 1.13) during treatment (Z=-3.376, P=0.001). Compared with AQP4-IgG associated NMOSD (10 cases), fever of unknown origin (8/40 vs. 0/33, P=0.007) was more common, area postrema syndrome (0/40 vs. 4/33, P=0.038) was fewer, cell count of cerebrospinal fluid (49.0 (17.5, 115.0) ×106/L vs. 5.5 (3.0, 15.8)×106/L, Z=-3.526, P=0.000) was higher in MOG-IgG associated NMOSD (11 cases).@*Conclusions@#In childhood-onset NMOSD, optic neuritis and myelitis were top two symptoms. Childhood-onset NMOSD has high proportion of positive MOG-IgG. Lesions in supratentorial white matter are common. Rituximab could significantly decrease ARR of NMOSD in childhood. However, more studies should be conducted to explore the optimal treatment strategy in different antibody associated NMOSD.

14.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 907-910, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-752324

ABSTRACT

Objective To reveal the clinical and genetic features of neonatal/infantile epileptic disorders caused by KCNQ2 mutations and to provide a clue for the treatment and prognosis evaluation. Methods Twenty-two patients were collected in the Department of Pediatrics,Peking University First Hospital from April 2007 to July 2016. The phenotype-genotype analysis was conducted of the neonatal/infantile epileptic patients in whom a KCNQ2 muta﹣tion was identified by the targeted next generation sequencing. Results Twenty-two de noνo KCNQ2 missense muta﹣tions from 22 patients with neonatal/infantile epileptic disorders were found. These patients had an onset of epilepsy in early infancy(median age:2 days). The seizure type of the first onset was mainly focal seizure. Atypical absence epi﹣lepsy,a novel phenotype of KCNQ2 mutation-induced epilepsies was found. The mortality of these patients was high,as 5 patients of the 22 patients died in the follow-up period,4 of which might result from sudden unexpected death in epi﹣lepsy. In the 22 patients,8 patients with anti-epileptic monotherapy became seizure-free. Of the 8 patients with a monotherapy,3 patients were treated with valproic acid and no clinical onset was observed. Conclusions This study expands the phenotype of KCNQ2-related epileptic disorders. These patients have high mortality. Valproate acid is the potentially effective monotherapy for these patients.

15.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1645-1648, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-696661

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the therapeutic effects and adverse reaction of high-dose Diazepam (DZP) in patients with electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES).Methods Nine patients in the Outpatient of the Department of Pediatrics,Peking University First Hospital from October 2016 to May 2017 with ESES were treated with high-dose DZP.Oral DZP was administered in a dose of 0.75-1.00 mg/kg(maximum:40 mg) during the first night followed by 0.5 mg/(kg · d) (maximum:20 mg) from the second night for 1-3 months and tapered over next 1-3 months.The seizures,electroencephalogram (EEG) changes and adverse reactions were observed before and after DZP treatment.Results Six of 9 patients were male and 3 were female.The age of onset was ranged from 1 year and 6 months to 10 years.Benign childhood epilepsy with central temporal spike was diagnosed in 5 cases,epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep in 1 case,and ESES related epilepsy in 3 cases.Age of onset DZP treatment ranged from 4 years and 4 months to 12 years,and the duration of DZP treatment was ranged from 1 to 5 months (1 case only for the first night).The follow-up interval was 6-12 months.The efficiency of DZP on seizures:intent effective in 5 patients,effective in 2 patients and ineffective in 2 patients,and the effective rate was 78% (7/9 cases).The efficiency of DZP on EEG (1 month after DZP treatment):intent effective in 2 patients (EEG normalized),effect in 3 patients and no effect in 2 patients,and the effective rate was 71% (5/7 cases),while 2 patients did not receive EEG examination.Four of 7 patients (57%) with intent effect and effective of DZP on seizures had seizures relapse during drug reduction and after drug withdrawal,and the EEG deteriorated simultaneously.Adverse reactions of DZP included 3 patients (33%) with adverse reactions,bed-wetting in 2 patients and snoring on the first night in 1 patient who withdrew DZP later.Conclusions The high-dose of DZP has a certain effect on seizures control and ESES suppression in patients with ESES,but also has a certain recurrence rate.The adverse reactions are mild and self-limiting.High-dose DZP treatment could be a choice for refractory patients with ESES to alleviate disease.

16.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 611-614, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-696453

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effective rate of Flunarizine in treating alternating hemiplegia during childhood (AHC) kids,and to analyze the related factors influencing efficacy.Methods The clinical data and peripheral blood DNA of AHC patients at the Outpatient and Inpatient Ward of Department of Pediatrics,Peking University First Hospital from August 2005 to May 2016 were collected,and the A TP1A3 gene mutations were screened.Clinical efficacy of oral administration of Flunarizine for improving paroxysmal symptoms such as alternating hemiplegia in AHC patients was followed up.Results A total of 96 AHC patients were collected,and among them,75 cases received oral administration of flunarizine were followed up for 1-11 years.The age of last follow-up was 1-21 years old (the median age was 5 years old).Fifty of these 75 patients (66.7%) were improved,while 25 patients were not alleviated (33.3%).In 50 improved patients,43 patients (86.0%) reduced the frequency of hemiplegia attacks,28 patients (56.0%) reduced the duration,and 3 patients (6.0%) alleviated the severity.Univariate analysis between the effective group and ineffective group showed that differences in age of onset,age of initial treatment,dose and carrying D801N,E815K or G947R mutation of ATP1A3 gene were not statistically significant(all P >0.05).The findings by multivariate analysis indicated that age of onset,age of initial treatment,dose and carrying D801N,E815K or G947R mutation of ATP1A3 gene were not related to the efficacy of Flunarizine.Conclusion Flunarizine is effective for most AHC children,which can reduce the frequency of hemiplegia attacks,shorten the duration,and alleviate the severity of attacks.Age of onset,age of initial treatment,dose and carrying D801N,E815K or G947R mutation of gene A TP1A3 are not factors influencing efficacy.

17.
Chinese Pediatric Emergency Medicine ; (12): 881-887, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-733492

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune encephalitis is an immune disease in central nervous system which has been paid more and more attention in recent years. Children's autoimmune encephalitis has its unique characteris-tics. Therefore,a full understanding of children's autoimmune encephalitis is particularly important for clinical interventions.

18.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1815-1819, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-733344

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),positron emission computed tomography (PET)and PET/MRI coregistration in intractable epilepsy of children.Methods A retrospec-tively analysis was performed based on the surgery data at the Department of Children Epilepsy Center of Peking Univer-sity First Hospital from September 2015 to March 2016.The clinical data,surgery and follow-up study data,interictal and ictal electroencephalogram,MRI,PET and PET/MRI coregistration data were collected.By comparison with the epi-leptogenic zone designed by pre-surgical workup,the accuracy of MRI,PET and PET/MRI coregistration in detecting lesion was assessed.In the patients who had no seizure during≥1 year follow-up,their sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value,negative predictive value of MRI,PET and PET/MRI coregistration were calculated.Results (1)A total of 62 patients underwent surgery,30 boys and 32 girls. The average age on epilepsy onset was 2. 50 years (2 days-11.70 years),and average age on surgery was 5.10 years old(0.75-15.60 years old).(2)Surgical treat-ment of 62 cases included the resection of the focal or lobar (32 cases,51.6%),and the multilobar (16 cases, 25. 8%).Hemispherotomy was done in 14 cases (22.6%).During ≥1 year follow-up,seizure outcome was Engel class Ⅰ in 57 cases (91.9%)out of the 62 patients,Engel classⅡto Engel classⅣin 1 case,3 cases,and 1 case, respectively.(3)Referred to epileptogenic zone designed by presurgical workup,MRI represented 64.5%(40/62 ca-ses)results with accordance,PET and PET/MRI coregistration was 72.5%(45/62 cases)and 85.5%(53/62 cases), respectively,and the difference was significant(χ2=7.25,P=0.03).(4)Based on the patients of Engel class Ⅰ, their sensitivity and specificity were 66.7%,60.0% in MRI,75.4%,60.0% in PET %,and 85.9%,80.0% in PET/MRI coregistration,respectively.(5)There were 11 "non-lesion" cases of all focal cortical dysplasia in patholo-gy,and subtle structural abnormalities were de tected in 9 cases by reviewing MRI.Conclusions PET/MRI coregistra-tion can improve lesion detection of intractable epilepsy in children.

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Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 518-523, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810038

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To summarize the phenotype of epileptic children with SCN2A mutations.@*Methods@#Epileptic patients who were treated in the Pediatric Department of Peking University First Hospital from September 2006 to October 2017 and detected with SCN2A mutations by targeted next-generation sequencing were enrolled. Clinical manifestations of all patients were analyzed retrospectively.@*Results@#A total of 21 patients (16 boys and 5 girls) with SCN2A mutations were collected. Twenty-one SCN2A mutations were identified. Ten patients had mutations inherited from one of their parents and 11 patients had de novo mutations. The age of epilepsy onset was from 2 days to 2 years and 6 months: six patients with seizure onset in neonates (29%) , six patients with seizure onset between 1 month and 3 months of age (29%), three patients with seizure onset between 4 months and 6 months of age, two patients with seizure onset between 7 months and one year of age, and four patients with seizure onset beyond one year of age. Multiple seizure types were observed. The focal seizure was the most common seizure type which was observed in 18 patients (86%) . Spasm seizure was observed in 6 patients (29%) . Other seizure types were rare. In 19 patients, seizures manifested in clusters (90%) . In 3 patients, seizures manifested fever-sensitive. Nine of ten patients with inherited SCN2A mutations had normal development. However, all patients with de novo SCN2A mutations had mild or severer development delay. In 21 patients with SCN2A mutations, five were diagnosed with benign familial infantile epilepsy, 3 with benign familial neonatal-infantile epilepsy, 3 with Ohtahara syndrome, 3 with West syndrome, 2 with encephalopathy with early infantile onset epilepsy, one with febrile seizures plus, one with Dravet syndrome, one with encephalopathy with childhood-onset epilepsy, one with autism with epilepsy and one with intellectual disability with epilepsy.@*Conclusions@#The clinical features of patients with SCN2A mutations include that main seizure onset is the neonate and early infancy, and the main seizure type is the focal seizure, manifested in clusters. The large spectrum of SCN2A-related epilepsy, which not only includes epilepsy with a comparatively favorable prognosis, but also epileptic encephalopathy. De novo mutations often lead to severe phenotype with development delay.

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Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 916-919, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-620292

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of 3 unrelated boys with paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia and developmental delay caused by de novo mutation in KCNMA1,and to expand the knowledge of clinical phenotype of KCNMA1 mutation.Methods Clinical data of patients were collected,including gender,age,condition of the perinatal period,personal history,and family history.And the features of genotype data were collected including features of attack,developmental milestones,physical examinations,treatments,and responses to treatment.The data including blood biochemical results,results of metabolic screening and genetic testing and the pedigree validation were collected,while the relationship between phenotype and genotype was analyzed.Results (1)Phenotypic features:3 unrelated boys were diagnosed.The ages of disease onset were 20 days,7 months and 13 months,respectively.All the patients manifested paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia and were characterized by the episodes that occurred during wakefulness,presented with sudden onset of asymmetric limb dystonic posture,sometimes with nystagmus and strabismus,or sudden decrease of voluntary movement of limbs with hypotonia and occasional esotropia and yawning.There was no loss of awareness during attack.No precipitating factors were observed before attacks.The developmental milestones were delayed.Three children had no response to anti-epilepsy drug before diagnosis.After diagnosis,2 cases used Clonazepam and 1 case showed less attack.There was not any epileptic seizure until the last follow-up at the ages of 3 years and 6 months old,7 years old,and 5 years and 8 months old,respectively.The frequency of attacks was decreased.The episodes were recorded during video-electroencephalogram(EEG) monitoring,which showed normal ictal and interictal EEG.(2)Genotypic features:all 3 children were detected to have KCNMA1 genetic heterozygous missense mutation,while c.2650G>A (p.Glu884Lys) mutation was identified in 1 patient,and c.3158A>G(p.Asn1053Ser)mutation in the other 2 patients,but no such mutation was found in their parents.Conclusion This finding expands the phenotype of KCNMA1mutation.KCNMA1 should be considered as one of the candidate genes for screening in patients with early onset of paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia without triggers,or early-onset of developmental delay,with or without epilepsy.

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