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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905078

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the grade evaluation method for Codonopsis Radix slices based relative quality constants, in order to provide scientific theoretical basis for grading of Codonopsis Radix slices. Method:Through literature and market research,the main production areas of Codonopsis Radix slices were determined,and 67 batches of Ludangshen slices(52 batches) and Baitiaodang slices (15 batches) were collected. The appearance traits (average quality and average thickness of Codonopsis Radix slices) were observed and measured. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 edition), the extract and the content of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide was determined by phenol-sulphoacid method. Then the relative quality constant was calculated,and the results of grade evaluation were evaluated through systematic cluster analysis and correlation analysis. Result:Relative quality constants of 67 batches of Codonopsis Radix slices were between 0.32-2.97. If these samples were divided into three grades:the first-grade relative quality constants were greater than or equal to 2.08,the second grade was greater than or equal to 0.89 but less than 2.08,while the third grade was less than 0.89. The results of systematic cluster analysis showed that 67 batches of Codonopsis Radix slices were clustered into 3 categories,and the results were basically consistent with the classification. The correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the content of the extracts and the polysaccharide content (P<0.05). Conclusion:This method links the extrinsic characteristics to the intrinsic quality,and objectively grade Codonopsis Radix slices, so as to provide a basis for its grade standards.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773162

ABSTRACT

Commercially available japonica rice and indica rice with different trade names were collected,and then based on the method of rice stir-frying,their many indexes were evaluated,for example the physical and chemical properties such as appearance color,grain type,broken kernel ratio,length-width ratio,1 000-grain weight,specific heat capacity,moisture content,amylose content,and protein content. The discriminant function analysis was used to determine the effective factors affecting the quality of rice as excipients. The results showed that two types of rice could be distinguished by rice color parameter a*,grain parameter circularity,1 000-grain weight and amylose content. These four effective factors can be used as the quality evaluation indexes for fried rice as excipients.Protein is one of the main components of rice,and its content affects the quality of rice. There is a significant difference in the protein content between japonica rice and indica rice. Therefore,protein content should be used as one of the evaluation indexes for rice quality. After comprehensive consideration,it is suggested that the red-green value a*shall not be less than 0. 50; the circularity not less than 53. 0,the 1 000-grain weight not less than 16. 0 g,the amylose content not less than 12. 0% and the protein content not less than4. 0% in the japonica rice; the red-green value a*shall not be lower than-1. 0,the circularity not less than 41. 0,the 1 000-grain weight not less than 13. 0 g,the amylose content not less than 9. 0% and the protein content not less than 3. 5% in the indica rice. In this study,the quality evaluation standards for rice as excipients( japonica rice,indica rice) were supplemented and improved,laying foundation for the development of quality standards for rice as excipients with the rice stir-frying method.


Subject(s)
Amylose , Cooking , Excipients , Food Quality , Hot Temperature , Oryza , Chemistry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773136

ABSTRACT

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen is one of the Chinese herbal medicine being susceptible to aflatoxins contamination. To investigate the sources of aflatoxins contamination and toxigenic fungi species on Ziziphi Spinosae Semen,32 samples were collected from multiple steps during the post-harvest processing in this study. Aflatoxins in these samples were determined by immunoaffinity column and HPLC coupled with post-column photochemical derivatization. The dilution-plate method was applied to the fungi isolation. The isolated fungi strains were identified by morphological characterization and molecular approaches. The results showed that aflatoxins were detected in 28 samples from every step during the processing of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. Three samples were detected with aflatoxin B_1 and 2 samples with both aflatoxin B_1 and total aflatoxin exceeding the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Especially the samples from the washing step,with the highest detected amounts of AFB_1 and AFs were reached 94. 79,121. 43 μg·kg~(-1),respectively. All 32 samples were contaminated by fungi. The fungal counts on the newly harvested samples were 2. 20 × 10~2 CFU·g~(-1). Moreover,it increased as tphreocessing progresses,and achieved 1. 16×10~6 CFU·g~(-1) after washing. A total of 321 isolates were identified to 17 genera. Aspergillus flavus was the main source of aflatoxins during the processing and storage of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. One isolate of A. flavus was confirmed producing AFB_1 and AFB_2. The fungal count was significantly increased by composting,and Aspergillus was the predominant genus after shell breaking. The contamination level of aflatoxins was increased by composting and washing.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , Aspergillus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fungi , Seeds , Chemistry , Microbiology , Ziziphus , Chemistry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801919

ABSTRACT

Bupleuri Radix is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in clinical practice, which has the effects of relieving fever, relieving liver and depression, and promoting Yangqi. At present, the varieties of Bupleuri Radix are relatively chaotic, and the processing in the production areas is relatively extensive. In the processing of Bupleuri Radix, the processed products contained in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia are raw products and vinegar-processed products. In addition, the specifications on Chinese medicine processing in various provinces and cities contain many processing methods, such as stir-frying with wine, stir-frying with honey, processed with turtle blood, etc. However, there are great differences in processing specifications among provinces and cities, and the processing methods lack clear process parameters, so the quality of Bupleuri Radix decoction pieces produced on these basis is uneven, which affects the clinical application of the decoction pieces. By consulting ancient books and relevant literature, the authors conduct textual research on the varieties of Bupleuri Radix, and systematically summarized the processing methods and processing methods in the producing area, so as to provide reference for the establishment of processing technology specifications and quality standards of Bupleuri Radix decoction pieces.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775325

ABSTRACT

To minimize the predatory harvest of Heterosmilax yunnanensis and maintain the sustainable utilization of its resources, a study on the tending technology of wild H. yunnanensis was carried out. The results showed that the tuber tending model had a higher seed emergence rate, shorter growth period and easier control of male and female ratios than other tending models; by removing shrubs, topping, bending pruning, controlling insects and pests and other effective technical measures, the growth period of H. yunnanensis was shortened; the average annual net income of the tending area was 1 086 yuan/mu (1 mu≈666.67 m²), which was 86.9% higher than before. This study was conducive to increasing the yield and quality of H. yunnanensis in Karst landform area, and instructive for the tending of other wild traditional Chinese medicinal herbs in this area.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Smilacaceae
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231011

ABSTRACT

This study intends to explore the potential resource-orientedutilization value of the flower of Sophora flavescents by analyzing alkaloids and flavonoids in the flower of S. flavescens from Shanxi province. This study established a rapid UPLC-TQ-MS/MS method that is used for determination of seven alkaloids and seven flavonoids in the flower of S.flavescens. The different florescences all have the seven detected alkaloids such as cytisine, oxy-matrine, oxy-sophocarpine, sophoridine, N-methylcytisine, matrine, sophocarpine.The total contents of detected alkaloids are as follows: flower buds 1.47%, primal flowers 1.34%, full bloomed flowers 1.17%, faded flowers 1.01%. The top three contents of alkaloids are N-methylcytisine , oxy-sophocarpine and oxymatrine, accounting for about 83% of the total amount of detected alkaloids. All the samples in different florescences have the seven detected flavonoids such as rutin, luteolin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, trifolirhizin, kurarinone, and kushenol I. The total contents of detected alkaloids are as follows: flower buds 495.2 μg•g⁻¹, primal flowers 313.7 μg•g⁻¹, faded flowers 224.2 μg•g⁻¹, full bloomed flowers 193.0 μg•g⁻¹. The content of luteolinis relatively higher than other detected flavonoids, accounting for about 89%-94% of the total amount of detected flavonoids. The results indicated that the flower of S.flavescens could be an important material resource to obtain the resourceful alkaloids. This result can provide scientific basis for resource-oriented utilization and industrial development of the flower of S. flavescens.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307166

ABSTRACT

According to the research strategy of resource chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials and Chinese medicinal resources recycling utilization, this study intends to explore the potential resource-oriented utilization value of the seed of Sophora flavescens by contrasting with its kindred plant S. alopecuroides. This study established a rapid UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS and UPLC-TQ-MS/MS method to determine the alkaloids in the seed of S. flavescens. Results of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis showed that the alkaloids in the seed of S. flavescens were highly similar with S. alopecuroides.In the determination of 7 kinds of alkaloids, the total content was 11.203 and 15.506 mg•g⁻¹ in the seed of S. flavescens and S. alopecuroides, respectively. The content of oxymatrine, oxysophocarpine and sophoridine is high in the seed of S. flavescens. The results indicated that the seeds of S. flavescens. could be an important material resource to obtain alkaloids.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272713

ABSTRACT

The antagonistic effect of Bacillus spp. against Fusarium solani was evaluated by living body dual culture and Oxford cup method. The plant growth promoting properties of those strains that had obvious and stable antifungal activity were then tested. The results showed that the living body and bacteria-free fermentation filtrate of strain G10 both had obvious and stable antifungal effect to F. solani. Besides, the strain possessed such growth promoting properties as phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, and production of IAA, amylase and HCN. Strain G10 was classified and identified as B. subtilis by a combination of morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, 16 SrDNA gene sequence analysis and the BBL CrystalTM bacteria identification. In conclusion, B. subtilis G10 has the basic characteristics of multifunctional strains and could be one of the microbiological resources for developing special bio-control agent against Astragalus root rot.

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