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3.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442131

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy in eight public university hospitals, distributed in the five regions that make up Brazil. METHODS A secondary analysis of a national multicenter cross-sectional study, carried out in eight public university hospitals between June 1 and August 31, 2020, in Brazil. Convenience sample including women who gave birth within sixty consecutive days and met the following criteria: over 18 years old; gestational age over 36 weeks at delivery; with a single and live newborn, without malformations. RESULTS Sample composed of 1,120 postpartum women, of whom 756 (67.5%) declared that the pregnancy had not been planned. The median prevalence of unplanned pregnancy was 59.7%. The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy across hospitals differed significantly: Campinas (54.8%), Porto Alegre (58.2%), Florianópolis (59%), Teresina (61.2%), Brasília (64.3%), São Paulo (64.6%), Campo Grande (73.9%) and Manaus (95.3%) (p < 0.001). Factors significantly associated with unplanned pregnancy were maternal age, black color, lower family income, greater number of children, greater number of people living in household, and not having a partner. CONCLUSION In the studied sample, about two thirds of the pregnancies were declared as unplanned. The prevalence of unplanned pregnancies was related to social and demographic factors and varied significantly across the university hospitals evaluated.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a prevalência de gestação não planejada (GNP) em oito hospitais públicos universitários, distribuídos nas cinco regiões que compõem o Brasil. MÉTODOS Análise secundária de um estudo transversal multicêntrico nacional, realizado em oito hospitais universitários públicos, entre 1º de junho e 31 de agosto de 2020, no Brasil. Amostra por conveniência incluindo mulheres que deram à luz em período de sessenta dias consecutivos e atenderam aos seguintes critérios: maiores de 18 anos; idade gestacional acima de 36 semanas no parto; com recém-nascido único e vivo, sem malformações. RESULTADOS Amostra composta por 1.120 puérperas, das quais 756 (67,5%) declararam que a gravidez não tinha sido programada. A mediana da prevalência de GNP foi de 59,7%. Observou-se diferença significativa na prevalência de GNP entre os hospitais: Campinas (54,8%), Porto Alegre (58,2%), Florianópolis (59%), Teresina (61,2%), Brasília (64,3%), São Paulo (64,6%), Campo Grande (73,9%) e Manaus (95,3%) (p < 0,001). Foram fatores significativamente associados a GNP a idade materna, cor negra, menor renda familiar, maior número de filhos, maior número de pessoas convivendo em casa e não ter parceiro. CONCLUSÃO Na amostra estudada, cerca de dois terços das gestações foram declaradas como não programadas. A prevalência de gestação não planejada teve relação com fatores sociais e demográficos e variou significativamente entre os hospitais universitários avaliados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Contraception , Pregnancy, Unplanned , Reproductive Rights , Family Development Planning
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(10): 999-1009, Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423259

ABSTRACT

Key points Pregnancy places a metabolic overload on the maternal thyroid, especially in the first trimester, mainly because of the demand imposed by the conceptus. The fetal thyroid becomes functionally mature only around pregnancy week 20. Until then, the fetus depends on the transfer of maternal thyroid hormones (THs). Thyroid hormones are essential for the adequate fetal neurofunctional and cognitive development. Hypothyroidism brings higher risks of obstetric and fetal complications, namely, first-trimester miscarriage, preeclampsia and gestational hypertension, placental abruption, prematurity, low birth weight, and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Primary hypothyroidism (involvement of the gland with difficulty in producing and/or releasing TH) is the most common form of disease presentation, with the main etiology of Hashimoto's thyroiditis of autoimmune origin. In about 85%-90% of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, antithyroid antibodies are present; the antithyroperoxidase (ATPO) is the most frequent. Positivity for ATPO is determined when circulating values exceed the upper limit of the laboratory reference. It implies greater risks of adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Such a correlation occurs even in ranges of maternal euthyroidism. The critical point for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism during pregnancy is an elevation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The measurement of free thyroxine (FT4) differentiates between subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. In subclinical hypothyroidism, FT4 is within the normal range, whereas in overt hypothyroidism, FT4 values are below the lower limit of the laboratory reference. Treatment of hypothyroidism is performed with levothyroxine (LT4) replacement with the aim of achieving adequate TSH levels for pregnancy. Some women have a previous diagnosis of hypothyroidism, and may or may not be compensated at the beginning of pregnancy. Even in compensated cases, the increase in LT4 dose is necessary as soon as possible. In the postpartum period, adjustment of the LT4 dose depends on the condition of previous disease, on the positivity for ATPO, and also on the value of LT4 in use at the end of pregnancy. Recommendations In places with full technical and financial conditions, TSH testing should be performed for all pregnant women (universal screening) as early as possible, ideally at the beginning of the first trimester or even in preconception planning. In places with less access to laboratory tests, screening is reserved for cases with greater risk factors for decompensation, namely: previous thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy, type 1 diabetes mellitus or other autoimmune diseases, presence of goiter, previous history of hypo or hyperthyroidism or previous ATPO positivity. The TSH dosage should be repeated throughout pregnancy only in these cases. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is made from the TSH value > 4.0 mIU/L. Pregnant women with previous hypothyroidism, overt hypothyroidism diagnosed during pregnancy or those with the above-mentioned higher risk factors for decompensation should be referred for risk antenatal care, preferably in conjunction with the endocrinologist. Overt hypothyroidism in pregnancy is identified when TSH > 10 mIU/L, and treatment with LT4 is readily recommended at an initial dose of 2 mcg/kg/day. TSH values > 4.0 mUI/L and ≤ 10.0 mUI/L require FT4 measurement with two diagnostic possibilities: overt hypothyroidism when FT4 levels are below the lower limit of the laboratory reference, or subclinical hypothyroidism when FT4 levels are normal. The treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism is LT4 at an initial dose of 1 mcg/kg/day, and the dose should be doubled upon diagnosis of overt hypothyroidism. In cases of TSH > 2.5 and ≤ 4.0 mIU/L, if there are complete conditions, ATPO should be measured. If positive (above the upper limit of normal), treatment with LT4 at a dose of 50 mcg/day is indicated. If conditions are not complete, the repetition of the TSH dosage should be done only for cases at higher risk. In these cases, treatment with LT4 will be established when TSH > 4.0 mIU/L at a dose of 1 mcg/kg/day; if needed, the dose can be adjusted after FT4 evaluation. Women with previous hypothyroidism should have their LT4 dose adjusted to achieve TSH < 2.5 mIU/L at preconception. As soon as they become pregnant, they need a 30% increase in LT4 as early as possible. In practice, they should double the usual dose on two days a week. Levothyroxine should be given 30-60 minutes before breakfast or three hours or more after the last meal. Concomitant intake with ferrous sulfate, calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide and sucralfate should be avoided. The target of LT4 therapy during pregnancy is to achieve a TSH value < 2.5 mIU/L. Once the therapy is started, monthly control must be performed until the mentioned goal is reached. In the postpartum period, women with previous disease should resume the preconception dose. Cases diagnosed during pregnancy in use of LT4 ≤ 50 mcg/day may have the medication suspended. The others should reduce the current dose by 25% to 50% and repeat the TSH measurement in six weeks. Cases of ATPO positivity are at higher risk of developing postpartum thyroiditis and de-escalation of LT4 should be performed as explained.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis
7.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(12): 932-939, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357094

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To study maternal anxiety in pregnant women without comorbidities in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak in Brazil and to study maternal knowledge and concerns about the pandemic. Methods This is a secondary analysis from a national multicenter cross-sectional study performed in 10 cities, from June to August, 2020, in Brazil. Interviewed postpartum women, without medical or obstetrical comorbidities, were included in the present subanalysis. A structured questionnaire and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were applied. Results Out of the 1,662 women, 763 (45.9%) met the criteria for the current analysis and 16.1% presented with moderate and 11.5% with severe maternal anxiety. Moderate or severe maternal anxiety was associated with high school education (odds ratio [OR]:1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.04-2.40). The protective factor was cohabiting with a partner (OR: 0.46; 95%CI: 0.29-0.73). There was a positive correlation between the total BAI score and receiving information about care in the pandemic (rpartial 0.15; p < 0.001); concern about vertical transmission of COVID-19 (rpartial 0.10; p = 0.01); receiving information about breastfeeding (rpartial 0.08; p = 0.03); concerns about prenatal care (rpartial 0.10; p = 0.01), and concerns about the baby contracting COVID-19 (rpartial 0.11; p = 0.004). The correlation was negative in the following aspects: self-confidence in protecting from COVID-19 (rpartial 0.08; p = 0.04), having learned (rpartial 0.09; p = 0.01) and self-confidence in breastfeeding (rpartial 0.22; p < 0.001) in the context of the pandemic. Conclusion The anxiety of pregnant women without medical or obstetrical comorbidities was associated to high school educational level and not living with a partner during the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-confidence in protecting against COVID-19 and knowledge about breastfeeding care during the pandemic reduced maternal anxiety.


Resumo Objetivo Estudar a ansiedade materna em gestantes sem comorbidades no contexto do surto de COVID-19 no Brasil e estudar o conhecimento e as preocupações maternas sobre a pandemia. Métodos Trata-se de análise secundária de um estudo transversal multicêntrico nacional realizado em 10 cidades, de junho a agosto de 2020, no Brasil. Mulheres no pós-parto entrevistadas, sem comorbidades médicas ou obstétricas, foram incluídas nesta subanálise. Foram aplicados um questionário estruturado e o Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck (BAI, na sigla em inglês). Resultados Das 1.662 mulheres, 763 (45,9%) atenderam aos critérios da análise atual e 16,1% apresentaram ansiedade materna moderada e 11,5% ansiedade materna grave. A ansiedade materna moderada ou grave foi associada à escolaridade no ensino médio (odds ratio [OR]: 1,58; intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 1,04-2,40). O fator protetor foi coabitar com companheiro (OR: 0,46; IC95%: 0,29-0,73). Houve correlação positiva entre a pontuação total do BAI e o recebimento de informações sobre cuidados na pandemia (rparcial 0,15; p < 0,001); preocupação com a transmissão vertical de COVID-19 (rparcial 0,10; p = 0,01); receber informações sobre amamentação (rparcial 0,08; p = 0,03); preocupações sobre cuidados pré-natais (rparcial 0,10; p = 0,01) e preocupações sobre o bebê contrair COVID-19 (rparcial 0,11; p = 0,004). A correlação foi negativa com os seguintes aspectos: ter autoconfiança para se proteger (rparcial 0,08; p = 0,04), aprender (rparcial 0,09; p = 0,01) e ter autoconfiança para amamentar (rparcial 0,22; p < 0,001) no contexto da pandemia. Conclusão A ansiedade de gestantes sem comorbidades médicas ou obstétricas esteve associada à escolaridade no ensino médio e não morar com companheiro durante a pandemia de COVID-19. A autoconfiança na proteção contra COVID-19 e o conhecimento sobre os cuidados com a amamentação durante a pandemia reduziram a ansiedade materna.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Femina ; 48(9): 535-539, set. 30, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122580

ABSTRACT

No presente artigo, a Comissão Nacional Especializada em Residência Médica da Febrasgo traz à tona elementos essenciais para conhecer, reconhecer e prevenir a síndrome de burnout em médicos-residentes de ginecologia-obstetrícia. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Burnout, Professional/etiology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Internship and Residency , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors
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