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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2557-2564, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981359

ABSTRACT

Profound changes have taken place in human disease spectrum, constitution spectrum, and drug use behavior, and the safety of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) faces new trends and problems. In particular, serious adverse reactions/events such as liver injury and kidney injury caused by non-toxic TCM have been frequently reported, overturning people's understanding of TCM safety, and even shaking the public's confidence in the development of TCM. In the new era of globalization, correctly understanding the situation and problems of TCM safety and addressing the dilemmas in safety evaluation and risk prevention of TCM are the key missions to be undertaken by TCM practitioners. This paper suggests that the situation and problems of TCM safety should be viewed objectively and dialectically, and the use standard of TCM should be advanced with the times. Furthermore, this paper puts forward the new conception and methodology of TCM safety(including one innovative understanding, two types of evaluation modes, tri-elements injury hypothesis; four-quadrant risk decision processes, and five-grade safety evidence body) for the first time, hoping to provide new theories, new strategies, new methods and successful examples for solving the safety problems of TCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , Internationality , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2552-2556, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981331

ABSTRACT

With the increase in the medical level, the improvement of adverse drug reaction(ADR) monitoring systems, and the enhancement of public awareness of safe medication, drug safety incidents have been frequently reported. Drug-induced liver injury(DILI), especially liver injury attributed to herbal and dietary supplements(HDS), has globally attracted high attention, bringing great threats and severe challenges to the people for drug safety management such as clinical medication and medical supervision. Consensus on drug-induced liver injury had been published by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences(CIOMS) in 2020. In this consensus, liver injury attributed to HDS was included in a special chapter for the first time. The hot topics, including the definition of HDS-induced liver injury, epidemiological history, potential risk factors, collection of related risk signals, causality assessment, risk prevention, control and management were discussed from a global perspective. Based on the previous works, some experts from China were invited by CIOMS to undertake the compilation of this chapter. Meanwhile, a new causality assessment in DILI based on the integrated evidence chain(iEC) method was widely recognized by experts in China and abroad, and was recommended by this consensus. This paper briefly introduced the main contents, background, and characteristics of the Consensus on drug-induced liver injury. Significantly, a brief interpretation was illustrated to analyze the special highlights of Chapter 8, "Liver injury attributed to HDS", so as to provide practical references for the medical staff and the researchers who worked on either Chinese or Western medicine in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Risk Factors , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects
3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 246-257, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965705

ABSTRACT

Epimedii Folium is a traditional non-toxic Chinese herbal medicine. However, liver injury caused by Chinese herb preparations, including Epimedii Folium, is frequently reported over the years. Based on ancient and modern literature, this paper systematically summarized and analyzed the safe application of Epimedii Folium from the perspectives of varieties, processing methods, clinical adverse reactions, pharmacological effects and toxic mechanism. Combined with our team work, we build the comprehensive prevention and control system "human-drug-application", for the safe and rational application of Epimedii Folium. This study is expected to provide support for scientific evaluation and precise prevention and control of the safety risk of Epimedii Folium.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1014-1023, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978767

ABSTRACT

According to the theory of 'Xingben Dazao' of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (BL), the susceptible syndromes and biomarkers of liver injury caused by BL were searched. Rat models of kidney-yin deficiency syndrome (M_yin) and kidney-yang deficiency syndrome (M_yang) were established, and all animal experimental operations and welfare following the provisions of the First Affiliated Experimental Animal Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (No. YFYDW2020017). The results showed that BL significantly decreased the body weight, water intake, and urine weight of M_yin rats and increase the organ indexes of the liver, testis, adrenal gland, and spleen and the expression of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Meantime, BL significantly increased the urine weight of M_yang rats and decreased the expression of ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed that BL could aggravate inflammatory infiltration of hepatocytes in rats with M_yin and alleviate liver injury in rats with M_yang. Metabolomics identified 17 BL co-regulated significant differential metabolic markers in M_yin and M_yang rats. Among them, 8 metabolites such as glutamine, quinolinate, biliverdin, and lactosylceramide showed opposite trends, mainly involving cysteine and methionine metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, purine metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerol phospholipid metabolism, glutamine metabolism, and other pathways. M_yin/M_yang may be the susceptible constitution of BL for liver damage or protection, which may be related to the regulation of amino acid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism. The study can provide some experimental data support for the safe and accurate use of BL in the clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine.

5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 224-234, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927929

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of Liuwei Wuling Tablets combined with conventional drugs for the treatment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, EMbase and Cochrane Library were searched for the relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs) published from database inception to February 2021. All the retrieved papers were independently screened, extracted and evaluated by two researchers, followed by Meta-analysis by Review Manager 5.4. Finally, 18 RCTs were included, involving 2 168 patients(1 106 in the treatment group and 1 062 in the control group). The Meta-analysis results showed that compared with conventional drugs alone, Liuwei Wuling Tablets combined with conventional drugs could increase the effective rate of clinical treatment by reducing serum hyaluronic acid(HA), laminin(LN), procollagen type Ⅲ(PCⅢ), and type Ⅳ collagen(Ⅳ-C) to improve liver function, decreasing the levels of total bilirubin(TBiL), alanine amino-transferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST), and improving the negative conversion ratio of hepatitis B virus(HBV) DNA. In terms of safety, there were no serious adverse reactions in the treatment group and the control group. The results showed that Liuwei Wuling Tablets combined with antiviral or other conventional liver-protecting drugs could improve liver function, treat liver cirrhosis, and reduce liver fibrosis with high safety. However, due to the influence of literature quality and quantity, multi-center and high-quality RCTs with large sample size are needed for verification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Tablets
6.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 603-611, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939787

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis oil (SCEO) against aristolochic acid I (AA I)-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and elucidate the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups according to a random number table, including control group, AA I group, and AA I +SCEO (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) groups (n=5 per group). Pretreatment with SCEO was done for 2 days by oral administration, while the control and AA I groups were treated with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. Mice of all groups except for the control group were injected intraperitoneally with AA I (5 mg/kg) from day 3 until day 7. Histopathological examination and apoptosis of kidney tissue were observed by hematoxylin and eosin and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr), as well as renal malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione, r-glutamyl cysteingl+glycine (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1A2, and nad(p)hquinonedehydrogenase1 (NQO1) were analyzed using ELISA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot, respectively. In vitro, SCEO (40 µ g/mL) was added 12 h before treatment with AA I (40 µ mol/mL for 48 h) in human renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2), then apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#SCEO 0.5 and 1 g/kg ameliorated histopathological changes and TUNEL+ staining in the kidney tissues of mice with AA I-induced nephrotoxicity, and reduced serum levels of ALT, AST, BUN and SCr (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SCEO 0.5 and 1 g/kg alleviated the ROS generation in kidney, containing MDA, GSH and SOD (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SCEO 1 g/kg increased the expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 and decreased NQO1 level in the liver tissues (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Besides, in vitro studies also demonstrated that SCEO 40 µ g/mL inhibited apoptosis and ROS generation (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SCEO can alleviate AA I-induced kidney damage both in vivo and in vitro. The protective mechanism may be closely related to the regulation of metabolic enzymes, thereby inhibiting apoptosis and ROS production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis , Aristolochic Acids/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Schisandra , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
7.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 832-837, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze clinical feature and information of medication to explore the risk signals of preparations containing Psoraleae Fructus (BGZP) related with hepatobiliary adverse drug reactions (ADR), in order to reinforce pharmacovigilance.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted based on hepatobiliary ADR related with BGZP from the China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System in years from January 2012 to December 2016. Serious and general ADRs were analyzed and assessed.@*RESULTS@#There were 355 cases of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP. Both the amount of cases and the proportion of serious ADR showed an increasing growth by years (P<0.05). It was found that 10.43% of 355 cases may be involved with irrational drug use, including overdose, repeated medication, and combination of multiple drugs. There were 190 cases which used BGZP (non-combination), and they were mainly for common in diseases caused by abnormal immune activation (accounting for 40.53% of the total cases). Especially at the age group with the most cases with age of 41-50 years, the cases associated with immunological diseases of female were obviously more than that of male (P<0.05). The latency of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP ranged from 1 to 386 days, and the median latency was 27.5 days, along with the range of cumulative dose (0.45-520.02 g) as well as the daily dose (0.09-2.64 g/d) after the conversion.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cases of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP showed significant individual differences, and there was no correlation between drug usage duration and dosage and the occurrence of hepatobiliary ADR. It may be similar with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury, and recommended that BGZP should be used with more caution under monitoring liver function, especially in female patients with immunological diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pharmacovigilance , Retrospective Studies
8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 266-273, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872628

ABSTRACT

Xianling Gubao is a common and effective medicine in the treatment of orthopedic diseases. In recent years, it has been reported to be associated with liver injury. However, through the analysis of the adverse drug reaction reports and key hospital cases, we found that there is considerable incomplete information in the reports of Xianling Gubao-related liver injury cases retrieved from the literature. Thus, it is difficult to accurately judge causality between the drug and liver injury. Six cases of liver injury related to Xianling Gubao were identified in key hospitals, two of which achieved the clinical diagnosis according to the assessment of the integrated evidence chain method. We further analyzed the public health data of all residents in Yinzhou. The gross incidence rate of Xianling Gubao-related liver injury was 0.034%, which corresponds to a level of rare incidence. This revealed that Xianling Gubao-related liver injury has significant divergence in individuals and an idiosyncratic nature. The gross incidence of liver injury related to Xianling Gubao was lower than that of other medicines for the treatment of orthopedic diseases. Based on the idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury model mediated by immune stress, it was found that Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus were the major components that lead to liver injury, and the liver injury caused by a full prescription was less serious than that encountered with only Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus. This suggests that the other 4 herbs (Dipsaci Radix, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Radix,Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) can prevent/alleviate the liver injury. Through disassembled prescription analysis, we found that the attenuation efficacy of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was the most significant. In conclusion, Xianling Gubao may cause idiosyncratic liver injury in a tiny minority of susceptible individuals, but the incidence risk is lower than that of other commonly used drugs for orthopedic disease. Xianling Gubao should be discreetly applied to patients with immune stress. The major components that induced liver injury in Xianling Gubao were Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus, and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma appears to attenuate this toxicity. This study provides a reference for the rational clinical medication with Xianling Gubao.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 276-282, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789026

ABSTRACT

Recently, the hepatotoxicity issue regarding to Psoraleae Fructus (PF) has attracted remarkable concerns, which highlights the urgent need to explore the toxicity attenuation method for PF. In this study, we proposed an alcohol soaking and water rinsing method for pre-processing PF based on the record in the classics - "Lei Gong Pao Zhi Lun", aiming to attenuate the potential hepatotoxicity of PF. The optimal pre-processing methods and parameters were investigated by U*12(108) uniform design coupled with 3D-cultured human-derived liver organoids model and high-content imaging. The results showed that there were significant variations among the hepatotoxicity intensities of different pre-processed PF products. Four factors, including the concentration of alcohol, the ratio of material and alcohol in alcohol soaking, the time of alcohol soaking and the times of water rinsing, were found as independent significant factors (all P<0.01). The optimal pre-process parameters were further predicted and verified as follows: the alcohol concentration is 80%, the times of alcohol soaking is 3, the ratio of alcohol and material of alcohol soaking is 3, the time for alcohol soaking is 30 h, the ratio of water and material of water rinsing is 2, the times of water rinsing is 3, the time water rinsing is 12 h and the time of steaming is 5 h. This research demonstrated that the alcohol soaking and water rinsing method can effectively reduce the potential hepatotoxicity of PF. This method provides a reference for reducing the risk of PF liver injury from the perspective of Chinese medicinal materials pre-processing.

10.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 648-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients.@*METHODS@#A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Administration, Inhalation , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Follow-Up Studies , Integrative Medicine , Interferon-alpha , Lopinavir , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 648-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients.@*METHODS@#A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Administration, Inhalation , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Follow-Up Studies , Integrative Medicine , Interferon-alpha , Lopinavir , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 678-686, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780153

ABSTRACT

Using the idiosyncratic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated hepatotoxicity model as a positive control, liver injury induced by Cortex Dictamni aqueous extract (AE) or Cortex Dictamni ethanol extracts (EE) was evaluated. Idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity model was established in rats [Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)-2018-008] by injecting LPS at a dosage of 2.8 mg·kg-1. Rats were randomly divided into 10 groups. The plasma levels of liver function biomarkers such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured. Histological changes (HE staining), hepatocellular apoptosis and the content of cytokines of liver were measured. Network pharmacology was used to analyze the relationship between chemical components and immunity in Cortex Dictamni. Compared with the control group, the doses (25, 50 g·kg-1) of AE or EE had no significant changes in ALT, AST and liver pathology (P>0.05). The doses of 4.2 g·kg-1 of AE or EE+LPS groups exhibited an elevation in ALT, AST and serum cytokines (P<0.01). Disorder of liver lobular arrangement and irregular island-like or massive necrosis of liver cells were observed in these groups. Network pharmacology shows that Cortex Dictamni may directly or indirectly participate in the process of immunomodulation. We found that Cortex Dictamni regulated 15 core targets and affected 19 pathways, including apoptosis, TNF-α, NF-kappa B signaling pathways. These results suggest that Cortex Dictamni can induce idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and the water extract can induce more serious liver injury then ethanol extract of Cortex Dictamni. These findings provide a reference for elucidating the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity induced by Cortex Dictamni.

13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1238-1245, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774564

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed to investigate the protective effect and pharmacodynamic difference of the ethanol extracts of Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus on the drug-induced liver injury induced by acetaminophen.The cell activations of LO2 cells treated by Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extracts were tested by CCK-8 essay.The effects of ethanol extracts on cell survival rate,the activities of ALT and AST in culture medium were detected based on the injury model of LO2 cells induced by APAP.Further,in purpose to observe the protective effect of Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extracts on a mouse model of liver injury induced by intraperitoneal injectionof acetaminophen was established.Mice were randomly divided into control group,model group,positive drug group and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extracts administration groups.The activities of ALT and AST in the serum and the levels of MDA,SOD,GSH and GSH-PX in the liver homogenate of the mice were detected by commercial kits.The HEstaining was used to observe the histopathological changes of liver tissue in each group and the TUNEL staining was used to observe the hepatocyte apoptosis.The results showed that the ethanol extracts at less than 1 g·L~(-1)did not affect the activity of LO2 cell.Compared with the model group,the cell survival rates of the Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extract administration groups was significantly increased;the ALT and AST in the culture medium were distinct decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01).The survival rate of Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extract from different batches were similar,while that of the Schisandrea Sphenatherae Fructus ethanol extract from different batches were quite different(P<0.05or P<0.01).Further,animal experiments showed that Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extract administration groups could markedly inhibit the increase of ALT and AST levels in serum(P<0.01),decrease MDA content significantly(P<0.01),and increase GSH,GSH-PX and SOD activity significantly(P<0.01).Among them,compared with other groups,Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus ethanol extract-2 group showed the best effect(P<0.05 or P<0.01)while Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus ethanol extract-1 showed a poor effect(P<0.05 or P<0.01).In conclusion,both Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extracts have protective effect on APAP-induced drug-induced liver injury and there was a certain difference in the efficacy between Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol extracts from different habitats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acetaminophen , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Liver
14.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 696-706, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687922

ABSTRACT

Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) is a type of adverse drug reactions related to using Chinese medicine (CM) or herbal medicine (HM), and is now a growing segment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) worldwide. Owing to the complicated compositions and miscellaneous risk factors associated with the clinical usage of CM or HM, it is more challenging to diagnose and manage HILI than DILI. In the present guideline issued by the China Association of Chinese Medicine (CACM), the authors present an evidence chain-based workflow with 9 structured judgment criteria for diagnosing HILI. The 3 diagnostic ending points-suspected diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, and confirmed diagnosis-could be reached according to the length of the evidence chain acquired in the structured diagnostic workflow. Either identifying the species of CM or HM or excluding adulterations and toxin contaminants was strongly recommended to improve the level of evidence for a clinical diagnosis of HILI. In addition, the authors report that the improper use of CM, which violates the general law of CM theory, is one of the most important factors that contributes to HILI and should be avoided. By contrast, based on syndrome differentiation, some CM can also be used to treat HILI if used in accordance with the general law of CM theory. Therefore, 9 recommendations are put forward in this guideline.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2050-2056, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780087

ABSTRACT

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), treated with licochalcone A (LCA) and retreated with inflammasome inducers respectively (ATP and nigericin), were used to construct the inflammasome model of NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3), to investigate the inhibitory effect and the molecular mechanism of LCA on the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome. The secretion of mature interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and caspase-1 in the supernatants were analyzed by ELISA and the Caspase-Glo® 1 Inflammasome Assay. Supernatants and cell lysates were analyzed for the expression of pro-caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, ASC, NLRP3, IL-1β, caspase-1 by immunoblotting. The study shows that LCA inhibited the activity of caspase-1 and the secretion of IL-1β, and suppressed the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome. There was also slight inhibition of NLRC4 inflammasome induced by Lfn-Flic, but no effect on poly(dA:dT)-induced the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome. Western blot showed that LCA had no effect on the protein expression of NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β, which was mediated by NF-κB pathway. In summary, LCA can inhibit the cleavage of pro-caspase-1 and suppress the secretion of IL-1β to reduce the inflammation response. The study was carried out under the approval of the Scientific Investigation Board of 302 Hospital of PLA.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 920-928, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779952

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicines (CM)-induced liver injury is one of the severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in clinical application, which restricts new drug research and development (R&D), clinical safe usage and industry development of CM. The issue, to elucidate the causality between liver injury and CM, is either a globally challenging problem or the precondition of CM safety evaluation. However, owing to the complexicity of CM and various influencing factors to CM-induced liver injury, the causality assessment for CM is much difficult, compared to synthetic drugs. Besides, the current assessment methods, primarily designed for clinical diagnosis, are difficult to be used in new drug R&D of CM. Hereinto, we reviewed the current ADR causality methods and proposed a new strategy called integrated evidence chain-based causality assessment method for CM-induced liver injury. The new causality method is designed for new drug R&D based on the complexicity of CM, to provide methodology in scientific assessment of causality of CM-induced liver injury and to promote success rate of new drug R&D. The new method could also raise our ability to find, avoid and prevent the risk of CM-induced liver injury.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 574-584, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779910

ABSTRACT

In this study, we used a mathematic-based modeling system to screen the cytokines that are sensitive to Zhuangguguanjie wan (ZGW)-induced idiosyncratic liver injury. The values of 27 cytokines were used as the data source in rat liver of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + ZGW group. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity value of liver function indexes was used as the outcome evaluation index of liver injury. Cytokines of ZGW-induced idiosyncratic liver injury were screened using Logistic regression, random forest method, LASSO Logistics regression and method of combining rule discovery algorithm with LASSO, and cytokines filtered out were revalued in THP1 macrophage. Susceptible cytokine combinations:interleukin-1β (IL-1β), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) closely related to ZGW-induced idiosyncratic liver injury were obtained after preliminary screening analysis. The result of revalued in THP1 showed that the ethanolic extract of ZGW (EtZ) combined with IL-1β or IL-18 synergistically enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion in THP1 macrophage, and EtZ combined with IL-1β significantly enhanced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in THP1 macrophage, but EtZ combined with EGF markedly inhibited IL-6 secretion in THP1 macrophage. The results suggest that the sensitive cytokines that can be characterized in the ZGW-induced idiosyncratic liver injury are IL-1β and IL-18, which provides a basis for screening the ZGW-induced idiosyncratic liver injury patients, and a new experimental evidence for clinical safety medication and risk prevention of ZGW.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 396-402, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779888

ABSTRACT

Tonkinensis is commonly used in the treatment of hepatitis B infection in China with its effect­tiveness in reducing clinical symptoms and improving liver function. However, the mechanism of the anti-HBV (hepatitis B virus) effect of Tonkinensis is still not clear. In this study, an integrative analysis using the network pharmacology and metabolomics was employed in identification of the main targets and mechanisms of Tonkinensis in treatment of HBV infections. First, the "drug-target" network was established by predicting the targets of the main chemical components of Tonkinensis; Secondly, the differential metabolites associated with the anti-HBV effect of Tonkinensis were analyzed with the LC-MS based metabolomics in HepG2.2.15 cells; Finally, the "drug ingredients-targets-metabolites" network was constructed to screen the main anti-HBV targets of Tonkinensis. The results suggest that Tonkinensis may act on 16 target proteins in the network of retinol metabolism, peroxisome proliferator activate-receptors (PPAR) signaling pathway and transcriptional regulation of cancer and so on, which contributed to the control of HBV replication and the regulation of immune function and metabolic disorders.

19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4893-4897, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338185

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the issues related to herb-induced liver injury (HILI) have received much concern. Its clinical diagnosis is much difficult than that of Western medicine-induced liver injury due to its complicated drug combination and multiple constituents. Moreover, it is also correlated with physiques, inheritance and basic diseases. China Association of Chinese Medicine has released the first standards for HILI diagnosis and treatment technology in 2016, namely Guidelines for clinical diagnosis of herb-induced liver injury (hereinafter referred to as the Guidelines). The diagnostic processes with different diagnostic results were explained in this paper to help clinicians, particularly liver specialists, in diagnosing liver diseases by applying the operation of the Guidelines.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 80-85, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779823

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect and the molecular mechanism of deoxyschizandrin on the activity of NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were used to study the effects of deoxyschizandrin on inflammasome activation using inflammasome inducers (ATP and nigericin). Cytotoxic effect was evaluated with CCK-8. The expression of IL-1β, caspase-1 in the supernatant and the expression of pro-caspase-1, pro-IL-1 β, ASC, NLRP3 in cell was detected by Western blot for the inhibitory effect of deoxyschizandrin (25, 50, 100 and 200 μmol·L-1) on the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome. Immunofluorescence was applied to investigate NF-κB (p65) transportation to the nucleus. The results of CCK-8 showed that the optimum concentration of deoxyschizandrin was 6.25-400 μmol·L-1. Deoxyschizandrin (25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol·L-1) could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome caused by nigericin and ATP, and inhibit the secretion of IL-1 β, which was associated with inhibiting the cleavage of pro-caspase-1. The results of immunofluorescence and Western blot also suggest that the inhibitory activity of deoxyschizandrin on NLRP3 inflammasome was not dependent on NF-κB pathway and protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1 β mediated by NF-κB. Our results confirmed that deoxyschizandrin could suppress the cleavage of pro-caspase-1 and inhibit the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome at 25-200 μmol·L-1 to reduce the inflammation response.

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