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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between Jiao's scalp acupuncture combined with virtual reality (VR) rehabilitation training and VR rehabilitation training alone for motor dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).@*METHODS@#A total of 52 patients with PD were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 26 cases in each group. The patients in both groups were treated with routine basic treatment, and the patients in the control group were treated with VR rehabilitation training. The patients in the observation group were treated with Jiao's scalp acupuncture on the basis of the control group. The scalp points included the movement area, balance area and dance tremor control area. Both groups were treated once a day, 5 times a week for a total of 8 weeks. Before treatment and 4 and 8 weeks into treatment, the gait parameters (step distance, step width, step speed and step frequency), timed "up and go" test (TUGT) time and unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part Ⅲ (UPDRS-Ⅲ) score were compared between the two groups, and the clinical efficacy was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Four weeks into treatment, except for the step width in the control group, the gait parameters of the two groups were improved, the TUGT time was shortened, and the UPDRS-Ⅲ scores were reduced (P<0.01, P<0.05); the step distance in the observation group was better than that in the control group, and the UPDRS-Ⅲ score in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Eight weeks into treatment, the gait parameters of the two groups were improved, the TUGT time was shortened, and the UPDRS-Ⅲ scores were reduced (P<0.01); the step distance and step speed in the observation group were better than those in the control group, the TUGT time in the observation group was shorter than that in the control group, and the UPDRS-Ⅲ score in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The total effective rate was 92.3% (24/26) in the observation group, which was higher than 69.2% (18/26) in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Jiao's scalp acupuncture combined with VR rehabilitation training could improve the gait parameters, walking ability and motor function in patients with PD. The clinical effect is better than VR rehabilitation training alone.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy/adverse effects , Gait , Humans , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Scalp , Virtual Reality
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906057

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the long-term effect of Zhenzhu Tiaozhi capsule(FTZ) on hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c)in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on real-world data. Method:T2DM patients who were provided with FTZ (FTZ group) and those receiving conventional hypoglycemic drugs (control group) were extracted from the hospital information system (HIS) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, followed by propensity score matching (PSM) for balancing the confounding factors between groups. With HbA1c as the efficacy evaluation index, the difference in efficacy between the two groups was compared using <italic>t</italic>-test and <italic>χ</italic><sup>2</sup> test. For repeated measurement data of the same patient, the difference in efficacy and the stability of FTZ against HbA1c were analyzed by generalized estimating equation (GEE). The factors that might affect the efficacy of FTZ against HbA1c were subjected to multivariate linear regression analysis (MLRA), and the subgroup analyses were then conducted after the stratification of relevant factors. Result:There were 46 patients included in the FTZ group and 1 208 patients in the control group. PSM yielded 42 pairs of samples with balanced covariates between groups. As revealed by one-year observation, ① HbA1c in the FTZ group after treatment was 6.51%±1.09%. No significant difference was observed either in pre- and post-treatment comparison in the FTZ group or in its comparison with the control group. At the same time, the HbA1c compliance rate in the FTZ group was 73.8% after treatment. No significant difference was observed either in pre- and post-treatment comparison in the FTZ group or in its comparison with the control group. ② The GEE results showed that the post-treatment HbA1c levels in the two groups were not significantly different from each other. Moreover, the HbA1c level remained stable over treatment time. ③ MLRA and subgroup analyses results demonstrated that FTZ was more effective in patients with high baseline HbA1c [<italic>β</italic>=-0.530,95% confidence interval(CI) -0.850~-0.209,<italic>P</italic><0.01] or those who were complicated with hypertension (<italic>β</italic>=-0.918,95%CI -1.614~-0.222,<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:In the real world, FTZ is able to control the blood sugar, and its effect is similar to those of conventional hypoglycemic drugs. Besides, it is capable of stabilizing the blood sugar for a long time.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776710

ABSTRACT

Anthraquinone dyes, which contain anthraquinone chromophore groups, are the second largest class of dyes after azo dyes and are used extensively in textile industries. The majority of these dyes are resistant to degradation because of their complex and stable structures; consequently, a large number of anthraquinone dyes find their way into the environment causing serious pollution. At present, the microbiological approach to treating printing and dyeing wastewater is considered to be an economical and feasible method, and reports regarding the bacterial degradation of anthraquinone dyes are increasing. This paper reviews the classification and structures of anthraquinone dyes, summarizes the types of degradative bacteria, and explores the possible mechanisms and influencing factors of bacterial anthraquinone dye degradation. Present research progress and existing problems are further discussed. Finally, future research directions and key points are presented.


Subject(s)
Adsorption , Anthraquinones , Chemistry , Classification , Metabolism , Bacteria , Metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Coloring Agents , Chemistry , Classification , Metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Temperature
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-621494

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the preoperative localization diagnosis and surgical techniques of intractable occipital lobe epilepsy.Methods Retrospectively studied 37 patients diagnosed as occipital lobe epilepsy and underwent focal occipital resections for epilepsy.The semiology,scalp electroencephalography,MRI,fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography(FDG-PET),and intracranial EEG monitoring were used to localize the epileptogenic zones.The long-term seizure outcomes were assessed according to the Engel classification scheme.Results Visual symptoms were present in 25 patients preoperatively in this series.MRI displayed occipital lobe lesions in 15 patients,and FDG-PET revealed hypometabolism in or adjacent to epileptogenic zones.And 30 patients' epileptogenic zones and functional areas were defined by intracranial EEG monitoring.Visual field deficits were present in 35.3% of patients preoperatively,and 61% had new or aggravated visual field deficits after surgery.After a mean follow-up of 41 months,81.1% of the patients were seizure free or rarely had seizures.Conclusion The curative effect of the surgery on the medically intractable occipital lobe epilepsy is good.Intracranial EEG monitoring with electrodes extensively covering the occipital lobe and adjacent areas can be useful to demarcate the epileptogenic zones and the visural cortex,and it may prevent aggravation of the visual field deficits as much as possible.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-498286

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the different memory outcomes in temporal lobe epilepsy patients underwent different surgical approaches.Methods Two hundred forty-eight patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal scle-rosis underwent standard anterior temporal lobectomy ( ATL, n=83 ) or selective amygdalohippocampectomy ( SAH, n=165) from 2009 to 2013.All the patients underwent clinical memory function assessment before surgery, 3 months and 2 years after surgery respectively.Results The memory quotient ( MQ) of patients who underwent brain surgery in the domi-nant hemisphere significantly decreased 3 months after surgery (74.5 ±16.2, 75.6 ±19.5) compared to presurgery MQ (82.9 ±15.8, 83.2 ±21.2) in both ATL and SAH groups (P<0.05).Although MQ was slightly recovered at 2 years af-ter surgery, MQ (75.1 ±14.1, 76.1 ±17.6) was still significantly lower compared with presurgery MQ (P<0.05).A-mong this, both the decrease extent of the MQ 3 months after surgery and 2 years after surgery were smaller in the SAH group than in the ATL group (7.6 vs.8.4;7.1 vs.7.8).The MQ of patients who underwent brain surgery in the non-dominant hemisphere (either ATL or SAH ) increased slightly 3 months after surgery (87.2 ±15.1, 88.1 ±16.9) com-pared to presurgery MQ (85.5 ±13.5, 85.3 ±19.7) although the difference was not statistically significant.The MQ of these two groups improved significantly 2 years after surgery (92.8 ±12.7, 93.7 ±17.1)(P<0.05).The improvement extent of the MQ was larger in the SAH group than in the ATL group (8.4 vs.7.3).Conclusions SAH may be better than ATL in the maintenance of memory function in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis.

6.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 500-508, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356675

ABSTRACT

To determine the functions of N-carbohydrate chains in human parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase(HN) protein, a PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis method was used to obtain N-glycan mutants. Protein electrophoresis rate, cell surface expression,receptor binding activity, neuraminidase activity and cell fusion promotion activity were determined. The HN proteins of single mutants (G1, G2, and G4) and multiple mutants (G12, G14, G24 and G124) migrated faster than the wild-type (wt) HN protein on polyacrylamide gels, while G3-mutated protein and wt HN protein migrated at the same position. There was no statistic difference in cell surface expression and neuraminidase activity between wt and each mutant HN protein (P>0.05), but receptor binding activity and cell fusion promotion activity of each mutant protein was reduced to significant extent (P<0.05). G1, G2 and G4 mutants exhibited re duced receptor binding activity, which was 83.94%, 76.45% and 55.32% of the wt level, respectively. G1, G2 and G4-mutated proteins also showed reductions in fusion promotion activity, which was 80.84%, 77.83% and 64.16%, respectively. Multiple mutants with G12-, G14-, G24- and G124- substitutions could further reduce receptor binding activities, 33.07%, 20.67%, 19.96% and 15.11% of the wt HN level, respectively. G12, G14, G24 and G124 mutants exhibited levels of fusion promotion activity that were only 46.360, 12.04%, 13.43% and 4.05% of the wt amount, respectively. As N-glycans of hPIV3 HN protein play an important role in receptor binding activity and cell fusion promotion activity of HN protein. We propose that the loss of N-glycans change the conformation or orientation of globular domain that is responsible for receptor binding and lower receptor binding activity and cell fusion promotion activi ty.


Subject(s)
Glycosylation , HN Protein , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Mutation , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human , Chemistry , Genetics , Physiology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus , Metabolism , Respirovirus Infections , Metabolism , Virology , Virus Internalization
7.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 578-582, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356663

ABSTRACT

Rubella virus (RV), a member of the family Togaviridae, can induce apoptosis of host cells in vitro. Protein kinases of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway and PI3K-Akt pathway play essential roles in virus multiplication, cell survival and apoptosis. Proteins p53 and TAp63 that bind to specific DNA sequences stimulate Bax in a manner to produce functional pores that facilitate release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and downstream caspase activation. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of RV-induced cell apoptosis, including RV-infected cell lines, pathological changes in cell components and apoptosis signaling pathways are summarized.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Rubella , Genetics , Metabolism , Virology , Rubella virus , Genetics , Physiology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-431924

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of Atorvastatin Combined Naoxintong Capsule treats to cerebral infarction and carotid atherosclerosis.Methods 134 patients with cerebral infarction and carotid atherosclerosis were diagnosed by MRI or CT scan.They were randomly divided into two groups.67 cases were given atorvastatin versus aspirin received routine treatment in the control group and 67 cases were used Naoxintong capsule in observation group on the basis of routine treatment in the observation group.The blood lipid,serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level,neural function defect score (NIHSS),carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) were comperred before and after treatment in two groups for treated with 1 courses (6 months).Results The blood lipid had no significant difference between two groups before and after treatment (P < 0.05).The IMT,NIHSS score of high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels had no significant difference in two groups before and after treatment (P < 0.05).The scores of NIHSS,IMT,high sensitive C-reactive protein level respectively (10.08 ± 1.82) %,(1.06 ± 0.13)mm,(3.89 ± 1.41) mg/L of observation group were more decreased significantly than the control group (respectively (13.92 ±2.01)%,(1.24 ±0.15)mm,(5.02 ± 1.52) mg/L after treatment.Conclusion Atorvastatin Combined Naoxintong Capsule in treatment of cerebral infarction and carotid artery gruel kind hardening shows good therapeutic effect,it is worth for clinical use.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236806

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate pathological changes in the epileptogenic foci of children with intractable epilepsy and their clinical significance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty children with intractable epilepsy were included in the study. The epileptogenic foci were surgically resected and pathological changes in the obtained specimens were observed under a light microscope (LM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Under the LM, cortical dysplasia was found in 14 cases (47%), hippocampal sclerosis in 11 cases (37%), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in 1 case (3%), ganglioglioma in 1 case (3%), and encephalomalacia in 3 cases (10%). The TEM observation revealed pathological changes in the ultrastructure of the hippocampus and extra-hippocampal cortex, such as changes in the number of synapses and synaptic structure, decrease in neurons and karyopyknosis, swelling and degeneration of astrocytes, and changes in mitochondrial structures.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Pathological changes in the hippocampus and extra-hippocampal cortex, especially synaptic remodeling, may be the morphological basis for spontaneous recurrent seizures in children with intractable epilepsy. The pathological changes and epileptiform activity are related to an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Brain , Pathology , Cerebral Cortex , Pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Epilepsy , Pathology , General Surgery , Female , Hippocampus , Pathology , Humans , Infant , Intelligence , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318037

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To express the rubella virus E1-374 glycoprotein in Pichia pastoris and study the immunogenecity of the recombinant protein.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The cDNA of protein E1-374 was cloned into the expression vector pGAPZalphaA and transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 cells by electrotransfection. The expressed protein was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence and demonstrated immunoreactivity by Western Blot. Rubella virus IgG antibody was assayed with ELISA after mice were inmmunized by E1-374 glycoprotein.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>SDS-PAGE analysis and Western Blot analysis of E1-374 protein revealed this protein to be 46.89 x 10(3). Antiserum (1:100) and E1-374 (5.5 microg/ml) was chosen for ELISA optimization. The intra-assay coefficient of variation for the ELISA was 0.36%-12.45%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Protein E1-374 was highly expressed in Pichia pastoris cells, and it was a good choice to prepare rubella virus recombinant protein vaccines.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pichia , Genetics , Metabolism , Recombinant Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Rubella virus , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-271198

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the therapeutic effects of irritable bowel syndrome of diarrhea type (deficiency of spleen and stomach) treated with acupoint catgut embedding therapy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty cases of irritable bowel syndrome of diarrhea type were randomly divided into an acupoint catgut embedding group and a medication group. In acupoint catgut embedding group, acupoint catgut embedding therapy was given at Tianshu (ST 25), Dachang shu (BL 25) and Zusanli (ST 36), etc., once treatment every 10 days and 3 treatments in all. In medication group, Pinaverium Bromide was orally taken for 50 mg, 3 times a day and 30 days in all. The therapeutic effects were compared after 3Q days treatment and the recurrence rates were observed after 3 months in both groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The total effective rate was 86.7% (26/30) in acupoint catgut embedding group, superior to that of 56.7% (11/30) in medication group (P < 0.05). The recurrence rate was 15.4% (4/26) in acupoint catgut embedding group, which was lower than that of 64. 7% (11/17) in medication group after 3 months (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The curative effect of irritable bowel syndrome of diarrhea type (deficiency of spleen and stomach) treated by acupoint catgut embedding is superior to that by Pinaverium Bromide, with low recurrence rate.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Catgut , Diarrhea , Therapeutics , Female , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Therapeutics , Male , Middle Aged , Prostheses and Implants , Young Adult
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229683

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate how acetamiprid, a new insecticide, affects the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ATPase and the SOD isozyme patterns in two G bacteria, E. coli K12 and Pse.FH2, and one G+ bacterum, B. subtilis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The SOD, CAT, and ATPase specific activities of cell lysates were determined spectrophotometrically at 550 nm, 240 nm, and 660 nm, respectively, with kits A001, A016, and A007. SOD isozyme patterns were detected by native PAGE analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>SOD and CAT activities in the tested bacteria increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner after different concentrations of acetamiprid were applied. The activity of SOD in B. subtilis and Pse.FH2 was stimulated and reached the highest level after treatment with 100 mg/L acetamiprid for 0.5 h. For Pse.FH2, there was another stimulation of SOD activity after acetamiprid application for about 8.0 h and the second stimulation was stronger than the first. The stimulation by acetamiprid showed a relative lag for E. coli K12. Acetamiprid seemed to exhibit a similar effect on CAT activity of the two G bacteria and had an evident influence on ATPase activity in the three bacteria within a relatively short period. Only one SOD isozyme was detectable in Pse.FH2 and B. subtilis, while different isozyme compositions in E. coli could be detected by native PAGE analysis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Acetamiprid causes a certain oxidative stress on the three bacteria which may not only elevate SOD and CAT activities but also generate new SOD isozymes to antagonize oxidative stress. However, this oxidative stress lasts for a relatively short time and does not cause a long-term damage.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases , Metabolism , Bacillus , Bacteria , Catalase , Metabolism , Escherichia coli , Insecticides , Pharmacology , Isoenzymes , Metabolism , Neonicotinoids , Pseudomonas , Pyridines , Pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305531

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Many epidemiological and experimental evidences prove that cervical cancers are strongly associated with genital high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV16 is present in 50% of the tumor specimens. Thus, it is important to develop vaccines against HPV16 and cervical cancer. The authors studied the expression of the HPV16 L1DeltaCE7N fusion protein in E. coli and observed its immunogenicity.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The fragment of HPV16 L1DeltaC gene and the E7N gene were amplified by PCR separately; the fusion gene named L1DeltaCE7N was generated by fusing E7N to the C terminal of L1DeltaC then the chimeric gene was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-2T and expressed in E. coli strain JM109. The L1DeltaCE7N protein expressed were detected by Western blot. Finally its immunogenicity was characterized in immunized mice.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>It was proved that the sequence and open reading frame of fusion gene L1DeltaE7N was correct by sequencing; SDA-PAGE gel analysis showed that HPV16 L1/E7 fusion protein was highly expressed in E. coli; the protein was expressed as soluble form and the molecular weight was about 85 x 10(3). The fusion protein could be purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The ELISA result indicated that L1/E7 could elicit specific antibodies against L1 and E7 in immunized mice. In vivo tumor protection test indicated that tumor formation was retarded or prevented in the mice after vaccination with L1/E7, when C57 BL/6 mice were challenged by syngeneic HVP16E6 and E7 transformed tumor cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>HPV16L1/E7 fusion protein was expressed in E. coli, it can be a candidate for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine for HPV16-associated infection and tumors.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Line, Tumor , Escherichia coli , Genetics , Female , Humans , Immunization , Methods , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neoplasms, Experimental , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Oncogene Proteins, Viral , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Papillomaviridae , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Papillomavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329671

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the potential effects of herbicide quinclorac (3,7-dichloro-8-quinoline-carboxylic) on the culturable microorganisms in flooded paddy soil.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Total soil aerobic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were counted by a 10-fold serial dilution plate technique. Numbers of anaerobic fermentative bacteria (AFB), denitrifying bacteria (DNB) and hydrogen-producing acetogenic bacteria (HPAB) were numerated by three-tube anaerobic most-probable-number (MPN) methods with anaerobic liquid enrichment media. The number of methanogenic bacteria (MB) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) was determined by the rolling tube method in triplicate. Soil respiration was monitored by a 102G-type gas chromatography with a stainless steel column filled with GDX-104 and a thermal conductivity detector.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Quinclorac concentration was an important factor affecting the populations of various culturable microorganisms. There were some significant differences in the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. AFB and DNB between soils were supplemented with quinclorac and non-quinclorac at the early stage of incubation, but none of them was persistent. The number of fungi and DNB was increased in soil samples treated by lower than 1.33 micro x g(-1) dried soil, while the CFU of fungi and HPAB was inhibited in soil samples treated by higher than 1.33 microg x g(-1) dried soil. The population of actinomycete declined in negative proportion to the concentrations of quinclorac applied after 4 days. However, application of quinclorac greatly stimulated the growth of AFB and NFB. MB was more sensitive to quinclorac than the others, and the three soil samples with concentrations higher than 1 microg x g(-1) dried soil declined significantly to less than 40% of that in the control, but the number of samples with lower concentrations of quinclorac was nearly equal to that in the control at the end of experiments.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Quinclorac is safe to the soil microorganisms when applied at normal concentrations (0.67 microg x g(-1)).</p>


Subject(s)
Bacteria, Anaerobic , Herbicides , Toxicity , Oryza , Population Dynamics , Quinolines , Toxicity , Soil Microbiology , Water Supply
15.
Microbiology ; (12)1992.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-685707

ABSTRACT

The isolated 24 strains-producing hydantoinase & carbamoylase were first identified by Biolog microbial identification system and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.The results suggested that the hydantoinase & carbamoyalse-producing bacteria belonged to Bacillus,Geobacillus,Brevibacillus,Aneurinibacillus,Microbacterium,Pseudomonas,Kurthia and Empedobacter,and so on.Especially,Kurthia and Empedobacter were new hydantoinase & carbamoylase-producing genera.Furthuremore,it was found that D-hydatoinase & carbamoyalse-producing bacteria belonged to Pseudomonas and Agrobacterium,while most of L-hydantoinase & carbamoyalse-producing bacterial belonged to Bacillus,Geobacillus and Microbacterium.The distribution feature of D-hydantoinase & carbamoyalse-producing bacteria and L-hydantoinase & carbamoyalse-producing bacteria showed some genera tendency.This research work will provide the biomaterial of different hydantoinase and carbamoylase and contribute to study the structure and function,molecular evolution of the two enzymes.

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