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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212098, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281101

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the pH, Ca2+ release, solubility, and antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) pastes in association with different substances. Methods: Sixty acrylic teeth (n=10) were filled with pastes that associated Ca(OH)2 with the following substances: benzalkonium chloride 5% (G1) and 50% (G2) both in propylene glycol, arnica glycolic extract (G3), green tea glycolic extract (G4), Calen/PMCC™ (G5), and Calen™ (G6). In the group G1 to G4 were used 1g of Ca(OH)2 powder with 0,8g of vehicle. pH and Ca2+ release was measured after 7, 15, and 30 days. For solubility, micro-CT was used immediately and at the periods of 7, 15, and 30 days. For the antimicrobial analysis, a biofilm of E. faecalis was induced in vitro on bovine dentin discs. Live/dead viability dye and confocal scanning microscopy were used. Results: The highest pH values occurred on the first 7 days, and the G6, G1, G3, and G5 presented the highest pH values at this period (P <0.05). Ca2+ release was higher in all groups at 7 days, with the highest values observed in G1, G5, and G6. The volume of all pastes showed no significant difference in the intragroup analysis at 7 and 15 days (P <0.05). G1 and G2 showed the highest antimicrobial action (P <0.05). For the biovolume, there was difference between the G6 and the other groups (P >0.05) with G1 presenting the lowest values. Conclusion: Benzalkonium chloride 5% increases the antimicrobial action of the Ca(OH2), without impairs physicochemical properties


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Calcium Hydroxide , Biofilms , Chemical Phenomena , Anti-Infective Agents
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 10-20, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345504

ABSTRACT

Abstract The host defense response to microbial challenge emerging from the root canal system leads to apical periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of inflammatory cytokines and Nitric Oxide (NO) by macrophages after interaction with Enterococcus faecalis in the: plankton and dislodged biofilm mode; intact biofilm mode stimulated by calcium hydroxide (CH), CH and chlorhexidine (CHX) or Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP). For this purpose, culture of macrophages from monocytes in human peripheral blood (N=8) were exposed to the different modes of bacteria for 24 hours. Subsequently, the cytokines, such as, Tumor Necrotic Factor- alfa (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10; and NO were quantified by Luminex xMAP and Greiss reaction, respectively. In addition to the potential therapeutic effects of the intracanal medication, their antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm were also tested in vitro by confocal microscopy. The experiments` data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn post hoc test (α < 0.05). Bacteria in dislodged biofilm mode were shown to be more aggressive to the immune system than bacteria in plankton mode and negative control, inducing greater expression of NO and TNF-α. Relative to bacteria in intact biofilm mode, the weakest antimicrobial activity occurred in Group CH. In Groups CH/CHX and TAP the percentage of dead bacteria was significantly increased to the same extent. Interestingly, the biofilm itself did not induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines - except for NO - while the biofilm treated with TAP and CH based pastes enhanced the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α; and IL-1 β, respectively. In contrast, the levels of a potent anti-inflammatory (IL-10) were increased in Group TAP.


Resumo A resposta de defesa do hospedeiro ao desafio microbiano que emerge do sistema de canais radiculares leva à periodontite apical. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a expressão de citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias e Óxido Nítrico (NO) por macrófagos após interação com Enterococcus faecalis no modo: planctônio e de biofilme desalojado; biofilme intacto estimulado por hidróxido de cálcio (CH), CH e clorexidina ou Pasta Tri Antibiótica (TAP). Para isto, a cultura de macrófagos originados de monócitos do sangue periférico de humanos (N=8) foi exposta aos diferentes tipos de bactéria por 24 horas. Então, a quantificação da produção de of Fator de Necrose Tumoral- alfa (TNF-α), interleucina (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 e NO por macrófagos se deu por meio do Luminex xMAP e reação de Greiss, respectivamente. Além dos potenciais efeitos terapêuticos desses compostos, sua atividade antimicrobiana contra E. faecalis também foi testada através microscopia confocal. Os dados dos experimentos foram analisados através do teste de Kruskal-Wallis com Dunn`s post hoc (α < 0.05). Bactéria em modo de biofilme desalojado se mostrou mais agressivo ao sistema imune que as bactérias planctônicas e controle negativo induzindo a maior excreção de NO e TNF-α. Em relação ao biofilme intacto, a atividade antimicrobiana mais fraca ocorreu no grupo de CH. Os grupos CHX e TAP aumentaram significativamente a porcentagem de bactérias mortas na mesma extensão. Interessantemente, o biofilme por ele mesmo não induziu a liberação de citocinas pro-inflamatórias - exceto por NO - enquanto que o biofilme tratado com TAP ou pastas a base de CH aumentaram os níveis de IL-6; e TNF-α e IL-1 β respectivamente. Em contraste, os níveis da potente citocina anti-inflamatória (IL-10) foram aumentados pelo grupo TAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plankton , Biofilms , Root Canal Irrigants , Bacteria , Calcium Hydroxide , Chlorhexidine , Enterococcus faecalis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 632-638, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134550

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) associated with the benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on the adhesion and formation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms attached to coated dentin. Discs standard bovine dentin blocks were treated with the coating materials evaluated: Saline solution (control), 17 % EDTA, 17 % EDTA associated with 1 % BAK for 5 minutes and subsequently washed with saline solution. Afterwards, biofilms of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) were grown on the surface of coated dentin blocks for time intervals of 1 hour and 7 days (n = 20) and were subsequently washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Bacterial viability and total biovolume were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using the Live/Dead technique. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn tests were used to determine statistical differences (a = 5 %). The 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK group showed significantly lower biovolume and bacterial viability values at the end of 1 hour (p < 0.05). After 7 days of contamination, the 17 % EDTA and 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK groups showed similar results that differed statistically from those of the control group (p < 0.05). The saline solution group showed higher values. The use of BAK associated with EDTA on dentin blocks surfaces before exposure to contamination was able to interfere in the adhesion of E. faecalis to dentin. Also, dentin treatment by BAK associated with a chelating agent influences the secondary biofilm formation, which could have important effects on the long-term success of root canal treatment.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio consistió en investigar in vitro, la influencia del ácido etilendiamino-tetraacético (EDTA) con cloruro de benzalconio (BAK) en la adhesión y formación de biopelículas de Enterococcus faecalis a la dentina. Discos de dentina bovina fueron tratadas con solución salina (control), 17 % de EDTA, 17% de EDTA asociado con 1 % de BAK durante 5 minutos y lavadas con solución salina. Las biopelículas de E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) se cultivaron sobre los discos de dentina durante intervalos de tiempo de 1 hora y 7 días (n = 20), lavados con solución salina tamponada con fosfato (PBS). La viabilidad bacteriana y el biovolumen total se analizaron mediante microscopía de barrido por láser (CLSM) utilizando la técnica Live / Dead. Se realizó prueba no paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis, seguida por Dunn con una diferencia estadística (a = 5 %). El grupo de 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK mostró valores significativamente menores de biovolumen y viabilidad bacteriana al final de 1 hora (p < 0,05). Después de 7 días de contaminación, los grupos de 17 % EDTA y 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK mostraron resultados similares que diferían estadísticamente del grupo control (p < 0,05). La solución salina mostró valores más altos. La asociación de BAK con EDTA antes de la contaminación interfirió en la adhesión de E. faecalis. Además, el tratamiento de la dentina por BAK asociado con EDTA influye en la formación de biopelículas secundarias, lo que podría tener efectos importantes sobre el éxito a largo plazo del tratamiento del conducto radicular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Dentin/microbiology , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Microscopy, Confocal , Saline Solution
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e46, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889469

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of different endodontic pastes against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, isolated from the urinary tract, and compare the action with E. faecalis ATCC 4083, isolated from the root canal. For this purpose, dentin blocks were infected for 21 days with both bacteria at different time-intervals to ensure there would be no cross contamination. After this period, blocks were immersed in the test medications for 7 days, according to the following groups: CH/S, CH/P, CH/CMCP, CH/CHX, CH/DAP and TAP. Images of the samples were captured with a confocal microscope and the percentage of live cells was computed by means of the Bioimage program. The ATCC 29212 strain was shown to be more resistant to CH/SS, Calen, CH/DAP, and TAP than the ATCC 4083 strain. The antimicrobial action of the medications against each strain were divergent concerning the order of susceptibility. The authors concluded that the strains behaved in a different manner: in general, those extracted from the urinary tract were more resistant to the tested medications. Therefore, when E. faecalis must be used for in vitro research in endodontics, we suggest the use of ATCC 4083 strain to obtain results that are closer to the clinical reality.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Enterococcus faecalis/classification , Enterococcus faecalis/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Confocal , Biofilms/classification , Dental Pulp Cavity/ultrastructure
5.
Rev. Salusvita (Online) ; 36(1): 123-140, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876191

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a irrigação é uma das etapas essenciais no preparo biomecânico e, buscando aumentar a eficiência desta, novos métodos vem sendo empregados no intuito de melhorar a ação e o alcance das soluções irrigadoras. Objetivo: analisar a eficácia do sistema EndoActivator em várias etapas do tratamento endodôntico. Resultados e discussão: apesar de diferenças de metodologias na literatura, o EndoActivator apresentou bons resultados em comparação com a irrigação convencional quando empregado em diferentes fases do tratamento endodôntico. Conclusão: o sistema EndoActivator é seguro e eficaz durante o preparo biomecânico, porém, assim como outros dispositivos de agitação mecânica da solução irrigante, não é capaz de promover completa limpeza dos canais radiculares.


Introduction: the irrigation is an essential part of biomechanical preparation and seeking increase the efficiency of this, new methods have been used in order to expand the effect of irrigating solutions, and promote the reach for areas with difficult access. Objective: the objective of this literature review was to analyze the effectiveness of the EndoActivator system in several stages of endodontic treatment. Results and Discussion: despite differences in methodologies in the literature, the EndoActivator presented good results in comparison to conventional irrigation when used in different phases of endodontic treatment. Conclusion: the EndoActivator system is safe and effective during biomechanical preparation, but, like other mechanical agitation devices of the irrigating solution, it is not able to promote complete cleaning to root canals.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Irrigants/analysis , Root Canal Therapy/trends , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Review Literature as Topic , Smear Layer , Endodontics/instrumentation
6.
Dent. press endod ; 6(2): 21-27, May-Aug. 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-846946

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar se a etapa de processamento em que o cimento é obtido in uencia nas suas propriedades físico-químicas. Foram avaliados a composição química, o tempo de presa, solubilidade, pH e liberação de íons cálcio do cimento Portland (Grupo 1), que passa por todas as etapas do processamento; e do cimento que foi obtido na etapa de calcinação (Grupo 2). Métodos: para avaliação da composição química, foi utilizado um microscópio eletrônico de varredura na função EDS. Os testes de tempo de presa e solubilidade foram realizados de acordo com as normas #57 da ADA. Para determinação do pH e liberação de íons cálcio, foram utilizados um peagômetro e um espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica, respectivamente. Resultados: a composição química de ambos os cimentos apresentou maior quantidade de íons cálcio e silício; porém, o cimento Portland apresentou traços de enxofre. Com relação ao tempo de presa, o Grupo 2 apresentou média de tempo de presa estatisticamente menor do que o Grupo 1 (p < 0,05). Com relação à solubilidade, ambos os cimentos apresentaram valores dentro do que é recomendado pela ADA, que é de no máximo 3%; porém, houve diferença significativa, sendo o Grupo 2 mais solúvel (p < 0,05). Na análise do pH e liberação de íons cálcio, observou-se que ambos os cimentos promoveram alcalinização e liberação de íons cálcio, independentemente do tempo analisado. Conclusão: com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a etapa do processamento em que é obtido o cimento influencia em suas propriedades físico-químicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcarea Silicata , Dental Cements/analysis , Dental Cements/chemistry , Chemical Phenomena , Solubility
7.
Salusvita ; 34(2)2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-775842

ABSTRACT

Entende-se que o selamento coronário é tão importante para o sucesso da terapia endodôntica quanto o próprio tratamento em si, podendo ser considerado parte integral deste. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão de literatura sobre os principais seladores coronários temporários e suas propriedades, para elucidar aos endodontistas e clínicos gerais, qual as melhores opções. Resultados e Discussão: a melhor capacidade de vedamento foi atribuída a materiais fotoativados, cimento de ionômero de vidro e coltosol. Porém, a variação de metodologias encontrados na literatura é grande, tornando difícil suas comparações. Conclusões: existe a necessidade de padronização destes testes, e verificação de sua legitimidade para que possamos ter conclusões concretas sobre o assunto em questão...


It is known that the coronal sealing ability is so important to the endodontic therapy`s success, as the treatment itself, could being considered an integral part of it. Objective: a literature review of the main temporary filling materials and their properties, for the avoidance of the incorrect use of these, by endodontics and general practitioners. Results and Discussion: photoactive material, Ionomer Cement Glass and Coltosol were found to exhibit the best coronal seal. However, variation of regimens used in literature was large, making comparison of reports difficult. Conclusion: it is necessary the standardization of these tests and checking of its legitimacy, so we will have concrete conclusions on the subject in question...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dental Restoration, Temporary , Endodontics , Dental Materials/analysis
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