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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 706-712, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923006

ABSTRACT

OBJE CTIVE To establish a method for quality evaluation of Xin ’an capsule by combining fingerprint , multi-component quantitative analysis and chemical pattern recognition analysis. METHODS High performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)combined with Similarity Evaluation System of TCM Chromatogram Fingerprint (2012 edition)were used to establish the fingerprints of 24 batches of Xin ’an capsules and evaluate the similarity. The common peaks were determined. The contents of glucosylvitexin ,rhamnosylvitexin,vitexin,hyperoside and isoquercetin in Xin ’an capsules were determined by the same HPLC method. Taking the common peak area of fingerprint as the variable ,MetaboAnalyst 5.0 tool was used to draw the cluster analysis (CA)heat map. SIMCA 14.1 software was used to perform principle component analysis (PCA)and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). RESULTS Twelve common peaks were identified with the similarity greater than 0.97. Six common peaks were identified as chlorogenic acid ,glucosylvitexin,rhamnosylvitexin,vitexin,hyperoside and isoquercetin.The linear range of glucosylvitexin ,rhamnosylvitexin,vitexin, hyperoside and isoquercetin were 2.36-151.35,9.15-585.20, 1.20-76.50, 0.68-43.20, 0.44-27.90 µg/mL(all r>0.999).RSDs of precision ,repeatability and stability (24 h)tests were 163.com all less than 2.00% . The average recoveries were 95.80%(RSD=0.96% ,n=6),102.10% (RSD=0.93% ,n=6), 103.26%(RSD=1.28%,n=6),103.89%(RSD=0.73%,n=6) and 102.09%(RSD=1.79%,n=6),respectively. The contents of the five components were 0.988 8-1.559 1,4.336 6-11.220 1, 0.065 1-0.830 5,0.043 8-0.692 5 and 0.023 2-0.427 2 mg/grain,respectively. The results of CA and PCA showed that 24 batches of samples could be divided into three categories ,i.e. S 1-S15,S16-S18 and S 19-S24. PLS-DA showed that variable importance in projection values of the corresponding component of peak 6 and glucosylvitexin (peak 7),rhamnosylvitexin(peak 8),hyperoside (peak 10) and isoquercetin (peak 11) were greater than 1. CONCLUSIONS The established HPLC fingerprint and multi-component quantitative method are simple and feasible. Combined with chemical pattern recognition analysis ,it can be used for the quality control of Xin ’an capsules. Glucosylvitexin ,rhamnosylvitexin and other components may be differentital markers affecting the quality of each batch of samples.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906146

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the inhibitory effect of Fuzheng Jiedu prescription(FZJDP) combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) against postoperative recurrence and metastasis in gastric cancer-bearing mice and explore the possible mechanism based on changes in CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells, CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells of tumor microenvironment, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR) pathway. Method:Forty 615 mice were randomly divided into the model group,FZJDP (25 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group,5-Fu(25 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>)group,and combined (25 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> FZJDP + 25 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup> 5-Fu)group, with 10 mice in each group. Mouse forestomach carcinoma (MFC) cells were implanted into the inner side of footpad of the left hind paw and the transplanted tumor was then surgically excised to establish a postoperative recurrence model. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was conducted to observe the pathological changes in mice with gastric cancer recurrence and lung metastasis. The CD4<sup>+</sup>/CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell ratio in recurrent tumor and the percentages of Treg cells [CD4<sup>+</sup>,CD25<sup>+</sup>, and forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3)<sup>+</sup> cells] in spleen were detected by flow cytometry. The contents of ERS-related proteins [78-kDa glucose-regulated protein(GRP78),inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1<italic>α</italic>),activating transcription factor 6(ATF6),and protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase(PERK)] and the expression of related proteins in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Result:Compared with the model group, the combined group significantly increased the recurrent inhibition rate (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The recurrent tumor weight was significantly decreased in each treatment group (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The number of lung metastases and metastasis rate declined in each treatment group, and the lowest values were observed in the combined group, without any statistical significance. The CD4<sup>+</sup>/CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell ratios in the FZJDP group and combined group were significantly elevated (<italic>P</italic><0.05), while the percentages of Treg cells were reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.05). However, 5-Fu resulted in a significant increase in Treg cell percentage (<italic>P</italic><0.05). IHC results showed that the protein expression levels of ATF6 (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01), IRE1<italic>α</italic>(<italic>P</italic><0.05),and Akt (<italic>P</italic><0.01) in each treatment group were significantly down-regulated as compared with those in the model group. As revealed by Western blot, the GRP78 expression level in the 5-Fu group was lower than that in the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.05), and the expression levels of PI3K, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and mTOR were significantly decreased in the 5-Fu group and the combined group (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:FZJDP combined with 5-Fu reduces postoperative recurrence and metastasis in tumor-bearing mice possibly by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, diminishing ERS,and improving tumor immune microenvironment.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903954

ABSTRACT

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOXs) are the major enzymatic source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX2 and NOX4 are expressed in the heart but its role in hypoxia-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion is unclear. This study investigated the effect of NOX on ANP secretion induced by hypoxia in isolated beating rat atria. The results showed that hypoxia significantly upregulated NOX4 but not NOX2 expression, which was completely abolished by endothelin-1 (ET-1) type A and B receptor antagonists BQ123 (0.3 µM) and BQ788 (0.3 µM). ET-1-upregulated NOX4 expression was also blocked by antagonists of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; varespladib, 5.0 µM) and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2; CAY10650, 120.0 nM), and ET-1-induced cPLA2 expression was inhibited by varespladib under normoxia. Moreover, hypoxia-increased ANP secretion was evidently attenuated by the NOX4 antagonist GLX351322 (35.0 µM) and inhibitor of ROS N-Acetyl-D-cysteine (NAC, 15.0 mM), and hypoxia-increased production of ROS was blocked by GLX351322. In addition, hypoxia markedly upregulated Src expression, which was blocked by ET receptors, NOX4, and ROS antagonists. ET-1-increased Src expression was also inhibited by NAC under normoxia. Furthermore, hypoxiaactivated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) were completely abolished by Src inhibitor 1 (1.0 µM), and hypoxia-increased GATA4 was inhibited by the ERK1/2 and Akt antagonists PD98059 (10.0 µM) and LY294002 (10.0 µM), respectively. However, hypoxia-induced ANP secretion was substantially inhibited by Src inhibitor. These results indicate that NOX4/Src modulated by ET-1 regulates ANP secretion by activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in isolated beating rat hypoxic atria.

4.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 65-73, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896672

ABSTRACT

Human fetal cervical vertebrae are characterized by the large zygapophysial joint (ZJ) extending posteriorly. During our recent studies on regional differences in the shape, extent, and surrounding tissue of the fetal ZJ, we incidentally found a cervical-specific structure of synovial tissues. This study aimed to provide a detailed evaluation of the synovial structure using sagittal and horizontal sections of 20 near-term fetuses. The cervical ZJ consistently had a large cavity with multiple recesses at the margins and, especially at the anterior end, the recess interdigitated with or were located close to tree-like tributaries of the veins of the external vertebral plexus. In contrast to the flat and thin synovial cell lining of the recess, the venous tributary had cuboidal endothelial cells. No or few elastic fibers were identified around the ZJ. The venous-synovial complex seems to be a transient morphology at and around birth, and it may play a role in the stabilization of the growing cervical ZJ against frequent spontaneous dislocation reported radiologically in infants. The venous-synovial complex in the cervical region should be lost and replaced by elastic fibers in childhood or adolescence. However, the delayed development of the ligament flavum is also likely to occur in the lumbar ZJ in spite of no evidence of a transient venous-synovial structure. The cuboidal venous endothelium may simply represent the high proliferation rate for the growing complex.

5.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 270-279, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896649

ABSTRACT

Previous studies of midterm fetuses indicated that a cartilaginous fabella appeared to be embedded in the plantaris (PL), and was fused with the gastrocnemius lateral head (GL). We re-examined the topographical anatomy of the fabella or its analogue (a tight fibrous mass) originating in the GL and/or PL by evaluating histological sections of the unilateral knees of 15 late-term fetuses. Regardless of whether the cartilaginous fabella was present (6 fetuses) or absent (9 fetuses), the origins of the PL and GL muscles each had three parts. In each fetus, the fabella or its analogue was embedded in a thick common tendinous origin of the GL and PL. PL1 (whose origin is similar to that of the adult PL) originated from the femoral condyle immediately above the common tendon; PL2 originated from the posteromedial aspect of the fabella or its analogue; and PL3 originated from the inferior aspect of the fabella or its analogue. The muscle fibers of PL1, PL2, and PL3 joined to provide a thick plantaris. GL1 (which is adjacent to PL2) originated from the common tendon in the superior side of the fabella or its analogue and GL2 originated from the inferior side of the fabella or its analogue. GL1 and GL2 joined to provide a thick bundle, whereas GL3 (located far below the fabella or its analogue) originated from the posterior surface aponeurosis.Therefore, drastic reconstruction at these muscle origins was necessary during development. Due to the strong mechanical stress from the GL and the space-occupying effect of the muscle, we hypothesize that PL2 and PL3 are degraded or absorbed into the GL1 and GL2 during the postnatal period, so that the remaining PL1 was likely the remaining PL in adults.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896250

ABSTRACT

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOXs) are the major enzymatic source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX2 and NOX4 are expressed in the heart but its role in hypoxia-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion is unclear. This study investigated the effect of NOX on ANP secretion induced by hypoxia in isolated beating rat atria. The results showed that hypoxia significantly upregulated NOX4 but not NOX2 expression, which was completely abolished by endothelin-1 (ET-1) type A and B receptor antagonists BQ123 (0.3 µM) and BQ788 (0.3 µM). ET-1-upregulated NOX4 expression was also blocked by antagonists of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; varespladib, 5.0 µM) and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2; CAY10650, 120.0 nM), and ET-1-induced cPLA2 expression was inhibited by varespladib under normoxia. Moreover, hypoxia-increased ANP secretion was evidently attenuated by the NOX4 antagonist GLX351322 (35.0 µM) and inhibitor of ROS N-Acetyl-D-cysteine (NAC, 15.0 mM), and hypoxia-increased production of ROS was blocked by GLX351322. In addition, hypoxia markedly upregulated Src expression, which was blocked by ET receptors, NOX4, and ROS antagonists. ET-1-increased Src expression was also inhibited by NAC under normoxia. Furthermore, hypoxiaactivated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) were completely abolished by Src inhibitor 1 (1.0 µM), and hypoxia-increased GATA4 was inhibited by the ERK1/2 and Akt antagonists PD98059 (10.0 µM) and LY294002 (10.0 µM), respectively. However, hypoxia-induced ANP secretion was substantially inhibited by Src inhibitor. These results indicate that NOX4/Src modulated by ET-1 regulates ANP secretion by activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in isolated beating rat hypoxic atria.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921869

ABSTRACT

Ovarian cancer is one of the three most common gynecological cancers in the world, and is regarded as a priority in terms of women's cancer. In the past few years, many researchers have attempted to develop and apply artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to multiple clinical scenarios of ovarian cancer, especially in the field of medical imaging. AI-assisted imaging studies have involved computer tomography (CT), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we perform a literature search on the published studies that using AI techniques in the medical care of ovarian cancer, and bring up the advances in terms of four clinical aspects, including medical diagnosis, pathological classification, targeted biopsy guidance, and prognosis prediction. Meanwhile, current status and existing issues of the researches on AI application in ovarian cancer are discussed.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911229

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between preoperative subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and postoperative delirium (POD) in elderly patients.Methods:A total of 292 elderly patients of both sexes, aged 65-90 yr, weighing 50-90 kg, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ-Ⅱ, with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score>23 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score > 26 at 1 day before operation, underwent total knee/hip arthroplasty under combined spinal-epidural block in our hospital from January to December 2020, were collected.The development of SCD was evaluated using subjective cognitive decline scale at 1 day before operation.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was extracted after successful spinal-epidural anesthesia puncture, the concentrations of β-amyloid protein 40 (Aβ 40), Aβ 42, total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The incidence of POD was evaluated using confusion assessment method during post-anesthesia care unit and at 1-7 days after operation (or before discharge). Patients were divided into POD group and non-POD group according to whether POD occurred within 7 days after operation.The risk factors of which P values were less than 0.05 would enter the logistic regression analysis to stratify the risk factor for incidence of POD. Results:A total of 205 patients were enrolled and 53 patients developed POD (25.8%). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative SCD, and increased CSF p-tau and t-tau concentrations were risk factors for POD of elderly patients, and increased CSF Aβ 42 concentration and Aβ 40/p-tau, Aβ 40/t-tau, Aβ 42/p-tau and Aβ 42/t-tau were the protective factors for POD in elderly patients ( P<0.05). After correction of the confounding factors such as age, sex, body weight, education, the history of smoking and drinking, hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease, family history of dementia, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), MMSE and MoCA score at 1 day before operation, duration of surgery, duration of anesthesia, intraoperative volume of infusion and blood loss and postoperative pain score, SCD, and increased CSF p-tau and t-tau concentrations were still the risk factors for POD in elderly patients, and increased CSF Aβ 42 concentration and Aβ 40/p-tau, Aβ 40/t-tau, Aβ 42/p-tau and Aβ 42/t-tau were still the protective factors for POD in elderly patients ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Preoperative SCD is the risk factor for POD in elderly patients.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911205

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nerve injury-related proteins levels in predicting postoperative delirium (POD) in patients.Methods:A total of 1 000 patients of both sexes, aged 40-90 yr, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ, with Mini-Mental State Examination score>24 at 1 day before operation, undergoing elective knee/hip arthroplasty under spinal-epidural anesthesia , were enrolled in this study.Cubital venous blood samples were drawn before anesthesia for detection of the concentrations of plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride.CSF 2ml was extracted after successful spinal-epidural anesthesia puncture for measurement of concentrations of α-synuclein (α-syn), β-amyloid protein 1-40 (Aβ 1-40), Aβ 1-42, total-Tau (t-Tau), phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau), progranulin (PGRN) and soluble myeloid cell triggering receptor 2 (sTREM2) (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The Confusion Assessment Method was used at 1, 3 and 7 days after surgery to evaluate the occurrence of POD.The patients were divided into POD group and non-POD group according to whether POD occurred after operation.Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the variables of which P values were less than 0.05 to analyze the risk factors for POD.The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn and area (AUC) under the curve was calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the related risk factors in predicting POD. Results:A total of 964 patients were enrolled in the study, and 108 patients were diagnosed with POD, and the incidence was 11.2%.The results of logistic regression analysis found that age and and increased α-syn in CSF concentration were risk factors for POD, and decreased PGRN in CSF concentration and Aβ 1-42/p-Tau in CSF were the protective factors for POD ( P<0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that α-syn (AUC 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.634-0.748, sensitivity 57.41%, specificity 82.10%, Youden Index 0.3951), PGRN in CSF concentration (AUC 0.695, 95%CI 0.637-0.750, sensitivity 59.26%, specificity 80.86%, Youden Index 0.4012) and Aβ 1-42/p-Tau in CSF (AUC 0.635, 95%CI 0.574-0.692, sensitivity 93.52%, specificity 30.25%, Youden Index 0.2377) could predict the occurrence of POD. Conclusion:PGRN, α-syn concentration and Aβ 1-42/p-Tau in CSF can predict the occurrence of POD in patients.

10.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2377-2382, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metal as copper (Cu),arsenic(As),cadmium (Cd),mercury(Hg)and lead (Pb)in Yougui pills ,and to evaluate its safety risk. METHODS :Using yttrium (89Y),indium (115In)and bismuth (209bi)as internal standard ,the contents of each element were determined by ICP-MS. ICP-MS condition included that atomization gas flow rate was 0.95 L/min,auxiliary gas flow rate was 1.2 L/min,plasma gas (argon)flow rate was 18 L/min,pump speed was 30 r/min. RF power of inductively coupled plasma was 1 200 W,the voltage in simulation stage was 1 750 V,the voltage in pulse stage was 1 300 V,the voltage of deflection device was -12 V,and the detector was in analog and pulse dual-mode. The determination methods of various elements were investigated ,and 45 batches of marketed Yougui pills were determined. Hazard index (HI)was used to analyze the non-carcinogenic risk of each element and calculate the maximum residual limit(MRL)of each element. RESULTS :The linear range of Cu ,As,Cd,Hg and Pb ranged from 10-200,1-50,0.4-30,0.2-6 and 2-100 μg/L(all r>0.999 0),respectively. The limits of quantitation were 0.67,0.23,0.20,0.07,0.27 μg/L. The limits of detection were 0.20,0.07,0.06,0.02,0.08 μg/L. RSDs of precision,stability and reproducibility tests were all lower than 3.5% (n=6 or n=5). Average recoveries were 92.96%-100.89%(RSD=2.23%-3.62%,n=3). Average contents of Cu ,As,Cd,Hg and Pb in 45 batches of Yougui pills were 2.72,0.28,0.07,0.05,0.62 mg/kg,and superimposed HI of each element was less than 1. The contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals in Yougui pills were lower than the proposed MRL (MRL of Cu ,As,Cd,Hg and Pb were 20,2,1,0.2,5 mg/kg or 111.11,4.44,2.22,1.48,8.89 mg/kg respectively ). CONCLUSIONS :Established method can be used for the determination of content of 5 kinds of heavy metal in Yougui pills ;the heavy metal pollution rate of marketed Yougui pills is low and the safety risk is small.

11.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 65-73, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888968

ABSTRACT

Human fetal cervical vertebrae are characterized by the large zygapophysial joint (ZJ) extending posteriorly. During our recent studies on regional differences in the shape, extent, and surrounding tissue of the fetal ZJ, we incidentally found a cervical-specific structure of synovial tissues. This study aimed to provide a detailed evaluation of the synovial structure using sagittal and horizontal sections of 20 near-term fetuses. The cervical ZJ consistently had a large cavity with multiple recesses at the margins and, especially at the anterior end, the recess interdigitated with or were located close to tree-like tributaries of the veins of the external vertebral plexus. In contrast to the flat and thin synovial cell lining of the recess, the venous tributary had cuboidal endothelial cells. No or few elastic fibers were identified around the ZJ. The venous-synovial complex seems to be a transient morphology at and around birth, and it may play a role in the stabilization of the growing cervical ZJ against frequent spontaneous dislocation reported radiologically in infants. The venous-synovial complex in the cervical region should be lost and replaced by elastic fibers in childhood or adolescence. However, the delayed development of the ligament flavum is also likely to occur in the lumbar ZJ in spite of no evidence of a transient venous-synovial structure. The cuboidal venous endothelium may simply represent the high proliferation rate for the growing complex.

12.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 270-279, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888945

ABSTRACT

Previous studies of midterm fetuses indicated that a cartilaginous fabella appeared to be embedded in the plantaris (PL), and was fused with the gastrocnemius lateral head (GL). We re-examined the topographical anatomy of the fabella or its analogue (a tight fibrous mass) originating in the GL and/or PL by evaluating histological sections of the unilateral knees of 15 late-term fetuses. Regardless of whether the cartilaginous fabella was present (6 fetuses) or absent (9 fetuses), the origins of the PL and GL muscles each had three parts. In each fetus, the fabella or its analogue was embedded in a thick common tendinous origin of the GL and PL. PL1 (whose origin is similar to that of the adult PL) originated from the femoral condyle immediately above the common tendon; PL2 originated from the posteromedial aspect of the fabella or its analogue; and PL3 originated from the inferior aspect of the fabella or its analogue. The muscle fibers of PL1, PL2, and PL3 joined to provide a thick plantaris. GL1 (which is adjacent to PL2) originated from the common tendon in the superior side of the fabella or its analogue and GL2 originated from the inferior side of the fabella or its analogue. GL1 and GL2 joined to provide a thick bundle, whereas GL3 (located far below the fabella or its analogue) originated from the posterior surface aponeurosis.Therefore, drastic reconstruction at these muscle origins was necessary during development. Due to the strong mechanical stress from the GL and the space-occupying effect of the muscle, we hypothesize that PL2 and PL3 are degraded or absorbed into the GL1 and GL2 during the postnatal period, so that the remaining PL1 was likely the remaining PL in adults.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878668

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the computed tomography(CT)imaging features of IgG4-related kidney disease(IgG4-RKD).Methods The clinicopathological and imaging data of 36 IgG4-RKD patients(including 26 cases of renal parenchyma,10 cases of renal pelvis,24 cases of double kidney or multiple lesions,and 12 cases of single focus)were retrospectively analyzed.Results IgG4-RKD had specific clinicopathological and imaging features.Although the kidney or renal pelvis was involved,there were no common clinical manifestations of malignant tumors such as hydronephrosis and hematuria.The boundary was clear and complete,and it had typical characteristics of continuous progressive enhancement.The peak value was mostly in the solid and excretory phase,and there were no imaging manifestations such as liquefaction,necrosis,cystic degeneration,and calcification.Even if the renal pelvis was obviously involved and the focus was large,there was no invasion of the peripheral renal parenchyma,the shape of the renal pelvis still existed,the wall was smooth,and there was no enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.Conclusions CT images of IgG4-RKD are similar to those of renal malignant tumors.Based on clinicopathological features,CT findings,and blood IgG4-related tests,a definite diagnosis can be made and unnecessary operation can be avoided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 278-285, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762235

ABSTRACT

The human nervus terminalis (terminal nerve) and the nerves to the vomeronasal organ (VNON) are both associated with the olfactory nerves and are of major interest to embryologists. However, there is still limited knowledge on their topographical anatomy in the nasal septum and on the number and distribution of ganglion cells along and near the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. We observed serial or semiserial sections of 30 fetuses at 7–18 weeks (crown rump length [CRL], 25–160 mm). Calretinin and S100 protein staining demonstrated not only the terminal nerve along the anterior edge of the perpendicular lamina of the ethmoid, but also the VNON along the posterior edge of the lamina. The terminal nerve was composed of 1–2 nerve bundles that passed through the anterior end of the cribriform plate, whereas the VNON consisted of 2–3 bundles behind the olfactory nerves. The terminal nerve ran along and crossed the posterior side of the nasal branch of the anterior ethmoidal nerve. Multiple clusters of small ganglion cells were found on the lateral surfaces of the ethmoid's crista galli, which are likely the origin of both the terminal nerve and VNON. The ganglions along the crista galli were ball-like and 15–20 µm in diameter and, ranged from 40–153 in unilateral number according to our counting at 21-µm-interval except for one specimen (480 neurons; CRL, 137 mm). An effect of nerve degeneration with increasing age seemed to be masked by a remarkable individual difference.


Subject(s)
Calbindin 2 , Ethmoid Bone , Fetus , Ganglion Cysts , Humans , Individuality , Masks , Nasal Septum , Nerve Degeneration , Neurons , Olfactory Nerve , Vomeronasal Organ
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805293

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the expression and clinical significance of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (RRM2) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and related liver diseases.@*Methods@#A total of 428 patients with chronic HBV infection and liver disease were enrolled from Songyang County People’s Hospital from October 2017 to September 2019. There were 166 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 53 cases of HBV-related cirrhosis, 28 cases of non-HBV-related cirrhosis, 57 cases of HBV-related liver cancer, 33 cases of non-HBV-related liver cancer, and 91 cases of non-viral hepatitis. In addition, 36 healthy subjects were selected as the control group. Among 166 cases of CHB, there were 87 patients with high viral load group (HBV DNA ≥4.0 lg IU/mL) and 79 patients with low viral load group (HBV DNA <4.0 lg IU/mL); while in 87 high viral load patients, 56 had high alanine transaminase (ALT) (≥40 U/L) and 31 had normal ALT (<40 U/L). The expression level of serum RRM2 protein in patients was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the relationship of RRM2 expression with HBV DNA and liver function was analyzed. SPSS 23.0 and PRISM 8.0 statistical software were used to analyze data. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman analysis.@*Results@#The serum ALT and RRM2 levels in patients with high viral load CHB were higher than those in low viral load group (Z=-6.68, t=6.80, P<0.01). Patients with HBV-related cirrhosis had higher serum RRM2 levels than those with non-HBV-related cirrhosis (t=9.16, P<0.01). The serum RRM2 level was higher in patients with HBV-related liver cancer than that in patients with non-HBV-related liver cancer (t=12.42, P<0.01). Among patients with high viral load CHB, there was no significant difference in serum RRM2 levels between patients with ALT ≥40 U/L group and patients with ALT <40 U/L group (t=0.51, P>0.05). The level of ALT in the non-viral hepatitis group was higher than that in the healthy control group (Z=-8.43, P<0.01), but there was no significant difference in serum RRM2 levels between the two groups (t=1.03, P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that serum RRM2 level was positively correlated with HBV DNA load (r=0.51, P<0.01), but not correlated with liver function indicators such as ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (all P>0.05) in patients with chronic HBV infection and related liver diseases.@*Conclusions@#Serum RRM2 level is positively correlated with HBV DNA load and has no significant correlation with ALT. RRM2 might be used as a target for the development of new hepatitis B drugs.

16.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 266-273, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718953

ABSTRACT

The ganglion cardiacum or juxtaductal body is situated along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve in the aortic window and is an extremely large component of the cardiac nerve plexus. This study was performed to describe the morphologies of the ganglion cardiacum or juxtaductal body in human fetuses and to compare characteristics with intracardiac ganglion. Ganglia were immunostained in specimens from five fetuses of gestational age 12–16 weeks and seven fetuses of gestational age 28–34 weeks. Many ganglion cells in the ganglia were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; sympathetic nerve marker) and chromogranin A, while a few neurons were positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS; parasympathetic nerve marker) or calretinin. Another ganglion at the base of the ascending aorta carried almost the same neuronal populations, whereas a ganglion along the left common cardinal vein contained neurons positive for chromogranin A and NOS but no or few TH-positive neurons, suggesting a site-dependent difference in composite neurons. Mixtures of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons within a single ganglion are consistent with the morphology of the cranial base and pelvic ganglia. Most of the intracardiac neurons are likely to have a non-adrenergic non-cholinergic phenotype, whereas fewer neurons have a dual cholinergic/noradrenergic phenotype. However, there was no evidence showing that chromogranin A- and/or calretinin-positive cardiac neurons corresponded to these specific phenotypes. The present study suggested that the ganglion cardiacum was composed of a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which were characterized the site-dependent differences in and near the heart.


Subject(s)
Aorta , Calbindin 2 , Chromogranin A , Fetus , Ganglia , Ganglion Cysts , Gestational Age , Heart , Humans , Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Phenotype , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve , Skull Base , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Veins
17.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 218-222, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716883

ABSTRACT

Persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is a common anomaly of the venous system. Although candidates for future PRUV were expected to occur more frequently in earlier specimens, evaluation of serial horizontal sections from 58 embryos and fetuses of gestational age 5–7 weeks found that only two of these embryos and fetuses were candidates for anomalies. In a specimen, a degenerating right umbilical vein (UV) joined the thick left UV in a narrow peritoneal space between the liver and abdominal cavity, and in the other specimen, a degenerating left UV joined a thick right UV in the abdominal wall near the liver. In these two specimens, the UV drained into the normal, umbilical portion of the left liver. These results strongly suggested that, other than the usual PRUV draining into the right liver, another type of PRUV was likely to consist of the right UV draining into the left liver.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Cavity , Abdominal Wall , Embryonic Structures , Fetus , Gallbladder , Gestational Age , Humans , Liver , Umbilical Veins
18.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 181-184, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700798

ABSTRACT

Objective Less research has been done in the influence of two-child pohcy on mode of delivery.The article aimed to investigate the rates of cesarean section before and after two-child policy along with indications and complications in order to provide scientific basis and solution for improving the vaginal delivery rate.Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on medical record data of 7044 puerperas in Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region before (3,526 women from January 1,2012 to December 31,2013)and after (3,518 women from January 1,2015 to December 31,2016) two-child policy.Before the two child policy there were 3122 primiparas and 404 multiparas,after two-child policy there were 2546 primiparas and 972 muhiparas.Comparison was done between two groups in the aspect of vaginal delivery rate,cesarean section rate and the distribution of primiparas in choosing the mode of delivery.Results The vaginal birth rate of women before and after the policy was 59.22% and 63.22% respectively,among which the rate of vaginal delivery of primiparas increased dramatically from 60.57% before the policy to 66.10% after the policy(P<0.05).After two-child policy,the primiparas cesarean section indication with social factors,macrosomia decreased,which was 12.67% vs 5.68%、16.65% vs 11.82%,respectively.However,the rate of cesarean section with in-vitro fertilization increased,which was 5.52% and 10.10% respectively (P < 0.05).Conclusion After two-child policy,the puerperant,especially for the primiparas were more likely to choose vaginal spontaneous delivery.At the same time,the proportion of the primiparas caesarean section also changed.The mode of delivery should depend on corresponding indications properly.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709031

ABSTRACT

Enterococcus is an opportunistic pathogen of nosocomial infection.In recent years, the resistance rate of Enterococcus to antimicrobial agents is increasing with the widespread use of antibiotics, even leading to the development of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus(VRE).Linezolid is a synthetic oxazolidinone antibiotic, which less likely to generates the cross-resistance with other antimicrobial agents that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis,so it has been regarded as the last line of defense for VRE.However, since the linezolid has appeared on the market, the reports of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus have also emerged.This article reviews the resistance mechanisms of Enterococcus to linezolid in order to provide reference for resistance surveillance as well as the research and development of new antimicrobial agents.

20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2683-2692, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775034

ABSTRACT

Background@#Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in Chinese patients with RA enrolled in Phase 3 and long-term extension (LTE) studies.@*Methods@#ORAL Sync was a 1-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trial. Patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo advanced to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID at 3 or 6 months. All patients remained on ≥1 background conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. ORAL Sequel is an open-label LTE study (data-cut: March 2015; data collection and analyses were ongoing, and study database was not locked at the time of analysis; study was closed in 2017). Efficacy outcomes: American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4 [ESR]). Patient- and physician-reported outcomes: Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Patient and Physician Global Assessment of Arthritis, and pain (visual analog scale). Safety was assessed throughout.@*Results@#ORAL Sync included 218 patients; 192 were subsequently enrolled into ORAL Sequel. In ORAL Sync, more patients achieved ACR20 (tofacitinib 5 mg BID, 67.4%; 10 mg BID, 70.6%; placebo, 34.1%) and DAS28-4 (ESR) <2.6 (tofacitinib 5 mg BID, 7.1%; 10 mg BID, 13.1%; placebo, 2.3%) with tofacitinib versus placebo at Month 6. Mean changes from baseline in HAQ-DI were greater with tofacitinib versus placebo at Month 6. In ORAL Sequel, efficacy was consistent to Month 48. Incidence rates for adverse events of special interest in tofacitinib-treated patients were similar to the global population.@*Conclusions@#Tofacitinib significantly reduced signs/symptoms and improved physical function and quality of life in Chinese patients with moderate-to-severely active RA up to Month 48. The safety profile was consistent with the global population.@*Clinical Trial Identifier@#NCT00856544 and NCT00413699.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Drug Therapy , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Piperidines , Therapeutic Uses , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Pyrimidines , Therapeutic Uses , Pyrroles , Therapeutic Uses , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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