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1.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 849-857, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993512

ABSTRACT

Objective:To prepare cell membrane-coated nanovesicles with targeted delivery of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist, and to explore the effect and mechanism of inducing the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and treating osteosarcoma.Methods:TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicles were prepared by polycarbonate membrane extruders. The morphology and size of nanovesicles were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size analyzer, and the drug loading performance of the nanovesicles to TLR4 agonist was investigated. TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicles were co-incubated with macrophages in vitro, and the targeting ability of nanovesicles to macrophages and its role in regulating the function of macrophages were detected by confocal fluorescence microscopy. In vitro experiments, a cell co-culture system was established. After the upper layer macrophages were treated by the control group, the TLR4 agonist group and the TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicle group, the lower layer osteosarcoma cells were collected for CCK-8 and cloning formation experiments to evaluate their effects on the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells. In vivo experiments, an osteosarcoma subcutaneous graft tumor model was established, and mice were randomly divided into the control group, the TLR4 agonist group, and the TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicle group. After the treatment by caudal vein, the tumor targeting ability of nanovesicles in vivo was explored through the in vivo imaging system, and the volume of tumor tissue was continuously detected. The subcutaneous tumors were stained to detect macrophage-related markers, and their effect on the polarization of macrophages was evaluated. The TUNEL fluorescence of tumor tissues was further detected.Results:TEM showed the round shape of TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicle and the size was about 200 nm. The co-incubation of 0.05 mg TLR4 agonist with 0.1 mg nanovesicles was the best condition for the preparation of drug-loaded nanovesicles. The drug loading efficiency was about 35% and the drug loading content was about 0.11 mg/mg. The membrane-coated nanovesicles could efficiently load and deliver TLR4 agonist. TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicles were labeled with DiD red fluorescent dye, and then the labeled nanovesicles were co-incubated with macrophages. It was found by confocal fluorescence microscopy that DiD labeled TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicles significantly accumulated in macrophages, and the fluorescence of M1-type macrophage marker (iNOS) was significantly enhanced, which could induce M1 polarization of macrophages. In vitro experiments, it was found that the number of osteosarcoma cells in the TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicle group was significantly reduced under the light microscope, and the cell morphology was wrinkled and rounded. CCK-8 and cloning formation experiments showed that the proliferation and migration ability of osteosarcoma cells in the TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicle group was significantly reduced compared with the control group and the TLR4 agonist group. A subcutaneous graft tumor model was established. In vivo imaging experiments showed that TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicles locally accumulated in tumor tissues in vivo, but were not distributed in other organs. The growth of tumor tissue was significantly inhibited in the TLR4 agonist loaded nanovesicle group. Moreover, the fluorescence of M1-type macrophage marker (iNOS) was significantly enhanced (relative fluorescence intensity: 3.27±0.19), while the fluorescence of M2-type macrophage marker (CD163) was significantly decreased (relative fluorescence intensity: 0.14±0.04). TUNEL fluorescence staining showed that the apoptosis level of osteosarcoma cells was significantly increased (relative fluorescence intensity: 9.53±0.21).Conclusion:Membrane-coated nanovesicles could targeted deliver TLR4 agonist to osteosarcoma, induce TAMspolarization, remodel tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment, promote cell apoptosis, and effectively kill osteosarcoma.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 998-1013, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971741

ABSTRACT

The skeletal system, which contains bones, joints, tendons, ligaments and other elements, plays a wide variety of roles in body shaping, support and movement, protection of internal organs, production of blood cells and regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. The prevalence of skeletal diseases and disorders, such as osteoporosis and bone fracture, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and intervertebral disc degeneration, increases with age, causing pain and loss of mobility and creating a huge social and economic burden globally. Focal adhesions (FAs) are macromolecular assemblies that are composed of the extracellular matrix (ECM), integrins, intracellular cytoskeleton and other proteins, including kindlin, talin, vinculin, paxillin, pinch, Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and integrin-linked protein kinase (ILK) and other proteins. FA acts as a mechanical linkage connecting the ECM and cytoskeleton and plays a key role in mediating cell-environment communications and modulates important processes, such as cell attachment, spreading, migration, differentiation and mechanotransduction, in different cells in skeletal system by impacting distinct outside-in and inside-out signaling pathways. This review aims to integrate the up-to-date knowledge of the roles of FA proteins in the health and disease of skeletal system and focuses on the specific molecular mechanisms and underlying therapeutic targets for skeletal diseases.

3.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 509-518, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932860

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute hyperextension spinal cord injury (SCI) in children, and to provide some recommendations for the treatment and prevention of this disease.Methods:Reviewed the data of children of SCI after sustained or repeated hyperextension of the spine at Wuhan Union Hospital and Wuhan Children's Hospital from September 2010 to September 2020. According to the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS grade), the patients were divided into complete SCI group and incomplete SCI group. The age, symptoms and evolution after injury, neurological level of injury, imaging data, laboratory examination data, prognosis and complications of the two groups were analyzed. Retrospectively summarize the characteristics of this type of injury.Results:Forty-four cases of acute hyperextension SCI in children were included. Their age ranged from 3 to 10 years old, 95% of them were under 8 years old and 95% of them were female. There was no significant difference in age at injury and time of dance training between children with complete SCI and incomplete SCI. Back and leg pain, lower limb weakness or paresthesia, and rapidly progress to complete or incomplete SCI in a short period were typical symptoms. All blood test results anddiagnostic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid were unremarkable or negative. There was no fracture or dislocation in the whole spine. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a longitudinally extended intramedullary high-intensity signal in the thoracolumbar spinal cord. Complete SCI accounted for 60% of all cases, and the prognosis was poor with spinal cord atrophy and various complications.Conclusion:Children younger than 10 years old after sustained or repeated hyperextension of the spine may suffer acute hyperextension SCI. Children with complete SCI have poor prognosis and serious complications. Therefore, prevention of this type of injury is the best strategy.

4.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 721-726, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986574

ABSTRACT

Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor with extreme invasiveness and metastasis as well as dismal prognosis. It is critical to rapidly find a unique therapy strategy capable of significantly improving the prognosis of osteosarcoma. Tumor immunotherapy has the potential to reawaken the immune system, restart and sustain the tumor-immune cycle in the body, resulting in the death of tumor cells. CD8+ CTL, CD4+ T cells, NK cells and NKT cells all play critical roles in tumor immunity, while humoral immunity may not only inhibit tumor growth but also enhance it. Researchers have devised various strategies to boost the immune system in recent years based on tumor immune response studies. This paper highlights and examines osteosarcoma immunotherapy from two perspectives: (1) boosting the response of patient's own immune system to the tumor; (2) exogenously improving the patient's immunological function.

5.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 618-627, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909912

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of traumatic spinal cord injury in China in 2018.Methods:Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to randomly select hospitals capable of treating patients with spinal cord injury from 3 regions,9 provinces and 27 cities in China to retrospectively investigate eligible patients with traumatic spinal cord injury admitted in 2018. National and regional incidence rates were calculated. The data of cause of injury,injury level,severity of injury,segment and type of fracture,complications,death and other data were collected by medical record questionnaire,and analyzed according to geographical region,age and gender.Results:Medical records of 4,134 patients were included in this study,with a male-to-female ratio of 2.99∶1. The incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury in China in 2018 was 50.484 / 1 million (95% CI 50.122-50.846). The highest incidence in the Eastern region was 53.791 / 1 million (95% CI 53.217-54.365). In the whole country,the main causes of injury were high falls (29.58%),as well as in the Western region (40.68%),while the main causes of injury in the Eastern and Central regions were traffic injuries (31.22%,30.10%). The main injury level was cervical spinal cord in the whole country (64.49%),and the proportion of cervical spinal cord injury in the Central region was the highest (74.68%),and the proportion of lumbosacral spinal cord injury in the Western region was the highest (32.30%). The highest proportion of degree of injury was incomplete quadriplegia (55.20%),and the distribution pattern was the same in each region. A total of 65.87% of the patients were complicated with fracture or dislocation,77.95% in the Western region and only 54.77% in the Central region. In the whole country,the head was the main combined injury (37.87%),as well as in the Eastern and Central regions,while the proportion of chest combined injury in the Western region was the highest (38.57%). A total of 32.90% of the patients were complicated with respiratory complications. There were 23 patients (0.56%) died in hospital,of which 17(73.91%) died of respiratory dysfunction. Conclusions:The Eastern region of China has a high incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury. Other epidemiological features include high fall as the main cause of injury cervical spinal cord injury as the main injury level,incomplete quadriplegia as the main degree of injury,head as the main combined injury,and respiratory complications as the main complication.

6.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 385-392, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867725

ABSTRACT

TSCI have dyskinesia and sensory disturbance that can cause various life-threaten complications. The patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), seriously affecting the quality of life of patients. Based on the epidemiology of TSCI and domestic and foreign literatures as well as expert investigations, this expert consensus reviews the definition, injury classification, rehabilitation assessment, rehabilitation strategies and rehabilitation measures of TSCI so as to provide early standardized rehabilitation treatment methods for TSCI.

7.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 111-116, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867685

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, and spreads rapidly to all through Hubei Province and even to the whole country. The virus is 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), never been seen previously in human, but all the population is generally susceptible. The virus spreads through many ways and is highly infectious, which brings great difficulties to the prevention and control of COVID-19. Based on the needs of emergency surgery for orthopedic trauma patients and review of the latest diagnosis and treatment strategy of COVID-19 and the latest principles and principles of evidence-based medicine in traumatic orthopedics, the authors put forward this expert consensus to systematically standardize the clinical pathway and protective measures of emergency surgery for orthopedic trauma patients during prevention and control of COVID-19 and provide reference for the emergency surgical treatment of orthopedic trauma patients in hospitals at all levels.

8.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 111-116, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811516

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) has been reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, and spreads rapidly to all through Hubei Province and even to the whole country. The virus is 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), never been seen previously in human, but all the population is generally susceptible. The virus spreads through many ways and is highly infectious, which brings great difficulties to the prevention and control of NCP. Based on the needs of orthopedic trauma patients for emergency surgery and review of the latest NCP diagnosis and treatment strategy and the latest principles and principles of evidence-based medicine in traumatic orthopedics, the authors put forward this expert consensus to systematically standardize the clinical pathway and protective measures of emergency surgery for orthopedic trauma patients during prevention and control of NCP and provide reference for the emergency surgical treatment of orthopedic trauma patients in hospitals at all levels.

9.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma ; (12): 1047-1051, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799897

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate Herbert screwing directly via the anterior approach for femoral head fractures of Pipkin type Ⅱ in the youth.@*Methods@#A retrospective analysis was conducted of the 16 patients who had been treated at Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College for femoral head fractures of Pipkin type Ⅱ from August 2016 to June 2018. They were 9 men and 7 women, aged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 25.6 years). Of them, 10 cases who had been complicated with posterior dis-location of the hip received emergency hip reduction(<6 h) before surgical fixation. All the patients underwent Herbert screwing directly via the anterior approach. Their incision length, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, hospitalization time, Harris hip scores, therapeutic efficacy and complications were recorded.@*Results@#In this series, the incision length averaged 10.4 cm, operation time 45.6 min, intraoperative blood loss 46.5 mL, and hospitalization time 4.0 d. All the 16 patients were followed up for 11 to 15 months (average, 12.7 months). Their Harris hip scores at preoperation, 3, 6 and 9 months postoperation and at the last follow-up were, respectively, 14.3±2.2, 64.8±2.4, 81.1±4.9, 88.1±4.6 and 91.9±3.4 points, showing a significant difference between any 2 time points (P<0.05). The therapeutic efficacy at the last follow-up by the Thompson-Epstein clinical evaluation was assessed as excellent in 9 cases, as good in 6 and as fair in one. No osteonecrosis of the femoral head or heterotopic ossification was observed by follow-up.@*Conclusion@#For young patients with femoral head fracture of Pipkin type Ⅱ, Herbert screwing directly via the anterior approach provides easy exposure and manipulation, does not aggravate the blood supply to the femoral head, decreases incidence of heterotopic ossification, and leads to shorter operation time and quick functional recovery of the hip.

10.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma ; (12): 1047-1051, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824419

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate Herbert screwing directly via the anterior approach for femoral head fractures of Pipkin type Ⅱ in the youth.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of the 16 patients who had been treated at Department of Orthopaedics,Union Hospital,Tongji Medical College for femoral head fractures of Pipkin type Ⅱ from August 2016 to June 2018.They were 9 men and 7 women,aged from 18 to 45 years (mean,25.6 years).Of them,10 cases who had been complicated with posterior dislocation of the hip received emergency hip reduction(< 6 h) before surgical fixation.All the patients underwent Herbert screwing directly via the anterior approach.Their incision length,operation time,intraoperative blood loss,hospitalization time,Harris hip scores,therapeutic efficacy and complications were recorded.Results In this series,the incision length averaged 10.4 cm,operation time 45.6 min,intraoperative blood loss 46.5 mL,and hospitalization time 4.0 d.All the 16 patients were followed up for 11 to 15 months (average,12.7 months).Their Harris hip scores at preoperation,3,6 and 9 months postoperation and at the last follow-up were,respectively,14.3 ±2.2,64.8 ±2.4,81.1 ±4.9,88.1 ±4.6 and 91.9 ± 3.4 points,showing a significant difference between any 2 time points (P < 0.05).The therapeutic efficacy at the last follow-up by the Thompson-Epstein clinical evaluation was assessed as excellent in 9 cases,as good in 6 and as fair in one.No osteonecrosis of the femoral head or heterotopic ossification was observed by follow-up.Conclusion For young patients with femoral head fracture of Pipkin type Ⅱ,Herbert screwing directly via the anterior approach provides easy exposure and manipulation,does not aggravate the blood supply to the femoral head,decreases incidence of heterotopic ossification,and leads to shorter operation time and quick functional recovery of the hip.

11.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1511-1521, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-734401

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of modified open-door laminoplasty with preservation ofthe unilateral paraspinal muscle ligament complex in treating ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine.Methods From June 2015 to July 2017,thirty-two patients with OPLL of the cervical spine who underwent modified open-door laminoplasty with preservation of the unilateral paraspinal muscle ligament complex were retrospectively analyzed(modified group).There were 20 males and 12 females with the average age of 61.72±8.41 years (range 46-75 years).The decompression segment range included three cases of C2-C6,seven cases of C2-C7,eight cases of C3-C6,and fourteen cases of C3-C7.Moreover,twenty-three patients with OPLL of the cervical spine who underwent traditional unilateral open-door laminoplasty at the same time were included as controls (control group).The demographics,operation duration,and blood loss volume was recorded.The visual analogue scale (VAS),Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores (JOA),improvement rate of JOA score and neck disability index (NDI) were recorded and analyzed at preoperation,three months after operation,six months after operation and at the final follow-up.The cervical curvature,cervical curvature index (CCI),range of motion (ROM) were measured and statistically analyzed on the lateral X-ray film of the cervical spine.The union rate of the lamina hinge and that of spinous process-lamina was measured on the cross section of the CT scan.Bilateral cervical posterior muscle volume was recorded and analyzed at cross-section plane on MRI.Axial symptoms,C5 nerve root palsy and other complications were also recorded.Results All the patients were followed-up for 6 to 18 months (mean,13.04±4.67 months in control group,11.81±4.93 months in modified group).At the final follow-up,the JOA,VAS and NDI scores improved from preoperatively 6.09±0.79 to 13.43± 1.53,4.22±1.04 to 2.83±1.15 and 25.48%±3.20% to 8.83%±5.41% in the control group,versus 6.28±1.05 to 13.88±1.48,4.09± 1.00 to 1.16±0.57 and 25.06%±3.24% to 5.66%±2.46% in the modified group.The postoperative JOA score and recovery rate of the two groups was not significantly different,whereas the VAS and NDI scores were significantly reduced in the modified group compared to the control group.The maximum cervical flexion angle,cervical curvature,ROM and CCI of control group were 6.26°± 3.31°,30.17°±4.56°,11.39°±1.95° and 9.74%±4.05% at the final follow-up,which were reduced significantly compared to pre-operation.The maximum cervical flexion angle,cervical curvature,ROM and CCI of modified group were 10.06°± 1.93°,35.03°± 5.01°,17.03°±2.86° and 14.22%±5.00%,and there were no significant differences compared to pre-operation.There were significant differences among two groups.At the final follow-up,the posterior muscle volume of the two groups at open side was decreased compared to preoperation,but there was no significant difference between the two groups.At the last follow-up,the posterior muscle volume at hinge side was not changed compared to preoperation in modified open-door laminoplasty group,while the volume of the posterior muscle at hinge side in the traditional control group decreased compared to preoperation.The difference was statistically significant.A total of eight patients with axial symptom were present after operation.There were two patients (6%,2/ 32) in the modified group and six patients (26%,6/23) in the control group.The difference of axial symptoms incidence was statistically significant between the two groups.Conclusion Modified open-door laminoplasty with preservation of the unilateral paraspinal muscle ligament complex is an effective technique in treating OPLL of the cervical spine.The technique not only guaranteed to have good recovery of neurological function and to maintain cervical curvature and range of motion,but also contributed to decrease the occurrence of postoperative axial symptoms.

12.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 484-489, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707330

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the clinical effect of three-dimensional printing template technology with X-ray fluoroscopy in assisting surgery for sacroiliac screw placement. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted on 28 cases of sacroiliac complex injury from January 2015 to December 2016. The patients were divided into template group (13 cases) and fluoroscopy group (15 cases) according to whether the preoperative three-dimensional printing template was adopted. In template group, there were nine males and four females, with an average age of 46.7 years (range, 18-68 years). According to Tile typing, there were eight cases of type B (two type B1, three type B2, and three type B3) and five cases of type C (three type CI and two type C2). In fluoroscopy group, there were 11 males and four females, with an average age of 47.1 years (range, 18-65 years). According to Tile typing, there were 10 cases of type B (three type B1, four type B2, and three type B3) and five cases of type C (three type C 1 and two type C2). The screw numbers, time for single screw placement, and fluoroscopy frequency were recorded. The Matta criteria was used to evaluate fracture reduction quality, and Majeed score was used to evaluate pelvic fracture function at the last follow-up. Results All patients were followed up for 6-20 months [(10.4±0.6) months]. Fifteen screws were implanted in template group, and 17 in fluoroscopy group. The time for single screw placement was 25-38 minutes [(28 ±5.3) minutes] in template group and 45-70 minutes [(60.3 ±5.8) minutes] in fluoroscopy group (P <0.01). The fluoroscopy frequency was 2-5 times [(2.8 ±0.5) times] in template group and 11-23 times [(15.4 ±3.5) times] in fluoroscopy group. According to the Matta criteria, there were eight excellent cases, four good, one fair, with an excellent and good rate of 92% in template group; there were seven excellent cases, six good, two fair, with an excellent and good rate of 87% in fluoroscopy group (P>0.05). According to Majeed score at the last follow up, there were eight excellent cases, three good, two fair, with an excellent and good rate of 85% in template group; there were six excellent cases, six good, three fair, with an excellent and good rate of 80% in fluoroscopy group (P>0.05). Conclusions Compared with traditional surgery, three-dimensional printing template technology assisted surgery for sacroiliac screws placement presents advantages of less operation time and reduced fluoroscopy frequency. This technology improves the safety profile and should be further promoted in clinical applications.

13.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1100-1105, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-611068

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the advantage and application prospect of 3D printing technology in assisting surgery for complex tibial plateau fractures.Methods The complete clinical data of 41 patients (48 knees) were retrospectively analyzed.And these patients were divided into two groups as 3D printing assisted operation group and traditional operation group,according to whether 3D printing technology was applied.Study was carried out to compare the clinical efficacy of surgery assisted by 3D printing technology and traditional surgery in the treatment of complex tibial plateau fractures.The 3D printing assisted operation group included 18 patients (22 knees,12 males and 6 females),aging from 16 to 68 (mean age 45.5±7.2),and there were 12 cases of Schatzker Ⅴ and 10 Ⅵ.The traditional operation group included 23 patients (26 knees,15 males and 8 females),aging from 19 to 69 (mean age,46.2±6.8),and there were 14 cases of Schatzker Ⅴ and 12 Ⅵ.The operation time,intraoperative blood loss,the Rasmussen score and hospital for special surgery knee score (HSS) at 6 weeks post-operation were analyzed and the difference between the two groups was tested.Results All those patients were followed up for 7 to 20 months (mean 15 months).For 3D printing assisted operation group,the mean operation time was 81.4±6.3 min for Schatzker Ⅴ and 90.6± 15.4 min for Schatzker Ⅵ;the mean intraoperative blood loss was 200.4±72.3 ml for Schatzker Ⅴ and 280.6±101.6 ml for Schatzker Ⅵ;the result of 6-week Rasmussen score was 14 excellent,6 good and 2 fair (excellent and good rate 90.9%);the result of 6-week HSS score was 15 excellent,5 good and 2 fair (excellent and good rate 90.9%).Then for traditional operation group,the mean operation time was 100.4± 15.3 min for Schatzker Ⅴ and 111.5±20.2 min for Schatzker Ⅵ;the mean intraoperative blood loss was 450.4±173.3 ml for Schatzker Ⅴ and 500.5±247.2 ml for Schatzker Ⅵ;the result of 6-week Rasmussen score was 14 excellent,8 good,2 fair and 2 bad (excellent and good rate 84.6%);the result of 6-week HSS score was 13 excellent,8 good,2 fair and 3 bad (excellent and good rate 80.8%).The difference in operation time,intraoperative blood loss had statistical significance between the two groups;but the difference in 6-month post-operation Rasmussen score and HSS score had no statistical significance.Conclusion Compared with traditional surgery,3D printing technology assisted surgery for complex tibial plateau fracture possesses advantage such as shortened operation time,reduced intraoperative blood loss;but there's no evidence for improved knee function at 6 weeks post-operation.

14.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1075-1080, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-611001

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the efficacy of proximal femur locking plate(PFLP) for the treatment of unstable femoral intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients.Methods Data of 120 cases of patients with unstable femoral intertrochanteric fractures who were treated by PFLP were retrospectively analyzed.There were 56 males and 64 were females,aging from 62 to 78 year-old (average,69.4 year-old).85 cases were left hip,and 35 cases right hip.According to AO fracture classification,there were 12 cases of A2.2,23 A2.3,34 A3.1,29 A3.2,and 22 A3.3.According to Evans intertrochanteric fractures classification:there were 93 cases of type Ⅲ,19 type Ⅳ,and 8 type Ⅴ.Operation time,length of hospital stay,fracture healing time,postoperative complications and hip joint Harris scores were recorded.Results All patients were followed up for 8-14 months (average,12.4 months).Their operating time were 51-80 min (average,63.1 min);X-ray exposure were 8-15 times (average,11.6 times);intraoperative blood loss were 70-120 ml (average,92.7 ml);postoperative drainage volume were 50-100 ml (average,61.7 ml),and length of hospital stay were 7-14 d (average,10.2 days).The healing time ranged from 12 to 32 weeks (20.4 weeks average).14 cases had delayed union,and healing time was 8-10 months.In addition,4 cases had deep vein thrombosis (after thrombolysis therapy the vein was recanalized);2 had internal fixation broken,who were then treated with PFNA Ⅱ,and bone healed after 6 months;5 had hip varus,who were then treated via hip replacement,and no hip prosthesis fracture were found.No other complications occurred in the remaining patients.At the latest follow-up,according to Harris hip score:there were 38 cases with excellent results,71 good,9 fair,and 2 poor,and the rate of excellent and good was 90.8% (109/120).Conclusion PFLP for the treatment of unstable femoral intertrochanteric fractures has advantages of less invasion,less complication,reliable fixation and high fracture healing rate,thus it is suitable for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients.

15.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1088-1092, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-610999

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the related factors of femoral head necrosis after internal fixation operation of femoral neck fracture.Methods Clinical data of 524 patients with femoral neck fracture who underwent internal fixation surgery between January 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.Taking the femoral head necrosis as an observable indicator,the clinical data of postoperative femoral head necrosis and those other patients who were treated at the same period were compared.Whether the clinical factors (gender,age,surgical reduction type,fracture type,quality of reduction,post-injury operation time,loading time after operation,and whether to withdraw internal fixation) were in correlation with postoperative femoral head necrosis was analyzed by univariate analysis.Then the statistically significant indicators were integrated into logistic regression analysis to determine the related factors of femoral head necrosis.Results According to inclusion and exclusion criteria,the study group consisted of 212 cases,including 94 males and 118 females;the follow-up time was 2-5 years,and the average follow-up time was 3.6±1.6 years.There were 46 cases with femoral head necrosis and 166 cases without femoral head necrosis after operation.The rate of femoral head necrosis was 21.7% (46/212).The femoral head necrosis group included 46 cases with 21 males and 25 females;20 cases below 60 years old and 26 cases above 60 years old;17 cases using open reduction and 29 cases using closed reduction;6 cases belong to type Ⅰ/Ⅱ and 40 cases belong to type Ⅲ/Ⅳ according to Garden classification;16 cases got satisfactory reduction while 30 cases with unsatisfactory reduction;30 cases below 48 h and 16 cases above 48 h on post-injury operation time;17 cases below 3 months and 29 cases above 3 months on post-operation loading time;22 cases with internal fixation removal and 24 cases without internal fixation removal.The femoral head without necrosis group included 166 cases with 73 males and 93 females;84 cases below 60 years old and 82 cases above 60 years old;69 cases using open reduction and 98 cases using closed reduction;120 cases belong to type Ⅰ/Ⅱ and 46 cases belong to type Ⅲ/Ⅳ according to Garden classification;160 cases got satisfactory reduction while 6 cases with unsatisfactory reduction;119 cases below 48 h and 47 cases above 48 h on post-injury operation time;70 cases below 3 months and 96 cases above 3 months on post-operation loading time;74 cases with internal fixation removal and 92 cases without internal fixation removal.Univariate x2 analysis suggested that fracture type and quality of reduction were associated with postoperative femoral head necrosis.Other clinical factors (gender,age,surgical reduction type,post-injury operation time,loading time after operation and whether to remove internal fixation or not) were not associated with postoperative femoral head necrosis.The multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed fracture type and quality of reduction were significantly related to postoperative femoral head necrosis.Conclusion Femoral head necrosis after internal fixation operation of femoral neck fracture is affected by many factors.The fracture type and quality of reduction are important factors affecting femoral head necrosis after internal fixation operation of femoral neck fracture.

16.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1093-1099, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-610998

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the age peak of incidence,pathologic sites,therapeutic effect and complications of different treatment for hip fractures in the elderly.Methods Hip fractures,therapy,elderly were used as key words to search articles both in English and Chinese from 1979 to 2017.The articles were filtrated by title,abstract and full text and 32 of them were left.All the patients were objects of this study,but the repeated cases were excluded.The patients' data such as age of onset,gender,fracture type,operation method,follow-up time,and complications were collected and analyzed by systematic analysis.Results Data of 2 758 patients in 32 papers had been collected for analysis.There were 1791 femoral neck fractures and 967 intertrochanteric fractures,with a ratio of 1.85:1.The patients' age of onset was ranging from 54 to 92 years old,with an average of 76.7 years old,and the age peak of incidence was from 70 to 79 years old.The sex ratio was 1:1.66 (1 037 males:1721 females).All the patients had been followed up for 0.5 to 18 years,(average,7.8 years).Among 927 femoral neck fractures who were treated by 3 lag screws,there were 278 cases of non-union (29.9%),139 femoral head necrosis(15.1%) and 19 internal fixation loosening (2.0%);but for 183 femoral neck fractures who were treated by dynamic hip screws (DHS),there were 51 cases of non-union (28.1%),31 femoral head necrosis(17.0%),3 internal fixation losening(1.8%),and 27 cutting effect (15%).Then for 400 femoral neck fractures who were treated by hemiarthroplasty,there were 6 cases of dislocation(1.5%),14 shaft fracture (3.5%),8 deep infection (2.0%);while for 281 femoral neck fractures who were treated by total hip arthroplasty,there were 14 cases of dislocation (5.0%),11 shaft fracture (4.0%),and 10 deep infection (3.5%).On the other hand,for 354 intertrochanteric fractures who were treated by proximal femoral nail or proximal femoral nail antirotation internal fixation (PFN or PFNA),there were 18 cases of trochanter fracture (5.0%),28 hip varus (8.1%),32 displacement (9.0%);and for 210 intertrochanteric fractures who were treated by Gamma nail,there were 17 cases of trochanter fracture (7.9%),11 cutting effect (5.0%),6 displacement (3.0%);and for 135 intertrochanteric fractures who were treated by DHS,there were 8 cases of cutting effect (6.1%),7 displacement (5.2%);and for 101 intertrochanteric who were treated by proximal femoral locking plate,there were 5 cases of displacement (5.0%);Also for 89 intertrochanteric fractures who were treated by hemiarthroplasty,there were 2 cases of dislocation(1.8%),3 shaft fracture (3.0%),1 deep infection(1.5%);and for 78 intertrochanteric fractures who were treated by total hip arthroplasty,there were 4 cases of dislocation (4.8%),3 shaft fracture (4.0%),2 deep infection (2.5%).Conclusion The elderly hip fractures' age peak of incidence is from 70 to 79 years old,and femoral neck fracture takes up a majority of it.Female patients are more than male patients.The femoral neck fractures are mainly treated by 3 lag screws internal fixation;non-union and femoral head necrosis are the common complications postoperation.While the intertrochanteric fractures are mainly treated by proximal femoral nails;displacement,hip varus and trochanter fractures are the common complications postoperation.The artificial hip replacement is the effective remedy measure for secondary femoral head necrosis after hip fractures.

17.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 763-768, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-620037

ABSTRACT

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is considered to be the main cause of low back pain (LBP),however,there are lack of long-lasting and effective methods of clinical treatment.Tissue engineering technique based on stem cells becomes an essential research direction on repair of IVD degeneration at present,and its effectiveness and feasibility have been confirmed,but it is difficult to maintain the sufficiency and vitality of stem cells in IVD.Previous studies showed that stem cells existed naturally in IVD,and stem cells from stem cell niche could migrate to IVD physiologically to maintain the IVD environment balance under the adverse microenvironment.Unfortunately,these behaviors cannot preclude IVD degeneration.Therefore,theoretical basis for the regeneration of nucleus pulposus (NP) in situ can be obtained from studying the mechanism that the endogenous repair failure during IVD degeneration,the cell death and the migration of stem cells in IVD,and the key regulatory targets to sustain the quantity and quality of the stem cells.Although there have been few researches to study the mechanism of the cell death and the migration of stem cells in IVD so far,studies demonstrated that the major inducing factors of IVD degeneration (pressure and hypoxia) could decrease the number of NP cells by autophagy,apoptosis and necroptosis,and chemokines and their receptors played a critical role in the migration of mesenchymal stem cells.These researches provide a clue for studying the mechanism of endogenous repair failure during IVD degeneration.We reviewed the current research situation and progress of the mechanism that endogenous repair failure during IVD degeneration in the following articles.First,we exhibited the potential of IVD stem cells in IVD degeneration repair.Second,the effect of the adverse microenvironment (pressure,hypoxia,etc) on the migration of IVD stem cells was discussed.Third,the mechanism of the stem cell death,autophagy,apoptosis and necroptosis under the adverse (pressure,hypoxia,etc.) microenvironment,and the correlation between the IVD stem cells migration and autophagy,apoptosis and necroptosis was studied.And then tissue engineering of NP was also discussed to achieve the endogenous repair of IVD degeneration.These studies will provide an innovative research direction on endogenous repair and a new strategy of early therapy for IVD degeneration.

18.
Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research ; (53): 2729-2734, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-619466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoblasts have become a kind of important seed cells in bone tissue engineering. However, it is difficult to harvest osteoblasts, and the purity and calcification ability of osteoblasts isolated by different methods are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To compare the purity and calcification ability of osteoblasts induced from mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, MC3T3 cell lines, and cultured primarily from the neonatal mouse cranium. METHODS: Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated by differential adhesion method, and after passaing, passage 3 cells were cultured in osteogenic induction medium for 21 days. MC3T3 cell lines were cultured in osteogenic induction media 1 and 2 for 21 days. Osteoblasts were cultured primarily from neonatal mouse cranium by type Ⅰ coll agenase digestion method. Calcium nodules of osteoblasts obtained by three methods were observed by Alizarin red staining to detect osteogenic activity of cells. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) There were average 16.3 calcium nodules per low-power field after osteogenic induction of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. (2) There were sparsely distributed calcium nodules in MC3T3 cells after induction with osteogenic induction medium 1, accounting for 1.7 calcium nodules per low-power field, while there were dense calcium nodules in MC3T3 cells after induction with osteogenic induction medium 2, accounting for 44.6 calcium nodules per low-power field. There was a significant difference in the calcium nodule formation ability between the two groups (P < 0.01). (3) After primary culture, there was only 0.6 calcium nodule per low-power field. (4) Except for the insignificant difference between osteogenic induction medium 1 and primary culture groups, there were significant differences in pair-wise comparison of any other two groups. Except the insignificant difference between group I of MC3T3 inducing conditional media and primary culture osteoblasts, there were significant differences in the osteogenic ability between groups (P < 0.01). In conclusion, it is a better method to culture MC3T3 cells in osteogenic induction medium 2 containing dexamethasone, because many uncontrol able factors are involved in the isolation and culture of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

19.
Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research ; (53): 3063-3071, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-616901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interverbral disc degeneration (IDD) is the major cause of low back pain, which is considered as the pathological basis of intervertebral disc herniation and other degenerative diseases that severely affect the patients' quality of life. At present, neither conservative treatment nor operative treatment can reverse or inhibit the pathological development of IDD.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the progress of stem cell therapy for IDD, and to further analyze its challenge and potential solutions.METHODS: Relevant studies in PubMed database published before September 2016 were retrieved. Studies about stem cell therapy in IDD in vitro and vivo as well clinical trials were enrolled to analyze its existing problems.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Stem cell therapy provides a new strategy for IDD treatment. So far, a large number of studies in vitro and vivo as well as clinical trials have reported the remarkable effect of stem cell therapy. (2) However, problems such as how to deal with microenvironment of interverbral disc, choose proper stem cells and master indications will be a challenge in the future.

20.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma ; (12): 115-120, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-514298

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the clinical outcomes of treating unstable intertrochanteric fractures with proximal femoral locking plate (PFLP) in the elderly patients.Methods From January 2010 to June 2015,380 elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric fracture were treated with PFLP and successfully followed up at our department.They were 171 men and 209 women,from 60 to 89 years of age (average,68.7 years).By AO classification,there were 58 cases of AO31-A2.2,87 ones of 31-A2.3,130 ones of 31-A3.1,63 ones of 31-A3.2,and 42 ones of 31-A3.3.Operation time,incision length,length of hospital stay,fracture healing time,postoperative complications and hip joint Harris scores were recorded.Results This cohort was followed up for an average of 13.3 months (range,from 8 to 21 months).Their operation time averaged 53.2 min,X-ray exposure 12.2 times,intraoperative blood loss 92.7 mL,incision length 12.6 cm,postoperative drainage volume 54.7 mL,and length of hospital stay 9.2 days.Pulmonary infection was observed in 3 cases,fixation loosening in 8,fixation breakage in 2,hip varus in 9,and fracture nonunion in 4,yielding a total complication rate of 6.8% (26/380).No operative incision infection was observed.The average fracture healing time was 11.8 weeks (range,from 7 to 48 weeks) after operation.The average Harris score one year postoperation for the 380 patients was 86.3 ± 6.1,significantly higher than the preoperative value (43.6±4.4) (P <0.05).There were 96 excellent,231 good,42 fair and 11 poor cases,giving an excellent to good rate of 86.1%.Conclusion Since PFLP has advantages of limited invasion,blood loss and complications,a high rate of fracture healing,and good functional recovery of the hip,it may be a good treatment for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in the elderly patients.

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