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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928048

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the drying effect of new spiral vibration drying technology on Chinese medicinal pills with Liuwei Dihuang Pills, Zhuanggu Guanjie Pills, and Muxiang Shunqi Pills as model drugs. With the drying uniformity, drying time, energy consumption, pill split, dissolution time, and change of index components as evaluation indicators, the drying effect of spiral vibration drying technology on model drugs was evaluated and compared with traditional drying methods, such as hot air drying and vacuum drying in the oven. The dynamic changes of moisture in Liuwei Dihuang Pills with different drying time were investigated. Compared with the traditional drying methods in the oven(hot air drying and vacuum drying) at 80 ℃, the spiral vibration drying only took 80 min, shortened by 80%, with 10%-13% energy consumed. The results showed that the moisture of Liuwei Dihuang Pills was negatively related to the drying time. By virtue of multi-layer countercurrent drying and super resonant fluidization techniques, the new spiral vibration drying technology can significantly improve the drying quality of Chinese medicinal pills, improve the drying efficiency, and enhance the manufacturing capacity of Chinese medicinal pills. This study is expected to provide references for the innovation and development of new drying technology of Chinese medicinal pills.


Subject(s)
China , Desiccation , Physical Therapy Modalities , Technology , Vibration
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928010

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the kinetics and variation of volatile components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma during the hot-air drying process to obtain the optimal process parameters under multiple goals such as drying efficiency and drying quality. The dry basis moisture content and drying rate curves along with the change of drying time of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were investigated at five levels of drying air temperatures(30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ℃). The relationship between moisture ratio and time in the drying process of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma was fitted and verified by Midilli model, Page model, Overhults model, Modified Page model, Logaritmic model, Two terms Exponential model, and Newton model. Meanwhile, the effective diffusion coefficient of moisture(D_(eff)) and activation energy(E_a) in Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were calculated under different drying air temperatures. GC-MS was used to determine the volatile components and content changes of the fresh Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and dried products at different temperatures. The dry basis moisture content and drying rate of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were closely related to the temperature of the drying medium, and the moisture of the Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma decreased with the prolonged drying time. As revealed by the drying rate curve, the drying rate increased with the increase in hot air temperature, and the migration of moisture was accelerated. The comparison of the correlation coefficient(R~2), chi-square(χ~2), and root mean standard error(RMSE) of each model indicated that the parameter average of the Midilli model had the highest degree of fit, with R~2=0.999 2, χ~2=8.78×10~(-5), and RMSE=8.20×10~(-3). Besides, the D_(eff) at 30-70 ℃ was in the range of 1.04×10~(-9)-6.28×10~(-9) m~2·s~(-1), and E_a was 37.47 kJ·mol~(-1). The volatile components of fresh Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and dried products at different temperatures were determined by GC-MS, and 18, 18, 18, 17, 17, and 18 compounds were identified respectively, which accounted for more than 84.76% of the volatile components. In conclusion, the hot-air drying of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma can be model-fitted and verified and the variation law of the moisture and volatile components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with temperature is obtained. This study is expected to provide new ideas for exploring the drying characteristics and quality of aromatic Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hot Temperature , Kinetics , Rhizome
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927942

ABSTRACT

Essential oils from Chinese medicine are popular in the fields such as medicine, food, and cosmetics because of their unique biological characteristics. However, since essential oils are lipophilic compounds with high volatility, poor stability, and strong irritation, various preparation technologies need to be employed to improve stability, reduce irritation, and increase bioavailability. At present, a variety of preparation technologies have been applied to the encapsulation of essential oils. Various encapsulation strategies are formed because of different delivery systems featured with multiple principles and characteristics and are widely used to improve the stability of essential oils. Essential oils of Chinese medicine are widely used in the medical field, and they are under continuous innovation and development in clinical research, the pharmaceutical industry, medical products, etc. The present study summarized various delivery systems that could improve the stability of essential oils and reviewed the applications of essential oils encapsulated in the delivery systems in the medical field to provide re-ferences for the improvement of stability of essential oils and their safety, efficiency, and wide use in the medical field.


Subject(s)
China , Oils, Volatile
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927934

ABSTRACT

Due to the characteristics of confusing varieties of Chinese medicinal materials, different sources, complex chemical composition, non-standard preparation process, and non-standard pharmaceutical equipment, the quality of Chinese medicinal preparations is difficult to be controlled and evaluated effectively under the current quality control mode and method of Chinese medicinal preparation. The present study proposed an engineering quality view of Chinese medicine pharmacy and a strategy to control the quality of Chinese medicinal preparations based on the current situation. The "overall, dialectical, and dynamic" multi-factor engineering quality view, covering original medicinal materials, preparation technologies, pharmaceutical equipment, and Chinese medicinal preparations, ensures the traceable process, measurable procedures, and feedback quality. The quality control mode of Chinese medicinal preparation with controllable sources, standardized preparation technologies, green pharmaceutical equipment, and intelligent manufacturing is built up.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pharmacy , Quality Control
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879067

ABSTRACT

Texture sensory attributes are the key items in quality control of Chinese medicinal honeyed pills. The purpose of this study is to develop a quality control method for assessing the texture sensory attributes of Chinese medicinal honeyed pills based on real-world Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin pilular masses and finished products. First, parameters of texture profile analysis(TPA) were optimized through single factor and central composite design(CCD) experiments to establish a detection method for texture sensory attri-butes of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. The results showed that the established detection method was stable and reliable, with the optimal parameters set up as follows: deformation percentage of 70%, detection speed at 30 mm·min~(-1), and interval time of 15 s. Furthermore, 540 data points yielded form six texture sensory attributes of pills from 30 batches were subjected to multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) with Hotelling T~2 and squared prediction error(SPE) control charts to establish the quality control method of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. This study is expected to provide a reference for improving the quality control system of Chinese medicinal honeyed pills.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878908

ABSTRACT

Drying is one of the most common unit operations in the production of traditional Chinese medicine. The drying process of traditional Chinese medicine materials is accompanied by the dynamic reduction of water content. As a key index to determine the end of the drying process, the moisture content of materials plays an important role in improving drying efficiency and saving energy. Recently, the drying process of traditional Chinese medicine is mostly monitored by offline detection, and there are few reports of online moisture detection applications. In this paper, the principle and current application of online inspection technology for the material drying process in different fields were introduced. The significance of online detection technology in drying of traditional Chinese medicine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the application prospect of online detection technology in the field of drying of traditional Chinese medicine was predicted. In response to urgent transformation and upgrading of the traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing industry, the application of online moisture detection technology is expected to be a key breakthrough in the intelligent upgrading of traditional Chinese medicine drying technology and equipment.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905850

ABSTRACT

Succus Bambusae, regarded as the holy medicine for the treatment of phlegm by traditional Chinese medicine experts, has the functions of clearing heat and resolving phlegm, resuscitating and relieving convulsions. In clinical practice, it is mainly used to treat phlegm-heat cough, phlegm yellow and shortness of breath, stroke with exuberant phlegm and other syndromes. The research of its processing procedure and quality standard is the key issue to realize the process modernization and quality standardization of this traditional medicine resource. On the basis of literature research, this paper conducted the herbal textual research on Succus Bambusae, sorted out its medicinal history, and compared the advantages and disadvantages of its traditional and modern preparation procedure. Based on the historical records, it is pointed out that there are still many problems in the traditional and modern processing procedure of Succus Bambusae, such as low-yield processing procedure and extensive production technology that cannot meet the requirements of large-scale green manufacturing. At present, there are a lot of literature on the comparative study of the origin, variety and processing procedure of Succus Bambusae, but most of them are limited to the chemical components, and lack of in-depth study on its pharmacodynamic substance basis and mechanism. Meanwhile, the pharmacological effects of Succus Bambusae are mostly limited to antitussive and expectorant, and few other pharmacological effects have been reported. Based on the above analysis, it is suggested that the follow-up research work can be carried out from these five aspects:①Clarifying the original source, enriching and perfecting the medicinal resources. ②Standardizing the processing procedure, establishing relevant quality standards. ③Clarifying the pharmacological mechanism, strengthening the basic research on the pharmacological effect and clinical application. ④Inheriting ancient processing, researching and developing special preparation equipment and standardizing production operation rules. ⑤Comprehensive utilization of the by-products in preparation process.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773733

ABSTRACT

Dry granulation technology is a great innovation in granulation technology,which saves many intermediate links and reduces many intermediate costs. It is closely related to the characteristics of materials,dry granulation equipment and process. Dry granulation technology is a systematic engineering science covering many technical fields. The process of dry granulation involves complex mathematical model mechanisms of temperature field,pressure field and velocity field,closely related to the characteristics of materials and drying equipment. However,due to the late start of research on dry granulation technology of traditional Chinese medicine,basic research is still weak. The research on dry granulation technology has achieved great results in the fields of food,chemical industry,agriculture and forestry,showing great reference significance. The advantage of dry granulation of traditional Chinese medicine is that it can be directly granulated by adding an appropriate amount of auxiliary materials in the extract powder of traditional Chinese medicine,without the need of wetting,mixing,drying and other processes. The process is simple and can effectively guarantee the quality of traditional Chinese medicine. The granules obtained by the dry granulation technique are important intermediates for preparing the solid preparations of traditional Chinese medicines,which would directly affect the subsequent molding process and the quality of the preparation products. Therefore,based on the characteristics of dry granulation method in traditional Chinese medicine and by referring to the advanced research results of dry granulation technology in other fields,we would discuss the research ideas of dry granulation in traditional Chinese medicine in terms of the mechanism of dry granulation equipment,technology,on-line detection technology and mathematical model of dry granulation process,hoping to provide reference for the research of dry granulation method in traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Models, Theoretical , Powders , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802245

ABSTRACT

Objective: Taking single Liuwei Dihuangwan(LDW) as the research object,the moisture content change and volumetric shrinkage characteristics in its drying process were investigated,which provided the theoretical basis for improving the drying efficiency of the pills and reducing the quality problems of the pattern pills,crusts and crack pills. Method: The drying characteristics of LDW at drying temperature of 50,75,100,125℃ were studied by constant temperature hot air drying and vacuum drying.Based on sphere model of Fick's second law and Arrhenius equation,the effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy of the drying process were obtained.The volumetric shrinkage characteristics of the pills during the drying process were studied by the projected area method.The Weibull function was used to fit the drying dynamics curve of single LDW. Result: Hot air drying and vacuum drying of LDW both belonged to the decreasing drying processes,and the time required to achieve the same moisture content in vacuum drying was shorter than that in hot air drying.The moisture ratio in the drying process of single LDW obeyed the Weibull function distribution(R2=0.994 5-0.999 7),the scale parameter(α) decreased with the increase of temperature,and drying temperature had significant influence on the shape parameter (β).The effective diffusion coefficients of hot air drying and vacuum drying were 2.626×10-3-7.823×10-2,3.782×10-3-9.042×10-2 m2·s-1, their activation energy were 47.18,42.69 kJ·mol-1,respectively.The volume ratio of hot air drying and vacuum drying of LDW ranged from 0.638 to 0.741 and 0.607 to 0.689,respectively. Conclusion: Weibull function can be adopted to predict the drying and dehydration law of LDW.Under the condition of low temperature drying,slow-down of shrinkage rate of the pills is helpful to prevent the formation of splitting pills,this study provides theoretical and technical basis for dying of LDW.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802153

ABSTRACT

Volatile oil is widely distributed in Chinese medicinal materials,which contains rich chemical compositions and has a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-bacterial,anti-inflammatory,anti-oxidant,anti-tumor,transdermal absorption and antalgic activities,etc.In recent years,the research on the Chinese medicines containing volatile oil is increasing,showing a wide prospect of application in clinical medicine,health care,daily products development,etc.Volatile oil of traditional Chinese medicine has poor solubility,volatility and unstable properties.Factors such as species,harvesting seasons,extraction methods,processing technologies and storage conditions would affect the compositions and contents of volatile oil,thus directly affecting its efficacy,safety and quality stability.Hence,it is especially necessary to control the volatile oil content.The current 2015 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia has made a lot of regulations on the quality control of Chinese medicines containing volatile oil,but generally does not provide the lowest and highest concentrations of volatile oil.As the volatile oil of traditional Chinese medicines has good biological activity and the quality standards are not yet perfect,this study would take the Fist Part of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 Edition as the data source to determine the species of Chinese medicines containing volatile oils through literature research and pharmacopoeia description;the functions,indications,and sources of 196 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines containing volatile oil would be classified and the confusable species would be discriminated by using the Chinese pharmacy knowledge.In this study,the quality-influencing factors would be comprehensively analyzed and the content determination methods of volatile oil would be summarized to offer a reference for the development and application of Chinese medicinal materials containing volatile oil,as well as to lay the foundation for further reinforcing and improving their quality standards.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687265

ABSTRACT

The compressibility of tablets is the essential operating unit during the preparation of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, as well as a complicated process. Therefore, it is of great significance to comprehensively study the influencing factors on the formation process. This paper aimed to review the evaluation methods for the tablet forming quality and highlight the effects of material powder properties, excipients and preparation technology on the quality of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on the basis of relevant literatures. Furthermore, the common problems in tablet forming process are also analyzed to provide useful references for the development of tablet forming quality of traditional Chinese medicines.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776403

ABSTRACT

"High quality, safety and effectiveness" are the primary principles for the pharmaceutical research and development process in China. The quality of products relies not only on the inspection method, but also on the design and development, process control and standardized management. The quality depends on the process control level. In this paper, the history and current development of quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations are reviewed systematically. Based on the development model of international drug quality control and the misunderstanding of quality control of TCM preparations, the reasons for impacting the homogeneity of TCM preparations are analyzed and summarized. According to TCM characteristics, efforts were made to control the diversity of TCM, make "unstable" TCM into "stable" Chinese patent medicines, put forward the concepts of "holistic view" and "QbD (quality by design)", so as to create the "holistic, modular, data, standardized" model as the core of TCM preparation quality process control model. Scientific studies shall conform to the actual production of TCM preparations, and be conducive to supporting advanced equipment and technology upgrade, thoroughly applying the scientific research achievements in Chinese patent medicines, and promoting the cluster application and transformation application of TCM pharmaceutical technology, so as to improve the quality and effectiveness of the TCM industry and realize the green development.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Quality Control , Technology, Pharmaceutical
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275425

ABSTRACT

Product quality relies on not only testing methods,but also the design and development, production control and product manufacturing all aspects of logistics management. Quality comes from the process control level.Therefore, it is very important to accurately identify the factors that may induce quality risk in the production process and quality control measures correspondingly.This article systematically analyzes the source of the quality risk of all aspects of the production process in traditional Chinese medicine preparation. Discussing ways and methods of quality risk identification of traditional Chinese medicine preparation and providing references for perfecting the whole process quality management of traditional Chinese medicine preparation.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275147

ABSTRACT

The dry quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills is the hot spot of pills research, because their quality has a crucial effect on the efficacy and development of dosage forms. Through literature research and statistical analysis, we would review the current problems on the drying of traditional Chinese medicine pills in this paper, and surrounding the evaluation system for traditional Chinese medicine pills, analyze the characteristics of common drying equipment and processes as well as their effect on quality of pills, discuss the problems in drying equipment and process as well as quality, and put forward the corresponding strategies, hoping to provide new ideas and new methods for the quality improvement of traditional Chinese medicine pills and quality standards.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335777

ABSTRACT

The quality uniformity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation is the base for guaranteeing the safety and effectiveness of clinical medication. At present, the quality of TCM preparation is uneven. At present, the same TCM preparation in different manufacturers, TCM preparations in the same manufacturer, and even different batches of a same TCM preparation in the same manufacturer have great differences in quality, which can not reach stability and uniformity. This paper would discuss the possible factors that influence the uniformity of quality in the whole process of pharmacy by means of consulting relevant literature on quality control of Chinese herbal preparations and analyzing the present situation and problems of the quality of TCM preparation. In addition, some strategies such as standardization of cultivation of TCM, processing standardization, standardization of pharmaceutical equipment, mixed batch feeding, and Quality by Design would be also put forward to provide references for the quality uniformity of TCM preparation.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-853122

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the correlation of water and different volume fractions of ethanol boiling point and saturated steam pressure when using the vacuum extraction technology, and to compare the impact on saturation steam pressure of the addition of different medicine materials (Andrographis paniculata, Carthamus tinctorius, Angelica dahurica, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Scutellaria baicalensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Citrus reticulata) or the addition of materials with different particle sizes. Methods: To obtain the theoretical value and measured value of saturated steam pressure under different boiling points by the combined method of theoretical calculation, experiment measurement, and statistical analysis Results: The regression equation for the saturated steam pressure (P) with the volume fraction of ethanol solvent (V) and the boiling point (T) was P = 76.467 1+0.035 2 T2+1.201 0 TV-30.749 4 V2-3.123 9 T-14.966 7 V. The results showed that measured values of the saturated steam pressure of pure solvent, water and different concentration of ethanol, was less than the theoretical value. After adding herbs, the measured value of saturated steam pressure was higher than the pure solvent. The saturated steam pressure would reduce exactly as the extraction temperature reaches a certain temperature after the herbs were added. Conclusion: The addition and crush of herbs have influence on the saturated vapor pressure of solvent with small range.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304844

ABSTRACT

Microbial contamination, growth and reproduction have a great influence on the quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its preparation. TCM may be polluted by microbial in the production process due to ambient air, facilities and appliances and operating personnel, which affects the quality and efficacy of the final product. The GMP certification inspection standard of TCM manufacturing enterprises clearly established: "Sterilization methods of Chinese herbal medicine, intermediate products, finished products should follow the principle whether or not to change its quality", "TCM powder that used as medicine directly should follow the principle whether to do microbiological examinations". So it's particularly important for product quality, corporate energy consumption and its efficiency to choose the scientific and effective sterilization techniques and methods. Ozone is a kind of safe, environmentally friendly, efficient and no residue emerging sterilization technology. It has been widely applied in various fields of medical and health care and production and living. This paper mainly analyzed the ozone sterilization technology of TCM, aiming to explore the principle of ozone sterilization, the advantages, application status and existing problems and so on. The management regulations and implementation rules of ozone sterilization were summarized to make sterilization of Chinese medicine in the production, management, quality control and other aspects standardized, reasonable and scientific, and to provide the theoretical reference of the ozone sterilization technology for TCM and its preparation.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Humans , Ozone , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Microbiology , Sterilization , Methods
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250427

ABSTRACT

Drying is the critical link during pharmaceutical process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is directly related to the quality of drugs. The key to technology upgrading of pharmaceutical equipment in Chinese materia medica enterprise is the development of new drying techniques, which concerns the modernization of TCM. The study provides new ideas for the drying technology and equipment by means of reviewing the research status of drying process for the traditional Chinese medicinal materials and preparations, and analyzing the traditional and modern drying methods and equipment, as well as their existing problems and corresponding measures for the drying processes and equipment. In addition, this paper expounds the development trend of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and preparations of drying process and equipment.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Reference Standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244559

ABSTRACT

Aromatic traditional Chinese medicines have a long history in China, with wide varieties. Volatile oils are active ingredients extracted from aromatic herbal medicines, which usually contain tens or hundreds of ingredients, with many biological activities. Therefore, volatile oils are often used in combined prescriptions and made into various efficient preparations for oral administration or external use. Based on the sources from the database of Newly Edited National Chinese Traditional Patent Medicines (the second edition), the author selected 266 Chinese patent medicines containing volatile oils in this paper, and then established an information sheet covering such items as name, dosage, dosage form, specification and usage, and main functions. Subsequently, on the basis of the multidisciplinary knowledge of pharmaceutics, traditional Chinese pharmacology and basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, efforts were also made in the statistics of the dosage form and usage, variety of volatile oils and main functions, as well as the status analysis on volatile oils in terms of the dosage form development, prescription development, drug instruction and quality control, in order to lay a foundation for the further exploration of the market development situations of volatile oils and the future development orientation.


Subject(s)
Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug Therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs , Oils, Volatile , Classification , Therapeutic Uses , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Phytotherapy , Plant Oils , Classification , Therapeutic Uses
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321309

ABSTRACT

Extraction is the critical link during pharmaceutical process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is directly related to the quality of drugs. So the key to technology upgrading of pharmaceutical equipment in Chinese materia medica enterprise is the development of new extraction techniques, which concerns the modernization of TCM. In this paper, fundamentals, traits, and development status of new extraction technologies were firstly introduced, including ultrasound extraction, microwave extraction, super fluid extraction, semi-bionic extraction method, enzymatic treatment extraction, continuous countercurrent extraction, vacuum extraction. Then information of projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China was analyzed in order to recognize the assistance and research results of new extraction techniques. The patents authorized by the State Intellectual Property Office were also summarized for the purpose of understanding the achievement transformation. The information about extraction equipments was collected and screened to acquire the characteristics and market situation. The results showed that there are still problems about new extraction technologies, such as weak basic study, hard transformation of achievements, and the disconnection between research study and practical application. It is necessary to discuss the approaches and methods for accelerating the transformation of fundamental research, which will provide references for the long-term development of new extraction techniques of TCM.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Economics , Methods , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Economics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Economics , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Translational Research, Biomedical
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