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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 944-953, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for severe COVID-19 to improve treatment guidelines.@*METHODS@#A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted on 313 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Patients were classified into two groups based on disease severity (nonsevere and severe) according to initial clinical presentation. Laboratory test results and epidemiological and clinical characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to detect potential risk factors associated with severe COVID-19.@*RESULTS@#A total of 289 patients (197 nonsevere and 92 severe cases) with a median age of 45.0 (33.0, 61.0) years were included in this study, and 53.3% (154/289) were male. Fever (192/286, 67.1%) and cough (170/289, 58.8%) were commonly observed, followed by sore throat (49/289, 17.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that patients who were aged ≥ 65 years (OR: 2.725, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.317-5.636; P = 0.007), were male (OR: 1.878, 95% CI: 1.002-3.520, P = 0.049), had comorbid diabetes (OR: 3.314, 95% CI: 1.126-9.758, P = 0.030), cough (OR: 3.427, 95% CI: 1.752-6.706, P < 0.001), and/or diarrhea (OR: 2.629, 95% CI: 1.109-6.231, P = 0.028) on admission had a higher risk of severe disease. Moreover, stratification analysis indicated that male patients with diabetes were more likely to have severe COVID-19 (71.4% vs. 28.6%, χ2 = 8.183, P = 0.004).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The clinical characteristics of those with severe and nonsevere COVID-19 were significantly different. The elderly, male patients with COVID-19, diabetes, and presenting with cough and/or diarrhea on admission may require close monitoring to prevent deterioration.


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2573-2585, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) poses distinct clinical challenges due to extensively drug resistant (XDR) phenotype, and sequence type (ST) 11 is the most dominant blaKPC-2-bearing CP-Kp clone in China. The purpose of this current retrospective study was to explore the genetic factors associated with the success of XDR CP-Kp ST11 strains circulated in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a Chinese tertiary hospital.@*METHODS@#Six ST11 XDR CP-Kp strains were identified between May and December 2014 and validated by minimum inhibitory concentration examination, polymerase chain reaction, and pyrosequencing. The six ST11 XDR CP-Kp, as well as three multi-drug resistant (MDR) and four susceptible strains, were sequenced using single-molecule real-time method. Comprehensively structural and functional analysis based on comparative genomics was performed to identify genomic characteristics of the XDR ST11 CP-Kp strains.@*RESULTS@#We found that ST11 XDR blaKPC-2-bearing CP-Kp strains isolated from inpatients spread in the ICU of the hospital. Functionally, genes associated with information storage and processing of the ST11 XDR CP-Kp strains were more abundant than those of MDR and susceptible strains, especially genes correlative with mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as transposons and prophages. Structurally, eleven large-scale genetic regions taken for the unique genome in these ST11 XDR CP-Kp strains were identified as MGEs including transposons, integrons, prophages, genomic islands, and integrative and conjugative elements. Three of them were located on plasmids and eight on chromosomes; five of them were with antimicrobial resistance genes and eight with adaptation associated genes. Notably, a new blaKPC-2-bearing ΔΔTn1721-blaKPC-2 transposon, probably transposed and truncated from ΔTn1721-blaKPC-2 by IS903D and ISKpn8, was identified in all six ST11 XDR CP-Kp strains.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggested that together with clonal spread, MGEs identified uniquely in the ST11 XDR CP-Kp strains might contribute to their formidable adaptability, which facilitated their widespread dissemination in hospital.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Proteins , China , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Hospitals , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Retrospective Studies , beta-Lactamases/genetics
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 181-186, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310686

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>It is important to achieve the definitive pathogen identification in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), but the traditional culture results always delay the target antibiotic therapy. We assessed the method called quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP) as a new implement for steering of the antibiotic decision-making in HAP.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally, 76 respiratory tract aspiration samples were prospectively collected from 60 HAP patients. DNA was isolated from these samples. Specific DNA fragments for identifying 11 pneumonia-related bacteria were amplified by qLAMP assay. Culture results of these patients were compared with the qLAMP results. Clinical data and treatment strategies were analyzed to evaluate the effects of qLAMP results on clinical data. McNemar test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Acinetobacter baumannii by qLAMP was consistent with sputum culture (P > 0.05). The qLAMP results of 4 samples for Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, or Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP) were inconsistent with culture results; however, clinical data revealed that the qLAMP results were all reliable except 1 MP positive sample due to the lack of specific species identified in the final diagnosis. The improvement of clinical condition was more significant (P < 0.001) in patients with pathogen target-driven therapy based on qLAMP results than those with empirical therapy.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>qLAMP is a more promising method for detection of pathogens in an early, rapid, sensitive, and specific manner than culture.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Cross Infection , Drug Therapy , Microbiology , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia , Drug Therapy , Microbiology , Prospective Studies , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Virulence
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270525

ABSTRACT

Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disorder and a number of bacterial pathogens are involved. However, 30%-40% of sputum and purulent samples in good quality failed to grow any pathogenic bacteria, making it difficult to confirm the pathogen. In this study, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a bronchiectasis patient undergoing acute exacerbation, and sent for 16S rDNA pyrosequencing by a 454 GS Junior machine. Metagenomic analysis showed the composition of bacterial community in sample was complex. More than a half of reads (51.3%) were from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This result was corresponding with the culture result but came out 2 d earlier, which is meaningful for early diagnosis and treatment. The detection with 16S rDNA pyrosequencing technology is more sensitive and rapid than routine culture, and can detect the co-infection or symbiosis in airway, giving us a novel and convenient approach to perform rapid diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , Microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chemistry , Microbiology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Metagenome , Genetics , Metagenomics , Methods , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas Infections , Microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Genetics , Time Factors
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2296-2303, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-322209

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a major causative agent of severe infections, including sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media, and has become a major public health concern. We report the pneumococcal serotype and sequence type (ST) distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of 39 S. pneumoniae strains from seven hospitals in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sputum isolates from patients were analyzed to determine S. pneumoniae serotypes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Neufeld Quellung reaction, the multilocus sequence types (MLST) by PCR and sequencing, and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents by the VITEK Gram Positive Susceptibility Card.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 39 isolates were collected including 21 blood/CSF and 18 sputum isolates. Conventional serotyping by the Quellung reaction required 749 reactions. In contrast, PCR based typing needed only 106 PCR reactions. The most frequent serotypes from the blood/CSF isolates were 14 (38.1%), 19A (14.3%), 23F (9.5%), and 18C (9.5%). In the sputum isolates the most frequent serotypes were 19F (33.3%), 23F (16.7%), 19A (11.1%), and 3 (11.1%). The incidence of penicillin resistance in the blood/CSF and sputum isolates was 66.7% and 55.6%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that patients = 5 years old had a higher resistance to penicillin when they compared with the patients = 65 years old (P = 0.011). Serotypes 14, 19A and 19F were significantly associated with penicillin resistance (P < 0.001). ST320, ST271, and ST876 isolates showed high resistant rates to several antibiotics including penicillin (P = 0.006). All of the isolates of serotype 19A were resistant to both penicillin and erythromycin, and they were all multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The specificity and sensitivity of multiplex-PCR are good, and this method represents a substantial savings of time and money, and can be widely used in the laboratory and clinical practice. Data from this research showed an extremely high prevalence of penicillin resistance and an increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) rate in S. pneumoniae. A distinctive emergence of serotype 19A was observed which was also associated with the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, nationwide surveillance of pneumococcal resistance and serotypes is strongly warranted.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Infant , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Molecular Typing , Methods , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Methods , Pneumococcal Infections , Microbiology , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Classification
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 894-900, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269330

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) are the major pathogens causing pneumonia and have a significant impact on the clinical course. Limited data exist on molecular characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae that cause pneumonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehensive multilevel characteristics of E. coli and K. pneumoniae causing pneumonia in China for the first time.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>E. coli (17) and K. pneumoniae (21) isolates responsible for pneumonia were isolated from 1270 specimens collected in a prospective multi-center study in eight teaching hospitals in China from June to December in 2007. The susceptibilities, ESBL confirmation, sequence typing, blaCTX-M and blaSHV genes, their genetic environment and plasmid Inc/rep types were determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Sixteen E. coli (94.1%) and eleven K. pneumoniae (52.4%) isolates were ESBL producers. About 77.8% and 66.7% of them were resistance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and 100% were susceptible to imipenem. The most prevalent ESBL gene was CTX-M-14, followed by SHV-2, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-3, CTX-M-65, SHV-12, SHV-26 and SHV-28. SHV-1 and SHV-11 were also detected and coexisted with blaCTX-Ms in five strains, and three strains contained only SHV-1. All CTX-M-14 were detected ISEcp1 upstream and nine were found IS903 downstream and the majority of them (64.3%) were carried by IncF plasmids. All blaSHV were flanked by recF and deoR, located on IncF, IncN, IncX and IncH plasmids. Two SHV-2, one SHV-1 and the only SHV-28 were further preceded by IS26. Genes lacY and lacZ were detected at further upstream of two blaSHV-1. The K. pneumoniae carrying SHV-28 was susceptible to β-lactams, and no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. Multilocus sequence typing experiments showed the ESBL-producing strains were genetically diverse.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The rate of occurrence of blaESBL in E. coli and K. pneumoniae causing pneumonia was high, and blaCTX-M-14 was dominant and probably mobilized by ISEcp1 mainly on IncF plasmids. Importantly, unexpressed blaESBL genes may occur in susceptible isolates and hence may have clinical implications.</p>


Subject(s)
Blotting, Southern , Escherichia coli , Genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Genetics , Plasmids , Genetics , Pneumonia , Microbiology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genetics , Prospective Studies , beta-Lactams , Metabolism
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 687-692, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321437

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) remains as an important microbial pathogen resulting in community and nosocomial acquired infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Few reports for S. aureus in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) have been documented. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in LRTIs in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A multicenter study of the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in LRTIs was conducted in 21 hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai and twelve other provinces from November 2007 to February 2009. All the collected S. aureus strains were classified as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), mecA gene, virulence genes Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and γ-hemolysin (hlg), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, agr type, and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Totally, nine methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 29 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were isolated after culture from a total of 2829 sputums or bronchoalveolar lavages. The majority of MRSA strains (22/29) had a MIC value of ≥ 512 µg/ml for cefoxitin. The mecA gene acting as the conservative gene was carried by all MRSA strains. PVL genes were detected in only one S. aureus strain (2.63%, 1/38). The hlg gene was detected in almost the all S. aureus (100% in MSSA and 96.56% in MRSA strains). About 75.86% of MRSA strains carried SCCmec III. Agr type 1 was predominant (78.95%) among the identified three agr types (agr types 1, 2, and 3). Totally, ten sequence type (ST) of S. aureus strains were detected. A new sequence type (ST1445) was found besides confirming ST239 as the major sequence type (60.53%). A dendrogram generated from our own MLST database showed all the bootstrap values ≤ 50%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our preliminary epidemiology data show SCCmec III, ST239 and agr type 1 of S. aureus as the predominant strains in LRTIs in Mainland of China.</p>


Subject(s)
Alleles , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , China , Epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Genetics , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections , Epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections , Epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 797-800, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321414

ABSTRACT

Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis (DPL) is a rare disease that is characterized by diffuse proliferation of abnormal pulmonary lymphatic channels. DPL occurs mostly in children and young adults and often undergoes a progressive clinical course, eventually causing deterioration of the lung. Both the clinical diagnosis and treatment of DPL remain a challenge. Here, we report a case of DPL in a 53-year-old Chinese woman with comprehensive investigations including pulmonary function tests, computer tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and histological examination of the lung biopsy, and review the literature.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Lymphangiectasis , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Metabolism , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 463-470, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-314563

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The persistence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms after tonsil and/or adenoid (T&A) surgery are common in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis that disturbances of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in intraabdominal adipose tissue caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) from the pedo-period could facilitate the appearance of periphery insulin resistance in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We tested the hypothesis that the changes of GLUTs in adipose tissue may be one of the reasons for persistent SDB among clinical OSA children after T&A surgery.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty 21-day-old SD rats were randomly divided into a CIH group, a chronic continuous hypoxia (CCH) group, and a normal oxygen group (control group) and exposed for 40 days. The changes of weight, fasting blood glucose and fasting blood insulin levels were measured. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques were used to measure insulin resistance in each animal. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to measure GLUT mRNA and proteins in intraabdominal adipose tissue. Additional intraabdomial white adipose tissue (WAT) was also processed into paraffin sections and directly observed for GLUTs1-4 expression.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>When compared with control group, CIH increased blood fasting insulin levels, (245.07 +/- 53.89) pg/ml vs. (168.63 +/- 38.70) pg/ml, P = 0.038, and decreased the mean glucose infusion rate (GIR), (7.25 +/- 1.29) mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) vs. (13.34 +/- 1.54) mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001. GLUT-4 mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced after CIH compared with CCH or normal oxygen rats, 0.002 +/- 0.002 vs. 0.039 +/- 0.009, P < 0.001; 0.642 +/- 0.073 vs. 1.000 +/- 0.103, P = 0.035.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>CIH in young rats could induce insulin resistance via adverse effects on glycometabolism. These findings emphasize the importance of early detection and treatment of insulin insensitivity in obese childhood OSA.</p>


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Metabolism , Animals , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Blotting, Western , Glucose Clamp Technique , Glucose Transporter Type 4 , Metabolism , Hypoxia , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin , Blood , Insulin Resistance , Physiology , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2571-2575, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285787

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Acinetobacter baumanii (A. baumanii ) remains an important microbial pathogen resulting in nosocomial acquired infections with significant morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which nosocomial bacteria, like A. baumanii, attain multidrug resistance to antibiotics is of considerable interest. The aim in this study was to investigate the spread status of antibiotic resistance genes, such as multiple β-lactamase genes and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes, from A. baumanii strains isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Two thousand six hundred and ninety-eight sputum or the bronchoalveolar lavage samples from inpatients with LRTIs were collected in 21 hospitals in the mainland of China from November 2007 to February 2009. All samples were routinely inoculated. The isolated bacterial strains and their susceptibility were analyzed via VITEK-2 expert system. Several kinds of antibiotic resistant genes were further differentiated via polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Totally, 39 A. baumanii strains were isolated from 2698 sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage samples. There was not only a high resistant rate of the isolated A. baumanii strains to ampicillin and first- and second-generation cephalosporins (94.87%, 100% and 97.44%, respectively), but also to the third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone at 92.31%, ceftazidine at 51.28%) and imipenem (43.59%) as well. The lowest antibiotic resistance rate of 20.51% was found to amikacin. The OXA-23 gene was identified in 17 strains of A. baumanii, and the AmpC gene in 23 strains. The TEM-1 gene was carried in 15 strains. PER-1 and SHV-2 genes were detected in two different strains. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene aac-3-Ia was found in 23 strains, and the aac-6'-Ib gene in 19 strains. aac-3-Ia and aac-6'-Ib genes hibernated in three A. baumanii strains that showed no drug-resistant phenotype.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>A. baumanii can carry multiple drug-resistant genes at the same time and result in multi-drug resistance. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes could be hibernating in aminoglycoside sensitive strains without expressing their phenotype.</p>


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Genetics , Metabolism , Virulence , Acinetobacter Infections , Microbiology , Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Genetics , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections , Microbiology , Sputum , Microbiology
11.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 81-85, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319782

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinicopathologic features of fatal enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Autopsy was performed in 5 neonates died of EV71 infection. Tissue samples from major organs were collected, formalin-fixed and examined under light microscopy. Immunohistochemical study was carried out in selected examples.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Four of the 5 cases showed predominant changes in central nervous system, with encephalitis and encephalomyelitis identified mainly in brainstem and upper cervical spinal cord. Histologic findings included neuronal degeneration and necrosis, neuronophagia, perivascular cuffing and diffuse or nodular hyperplasia of macrophages/microglia. Cerebral edema, brain herniation and aseptic meningitis were also noted. The lungs showed mainly pulmonary congestion, neurogenic pulmonary edema and focal hemorrhage. There were minimal changes in the intestinal epithelium. The intestinal lymphoid tissue however was hyperplastic and associated with apoptosis of follicular center cells. The remaining case had cerebral edema and mild meningitis. The lung alveolar septa were thickened with lymphocytic infiltrates. Some alveolar cells were hyperplastic and associated with diffuse hyaline membrane formation. No specific abnormalities were identified in gastrointestinal tract. In all the 5 cases studied, there was enlargement of lung hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes, coupled with apoptosis of follicular center cells. In general, no significant pathologic changes were demonstrated in heart, liver and kidneys.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>In fatal EV71 infection, the major pathologic changes lie in the central nervous system. The pulmonary lesions are mainly secondary in nature. The usual cause of death is cerebral edema complicated by brain herniation and pulmonary edema. It is also noteworthy that some cases show only lung damages, without classic neurologic changes.</p>


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Brain Edema , Pathology , Brain Stem , Pathology , Child, Preschool , Encephalitis, Viral , Pathology , Encephalomyelitis , Pathology , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Pathology , Virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pulmonary Edema , Pathology , Spinal Cord , Pathology
12.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 145-149, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349952

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify histopathologic changes of major organs and to correlate clinical symptoms in patients infected by avian influenza H5N1.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Autopsy study was performed in two patients died of avian influenza HSN1 infection, following conventional protocols and strict safety procedures. Tissue samples from all major organs of two cases and lung samples of one case were collected and fixed in 4% formaldehyde. Histopathologic changes were evaluated by light microscope.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) of the lung was seen in both cases. Lesions at various stages of development were seen involving different areas of the lung. At the early stages, the lungs exhibited exudative changes, including capillary congestion, necrosis of alveolar epithelial cells, and intra-alveolar edema. Hyaline membranes were prominent and diffusely distributed along alveoli. In the middle-late stages of the disease, the lungs exhibited proliferative and fibrotic changes, including proliferation of pneumocytes and bronchial epithelium, fibrosis of the interstitium and alveolar spaces. Lung biopsy tissue of one case showed DAD and interstitial fibrosis in a background of bronchiectasis. Lymph nodes and spleens showed quantity reduction of lymphocytes and active hemophagocytosis. Other changes in major organs included interstitial carditis in one case and acute renal tubular necrosis in one case. In one case, the brain showed edema with cytoplasmic eosinophilia, loss of structure, axon welling and focal necrosis around ventricle. Multiple foci of trophoblastic necrosis with dystrophic calcification were observed in placenta of one pregnant patient. Acute necrotizing deciduitis was found focally. Sections of fetal lung showed edema and scattered interstitial neutrophils were consistent with acute interstitial pneumonitis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The respiratory tract is the major target of avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection. The changes of DAD in the lungs resulted in hypoxia, leading to multiple organ failure and death.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Birds , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Virulence , Influenza in Birds , Pathology , Virology , Influenza, Human , Pathology , Male , Pregnancy , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Pathology
13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 281-287, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233968

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To ascertain the causation of a family cluster involving two undefined pneumonia cases, a 12-year-old girl and her brother, reported October, 2005 in Xiangtan county, Hunan province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Information on epidemiology and clinical manifestation of the cases was collected from interviewing the keyman and referring to related medical records. The environment exposure of the cases to their households and the timeline of the illness were reproduced, using this information. Medical check-up was undergone among the close contacts of the cases and on sick/dead poultry. Throat swab of the cases were collected and tested by both RT-PCR and real-time PCR to detect viral nucleic acids of A/H5N1, and were then inoculated into special pathogen free (SPF) embryonated hens' eggs. Serum of the cases including acute and convalescent phases were also collected and tested by microneutralization and haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays to detect H5-specific antibodies.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Both the girl and her brother developed fever 2 and 4 days after sudden deaths of chickens being raised in the same house. Both of them had developed pneumonia and the girl died from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) complicated with multi-organ failure. The boy survived and subsequently discharged from hospital. An eighth-day serum from the girl tested H5 antibody negative, while 4-fold and greater increased in antibody titers were detected in serum from the boy using microneutralization and HI assays in sequential acute and convalescent sera. Of 192 cases, only one doctor who cared for the girl during hospitalization had upper respiratory symptoms but tested negative for H5N1 by microneutralization assay.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The boy was the first confirmed human case of avian influenza A (H5N1) in the mainland of China and his sister was diagnosed clinically. The most probable explanation of these two cases was that the transmission of H5N1 virus from infected poultry within the same household environment. No evidence of human-to-human transmission was noted in the family cluster.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Child , China , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Diagnosis , Male , Pneumonia , Virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Virology
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1959-1964, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-282838

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is one of the most important characteristics of asthma. This study investigated the parameters, by which assess the airway responsiveness under tidal ventilation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) (group A), and part of them were treated with budesonide aerosol (group B). All the mice were anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated. The values of tidal volume (Vt), airway pressure (PA), airway flow (F), expiratory lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance of the thorax and lung (CT-L) were recorded by the AniRes2003 animal lung function system. In addition, the expiratory volume in the first 0.1 second after the start of expiration (EV0.1) was obtained according to the flow-volume (F-V) curve. The maximal or minimal values of EV0.1, RL and CT-L were documented after each dose of methacholine (MCH) and compared with values from negative control group (group C).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) When the dose of MCH reached 100 ng/g or 200 ng/g, the decrease of Vt in group A was much more significant than group C (P = 0.001, < 0.001 respectively), but not so between groups B and group C (P = 0.974, 0.362 respectively). (2) With the dose of 25, 50, 100 or 200 ng/g MCH, the decrease in percentage of EV0.1 in group A was much higher than group C (P = 0.012, 0.025, 0.001, 0.003 respectively), while that in group B showed no significant difference as compared with group C (P = 0.507, 0.896, 0.972, 0.785). (3) RL and CT-L: with the dose of 200 ng/g MCH, there was a statistically significant increase of RL in group A compared to group B or group C (P < 0.001, < 0.001 respectively), but no significant difference between groups B and C (P = 0.266). With doses of 100 ng/g and 200 ng/g MCH, there was a statistically significant decrease of CT-L in group A compared to group B (P = 0.001, = 0.001) and group C (P < 0.001, < 0.001 respectively), but no significant difference between groups B and C (P = 0.775, 0.310). (4) Histopathology: there were eosinophilic predominant peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory influx in murine lungs after OVA sensitizing and challenging, which could be counteracted by inhalation of budesonide in group B.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The decline in EV0.1 in response to MCH challenge correlated with simultaneous changes in Vt, RL and CT-L, but more sensitively than all the other parameters. The decline in EV0.1 and inflammation in murine lung could be significantly alleviated by inhalation of nebulized budesonide solution, which indicated that EV0.1 to MCH is a valid measure of AHR in mice.</p>


Subject(s)
Airway Resistance , Animals , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Drug Therapy , Budesonide , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Lung Compliance , Methacholine Chloride , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Ovalbumin , Allergy and Immunology
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