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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888126

ABSTRACT

To summarize and evaluate the efficacy and safety of Shenmai Injection in the treatment of viral myocarditis, shock, pulmonary heart disease, coronary heart disease, neutropenia and tumor chemotherapy, so as to provide supportive evidences for clinical rational use of Shenmai Injection. By searching literatures about studies on the systematic reviews on Shenmai Injection in treatment of viral myocarditis, shock, pulmonary heart disease, coronary heart disease, neutropenia and tumor chemotherapy from the main Chinese and English databases. Primary efficacy and safety outcome measures were selected for comparative analysis and summary, and the appraisal tool of AMSTAR 2 was used to evaluate the included studies.A total of 36 systematic reviews(published from 2005 to 2020) were included, involving viral myocarditis, shock, pulmonary heart disease, malignant tumor and coronary heart disease. The number of cases included in each type of the above diseases was 3 840, 2 484, 12 702, 28 036 and 27 082, respectively. The comparison results showed that, Shenmai Injection combined with conventional/western medicine treatment groups had better efficacy than conventional/western medicine groups alone in the prevention and treatment of the above five diseases. The main adverse reactions of Shenmai Injection reported in the included studies were facial flushing, rash, palpitation, etc., but the incidence was low and the general symptoms were mild, so no special treatment was needed. Therefore, the application of Shenmai Injection on the basis of conventional treatment or western medicine treatment had better prevention and treatment efficacy of the diseases. It was suggested that more multi-center and larger sample-size randomized controlled trials should be carried out in the future, and the relevant reporting standards should be strictly followed in systematic reviews, so as to improve the scientificity and transparency of the study.


Subject(s)
Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Pulmonary Heart Disease , Systematic Reviews as Topic
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908480

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the application value of P-loop digestive tract recons-truction in pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).Methods:The retrospective and descriptive study was conducted. The clinicopathological data of 21 ampullary disease patients undergoing PD in the Liuzhou People′s Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi Medical University from April to December 2020 were collected. There were 13 males and 8 females, aged from 35 to 76 years, with a median age of 60 years. All the 21 patients underwent PD and digestive tract reconstruction using P-loop method based on the Child reconstruction. Observation indicators: (1) surgical situations; (2) postoperative situations; (3) follow-up. Follow-up was conducted using outpatient examination or telephone interview to detect survival and discomfort symptoms of patients up to December 2020. Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as Mean± SD, and measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M(range). Count data were described as absolute numbers or persentages. Results:(1) Surgical situations: all the 21 patients underwent PD successfully. The operation time, time of P-loop anastomosis and volume of intraoperative blood loss of 21 patients were (317±74)minutes, (14±3)minutes and 375 mL(range, 100-800 mL), respectively. Of the 21 patients, 17 cases had pancreatic texture as soft, 4 cases had pancreatic texture as hard, 3 cases had diameter of pancreas ≤3 mm, 18 cases had diameter of pancreas >3 mm, 14 cases were placed pancreatic duct stent, 7 cases were not placed pancreatic duct stent. (2) Postoperative situations: 2 of the 21 patients had grade A pancreatic fistula, and none of patient had grade B or grade C pancreatic fistula. One case had hepaticojejunal anastomotic fistula, 2 cases without pancreatic fistula had delayed gastric emptying and none of patient had abdominal infection or bleeding. The duration of postoperative hospital stay of 21 patients was (16±5)days, and none of patient died during postoperative 30 days. Results of postoperative histopathological examination showed there were 10 cases with duodenal papillary carcinoma, 4 cases with lower bile duct carcinoma, 3 cases with pancreatic head ductal adenocarcinoma, 1 case with duodenum stromal tumors, 1 case with gastric antrum carcinoma, 1 case with mass in the head of the pancreas of IgG4 and 1 case with choledochal cyst of type 3. (3) Follow-up: all 21 patients were followed up for 1.0 to 7.0 months, with a median follow-up time of 4.3 months. None of patient died. There was no abdominal pain, distension or dyspepsia during follow-up. One case was diagnosed as tumor liver metastasis at postoperative 5 months.Conclusion:P-loop digestive tract reconstruction in PD is safe and effective, with good short-term effect.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905946

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood, whereas there is no specific medicine at present. There are more and more researches on the treatment of ASD with traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) which the curative effect is reliable. The heart and spleen are the main viscera for the treatment of ASD, but there is still a lack of in-depth analysis of the mechanism of TCM. In order to explore the relationship between the core symptoms of ASD and the heart and spleen, this article specifically explores the theoretical origins of the heart and the spleen in the formation of the core symptoms of ASD, and to clarify the role of the heart and spleen in the occurrence and development of the two core symptoms of ASD from the perspective of TCM. In view of social communication and communication obstacles, the author puts forward and explains the language problems of children with ASD based on the functions of the heart and spleen, the theory of the viscera, the ascription of the meridians, and the classics. The mechanism of the heart and spleen in TCM about the failure of the spleen, the loss of the heart, and the endogenous phlegm. Aiming at the mechanism of the stereotyped symptoms of abnormal behaviors in children with ASD, this paper proposes and explains the TCM mechanism of constant deficiency of the spleen and dereliction of duty, leading to loss of mind, heart and spleen injury, and finally a series of stereotypes and strange syndromes due to lack of spirit. Through the analysis and excavation of TCM theory, it explores theoretical basis for ASD from the theory of heart and spleen, with a view to preliminarily constructing the theoretical framework of TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment of the deficiency of both the heart and spleen, and provide theoretical reference for TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment of ASD. The treatment of ASD from the differentiation of symptoms and signs of the heart and spleen is supported by a strong theoretical basis of TCM, and the rationale, law and prescriptions are complete, which may be the direction of screening effective TCM prescriptions for the treatment of ASD in the future.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888803

ABSTRACT

There are two source plants for the traditional Chinese medicine Murrayae Folium et Cacumen (MFC) in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, i.e. Murraya exotica L. and M. paniculata (L.) Jack. Herein, a chemical comparison of M. exotica and M. paniculata by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis coupled with chemometrics and network pharmacology was performed. The main peaks in the fingerprints were identified by liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS) and authenticated by references. The chemometrics results showed that the HPLC fingerprints of these two species were clearly divided into two categories using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and a total of 13 significantly differentiated markers were screened out by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). However, the following network pharmacology analysis showed that these discriminated markers were found to act via many common targets and metabolic pathways, indicating the possibly similar pharmacological effects and mechanisms for M. exotica and M. paniculata. The above results provide valuable evidence for the equivalent use of these two plants in clinical settings. Moreover, the chromatographic fingerprint analysis coupled with chemometrics and network pharmacology supplies an efficient approach for the comparative analysis of multi-source TCMs like MFC.

5.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 85-92, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909837

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury is a common clinical disease secondary to spinal cord fractures that causes patients with motor and sensory dysfunction or even paralysis. In recent years, exosomes have participated in the occurrence and development of various diseases as nanometer-sized cell particles, and have received extensive attention. Exosomes derived from spinal cord tissue cells during spinal cord injury affect the injury process and tissue repair. In addition, exosomes as a new treatment for spinal cord injury have been widely studied. The authors document the mechanisms of various exosomes from spinal cord tissue and the repair effects of various cell-derived exosomes in spinal cord injury, in order to deepen the understanding of the role of exosomes in spinal cord injury and provide new ideas for studying the course and treatment of spinal cord injury.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879174

ABSTRACT

Chrysanthemi Indici Flos(CIF), the capitulum of Chrysanthemum indicum, is widely used in proprietary Chinese medicine and daily chemical products. At present, CIF is mainly produced from wild resources and rarely cultivated. This study aims to reveal the correlations between linarin content in CIF and climatic factors in different habitats, and provide a theoretical basis for suitable zoning and rational production of medicinal materials. The content of linarin in CIF was determined by HPLC. Grey relational analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were carried out for linarin content with climatic factors. The results showed that the content of linarin in CIF was significantly different among different habitats. The grey relational degrees of climatic factors with linarin content was in an order of average annual precipitation>annual average sunshine hours>annual average temperature>longitude>annual frost-free period>latitude>altitude. Longitude, annual average temperature and average annual precipitation had significantly positive correlations with the content of linarin in CIF, whereas latitude and altitude showed negative correlations with it. The annual frost-free period and annual average sunshine hours had no significant correlation with the content of linarin in CIF. The content of linarin in CIF varied significantly in different habitats. High longitude, low latitude, low altitude, high annual average temperature and high annual average precipitation could be used as indicators for the habitats of high-quality Ch. indicum. This study provides a reference for selecting suitable producing areas of Ch. indicum and establishing artificial cultivation system.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chrysanthemum , Ecosystem , Glycosides
7.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 469-476, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866154

ABSTRACT

Objective:By establishing a rat model of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis(EAT), to investigate the effects of different iodine intake on the hippocampal morphology, monoamine neurotransmitters and ethology of the offspring of EAT rats.Methods:A total of 60 female and 20 male Lewis rats with a body weight of 50 - 60 g were selected. Female rats were divided into 4 groups (15 rats in each group) with random number table method according to their body weight: control group (NI group), thyroglobulin group (Tg group), Tg + high iodine Ⅰ group (Tg + HⅠ group), and Tg + high iodine Ⅱ group (Tg + HⅡ group), and the latter three groups were model groups. The contents of iodine in drinking water of the 4 groups were 100 μg/L, 100 μg/L, 20 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. Rats in the model groups were immunized with porcine thyroglobulin (PTg) subcutaneously at multiple sites, and the NI group was injected with normal saline, once every 2 weeks, 3 times in total. The rats in each group were mated in cages according to the ratio of 3 : 1 between female and male. After experiment of the offspring, the urine samples of mother rats were collected within the previous week, urinary iodine concentration was determined by As 3+-Ce 4+ catalytic spectrophotometry; then the mother rats were killed, HE staining was used to observe the changes of thyroid histomorphology and the infiltration of inflammatory cells; serum thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) of mother rats were determined by radioimmunoassay. Brain tissues were collected from 7 days old offspring, hippocampal morphology of 7 days old offspring was observed by toluidine blue staining; the contents of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in brain tissues of 7 days old offspring were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); 30 and 60 days old offspring were used for water maze-location navigation test and open field test. Results:The levels of urinary iodine increased significantly of mother rats in Tg + HⅠ and Tg + HⅡ groups than that in NI group (median, μg/L: 35 380.18, 236 847.16 vs 221.43, P < 0.05). HE staining showed that the thyroid tissue of mother rats in Tg, Tg + HⅠ and Tg + HⅡ groups had different degrees of destruction and inflammatory cells infiltration, and the degree of destruction and infiltration increased with the increase of iodine intake. Compared with NI group, the contents of TgAb and TPOAb in serum of mother rats in Tg, Tg + HⅠ and Tg + HⅡ groups were significantly increased(2.118 4 ± 0.675 1, 2.103 0 ± 0.714 1, 2.783 6 ± 1.084 3 vs 0.790 1 ± 0.101 0, P < 0.05; 1.015 8 ± 0.252 8, 1.019 5 ± 0.202 0, 0.936 6 ± 0.183 4 vs 0.692 2 ± 0.111 9, P < 0.05), and the content of TgAb in Tg + HⅡ group was significantly higher than that in Tg and Tg + HⅠ groups ( P < 0.05). Compared with NI group, the number of hippocampal neurons decreased and relative damage occurred in Tg, Tg + HⅠ and Tg + HⅡ groups of the offspring. Compared with NI group, the NE contents in brain tissues of the offspring in Tg, Tg + HⅠ and Tg + HⅡ groups decreased (pg/ml: 1 232.01 ± 253.45, 1 197.64 ± 222.46, 1 074.40 ± 366.38 vs 1 733.67 ± 158.12, P < 0.05); there were no significant differences in DA and 5-HT contents in brain tissues of offspring in each group ( P > 0.05). In the water maze-location navigation test, the latency of the Tg + HⅡ group on the 4th day of the 30 days old offspring reaching the platform was significantly longer than that of the NI and Tg groups ( P < 0.05). In the open field test, there was no significant difference in 30 and 60 days old offspring in the latency of moving the original quadrant ( P > 0.05). Conclusions:With the increase of iodine intake, the degrees of thyroid tissue destruction and inflammatory cells infiltration in EAT rats increase, and the levels of TgAb in serum increase significantly. Iodine has certain effects on the hippocampal morphology and the level of monoamine neurotransmitters in the brains of the offspring of EAT rats. The effects of different iodine-induced EAT rats on their offspring's learning, memory and spatial exploration are mainly shown in childhood.

8.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 157-162, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866084

ABSTRACT

Objective:Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) rat model was establish to observe the effects of iodine excess on thyroid function, antibody and thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene expression in EAT rats, and to explore the role of TSHR gene in autoimmune thyroiditis.Methods:According to body weight (80 - 180 g), 48 rats (4-week-old female Lewis) were randomly divided into control group, thyroglobulin (TG) group, TG + high iodine Ⅰ(TG + HⅠ) group, and TG + high iodine Ⅱ (TG + HⅡ) group, 12 rats per group. The iodine concentration in drinking water given to each group was 50 μg/L, 50 μg/L, 20 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. At the same time, rats in TG, TG + HⅠ and TG + HⅡ groups were immunized once every two weeks for three times using pTg and CFA as immunoreagent. Paraffin embedded sections of thyroid tissues were used to observe the pathological changes of rats. The serum levels of thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), thyroperoxidase autoantibody (TPOAb), free triiodothyronine (FT 3) and free thyroxine (FT 4) in rats were determined by radioimmunoassay. Serum TSHR content in rats was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of TSHR mRNA in whole blood and thyroid tissue of rats was determined by RT-PCR. The expression of TSHR protein in thyroid tissue of rats was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results:Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) showed that the thyroid follicles in control group were complete in structure and regular in shape, and no lymphocyte infiltration was observed. A small number of lymphocytes were observed in TG group and scattered in distribution. Follicular structure destruction, fusion and interfollicular infiltration were observed in TG + HⅠ group and TG + HⅡ group. There were significant differences in serum TgAb, TPOAb, FT 3 and FT 4 levels among all groups ( H = 30.28, 21.99, 12.87, 26.69, P < 0.05). Compared to the control group [6.89 (6.32, 7.27), 11.02 (7.60, 12.53), 5.05 (2.71, 7.99), 7.51 (6.50, 9.24) pmol/L], the levels of TgAb [34.99 (25.39, 41.35), 37.70 (29.06, 43.99), 46.41 (38.52, 55.26)], TPOAb [22.87 (13.65, 31.82), 22.22 (14.82, 28.33), 14.61 (12.95, 19.34)], FT 3 [57.74 (24.56, 64.27), 43.64 (5.69, 80.03), 38.56 (17.73, 47.59) pmol/L], and FT 4 [62.16 (41.22, 91.57), 60.61 (35.52, 103.31), 47.96 (31.84, 112.71) pmol/L] were significantly higher in TG group, TG + HⅠ group, and TG + HⅡ group ( P < 0.05). Compared with the control group [(249.37 ± 38.12) μU/L], TG group [(225.33 ± 41.28) μU/L], and TG + HⅠ group [(218.15 ± 65.51) μU/L], TSHR expression level in TG + HⅡ group [(154.26 ± 25.95) μU/L] were significantly decreased ( P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of TSHR gene in the whole blood (0.89 ± 0.19, 0.89 ± 0.30, 0.85 ± 0.24) and thyroid tissue(0.63 ± 0.25, 0.46 ± 0.16, 0.51 ± 0.25) of TG group, TG + HⅠ group and TG + HⅡ group were significantly lower than that of control group (1.00 ± 0.05, 1.13 ± 0.21, P < 0.05). IHC showed that the positive intensity of TSHR protein in control group was significantly higher than that in TG group, TG + HⅠ group and TG + HⅡ group. Conclusions:Long-term exposure to high iodine will eventually lead to the damage of iodine-uptake function in thyroid gland and thyroid diseases. Abnormal expression of TSHR gene may lead to antigenicity of thyrotropin binding site in extracellular receptor region and autoimmune thyroid disease.

9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1935-1942, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The casein kinase 2-interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) is important in the development of osteoblasts and cardiomyocytes. However, the effects of CKIP-1 on osteoblast precursor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain unclear. This study aimed to determine whether CKIP-1 affects osteogenic differentiation in MSCs and explore the relationship of CKIP-1 and inflammation.@*METHODS@#Bone marrow MSCs of CKIP-1 wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were cultivated in vitro. Cell phenotype was analyzed by flow cytometry, colony formation was detected to study the proliferative ability. Osteogenic and adipogenic induction were performed. The osteogenic ability was explored by alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and ALP activity detection. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was carried out to determine the mRNA expression levels of osteoblast marker genes. The adipogenic ability was detected by oil red O staining. Content of the bone was analyzed to observe the differences of bone imaging parameters including trabecular bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV), bone surface area fraction/trabecular BV, trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular spacing (Tb.sp). Interleukin (IL)-1β was injected on WT mice of 2 months old and 18 months old, respectively. Difference in CKIP-1 expression was detected by RT-PCR and western blot. The relationship between CKIP-1 and inflammation was explored by RT-PCR and western blot.@*RESULTS@#ALP assays, alizarin red staining, and qRT-PCR showed that MSCs derived from CKIP-1 KO mice exhibited a stronger capability for osteogenesis. Micro-computed tomography detection showed that among 18-month-old mice, CKIP-1 KO mice presented significantly higher bone mass compared with WT mice (P = 0.02). No significant difference was observed in 2-month-old mice. In vivo data showed that expression of CKIP-1 was higher in the bone marrow of aging mice than in young mice (4.3-fold increase at the mRNA level, P = 0.04). Finally, the expression levels of CKIP-1 in bone marrow (3.2-fold increase at the mRNA level, P = 0.03) and cultured MSCs were up-regulated on chronic inflammatory stimulation by IL-1β.@*CONCLUSIONS@#CKIP-1 is responsible for negative regulation of MSC osteogenesis with age-dependent effects. Increasing levels of inflammation with aging may be the primary factor responsible for higher expression levels of CKIP-1 but may not necessarily affect MSC aging.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect variant of PIH1D3 gene in a Chinese pedigree affected with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and explore its genotype-relationship correlation.@*METHODS@#PCD patients from the pedigree were analyzed. Ultrastructures of the cilia and flagella of the nasal mucosa were analyzed. DNA samples of the patients were sequenced.@*RESULTS@#The proband and all other affected members of his pedigree had a history of various degree of respiratory tract infection. Two patients had visceral heterotopia, and one was infertile. Electronic microscopy revealed abnormal structures of cilia and flagella. The inner and outer dynein arms were missing, and the arrangement of cilia was disordered. DNA sequencing showed that all patients have carried a c.355C>T variant of the PIH1D3 gene. The corresponding nucleotide was located in a key PIH1 domain, and the site is highly conserved among human, macaque, domestic dog, mouse, xenopus and zebrafish.@*CONCLUSION@#Deletion of the PIH1D3 gene can lead to failure of assembly of inner and outer dynein arms in nasal cilia and sperm flagella, and failure of normal swimming of cilia and sperm. The diagnosis rate of PCD can be validated by genetic testing.

11.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 831-844, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826774

ABSTRACT

The parahippocampal gyrus-orbitofrontal cortex (PHG-OFC) circuit in humans is homologous to the postrhinal cortex (POR)-ventral lateral orbitofrontal cortex (vlOFC) circuit in rodents. Both are associated with visuospatial malfunctions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the relationship between an impaired POR-vlOFC circuit and visuospatial memory deficits through retrograde tracing and in vivo local field potential recordings in 5XFAD mice, and investigated alterations of the PHG-OFC circuit by multi-domain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients on the AD spectrum. We demonstrated that an impaired glutamatergic POR-vlOFC circuit resulted in deficient visuospatial memory in 5XFAD mice. Moreover, MRI measurements of the PHG-OFC circuit had an accuracy of 77.33% for the classification of amnestic mild cognitive impairment converters versus non-converters. Thus, the PHG-OFC circuit explains the neuroanatomical basis of visuospatial memory deficits in AD, thereby providing a potential predictor for AD progression and a promising interventional approach for AD.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872927

ABSTRACT

Objective:To identify the quality differential markers of different processed products of Glycyrrhiza uralensis dry roots and rhizomes. Method:Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE) was used to collect high-precision mass-charge ratio and ion response strength information of the components in G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes before and after processing by negative ion mode. The data set collected after pretreatment was analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to quickly search the differential components in different processed products of G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes. Differential components were identified according to the relative molecular weight, fragment ion, mass spectrum database and related literature information, then the migration of components before and after processing was studied. Result:A total of 10 quality differential markers were searched from raw products, roasted products and honey-roasted products of G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes, mainly derivatives of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid. Among them, the contents of 6''-O-acetylliquiritin apioside, 6''-O-acetylliquiritin apioside isomer, 6''-O-acetylliquiritin, formononetin and 11-deoxo-18β-glycyrrhetic acid were the highest in the raw products, the contents of 6''-O-acetylisoliquiritin apioside, 6''-O-acetylisoliquiritin, isoliquiritin and glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide were the highest in the roasted products, the content of liquiritin was the lowest in the honey-roasted products. Conclusion:There are some chemical differences among the three products. This study can provide material basis for the quality control and pharmacodynamic research of processed products of G. uralensis dry roots and rhizomes.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774567

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to observe the effect of baicalin on the growth state of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder animal model and its regulation on Ca MKⅡand ERK1/2.In the present study,a total of 40 SHR rats were randomly divided into model group,methylphenidate hydrochloride group,and low,medium,and high dose baicalin groups,with 8 rats in each group.Eight WKYrats were selected as a normal control group.The methylphenidate hydrochloride group(0.07 g·L~(-1))and the low(3.33 g·L~(-1)),medium(6.67 g·L~(-1)),and high dose(10 g·L~(-1))baicalin groups received corresponding drugs by gavage administration according to the body weight(0.015 m L·g~(-1)),while the normal group and the model group received the same volume of normal saline by gavage.Thegavage administration lasted for 4 weeks,twice a day.The body weight of the rats and the amount of remaining feed were weighed daily,and the growth state of the rats was statistically evaluated weekly.Percoll density gradient centrifugation was used to prepare brain synaptosomes and an electron microscope was used to observe their structures.The Ca MKⅡand ERK1/2 protein and mRNA expression levels were detected with Western blot and Real-time PCR methods,respectively.RESULTS: showed that baicalin did not affect the normal eating and weight gain of rats,and the weight gain of rats was even more significant than that in the normal group(P<0.05).In the study of its effects on Ca MKⅡand ERK1/2 protein expression in rat synaptosomes,the expression of both proteins in each drug-administered group was higher than that in the model group(P<0.05);besides,the expression levels of Ca MKⅡand ERK1/2 protein were significantly increased in both baicalin high dose group and the methylphenidate hydrochloride group(P<0.05).The relative expression of Ca MKⅡand ERK1/2 mRNA in synaptosome was detected by PCR.The results showed that medium and high doses of baicalin and methylphenidate hydrochloride significantly increased the relative expression of Ca MKⅡand ERK1/2 mRNA in synaptosomes of SHR rats(P<0.05).In conclusion,baicalin does not affect the normal growth and development of SHR rats,so it is safe for administration.Both baicalin and methylphenidate hydrochloride could up-regulate the relative expression of Ca MKⅡand ERK1/2 in mRNA and protein,and the pharmacodynamic stability of baicalin is in a dose-dependent manner to certain extent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Disease Models, Animal , Flavonoids , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801784

ABSTRACT

The National Medical Products Administration intends to simplify the registration and approval process of the classic Chinese herbal compound preparations that meet the requirements, but it is a prerequisite for obtaining preferential policies that the preparation method and the route of administration are consistent with the records of ancient medical books. As most of the famous classical formulas are recorded in the medical books of the Qing dynasty and before the Qing dynasty, during the use of medicinal materials in various dynasties, the processing of herbs, dose of medicinal herbs, and the method of decocting may have changed. If researchers simply adopt modern methods to study the formula, it is easy to deviate from policy requirements. The strengthening of preliminary data survey and definition of prescription component and the medication situation of the dynasties can provide strong theoretical support for the study of famous classical formulas. Based on this, the authors take Xiebaisan as an example, which being collected in the First Batch of Catalogue of Ancient Classical Formulas. By following the principles of ancient methods, the research and development ideas of the classic Chinese herbal compound preparations were expounded from the aspects of origin of medicinal materials, processing of medicinal materials, preparation of standard decoction and quality standard of Xiebaisan granules, so as to provide a referential method for the development and research of the famous classical formulas.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801343

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the diagnosis and treatment for enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) in China, and to explore the prognostic factors of ECF.@*Methods@#A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted based on the Registration System of Chinese Gastrointestinal Fistula and Intra-Abdominal Infections to collect the clinical data of ECF patients from 54 medical centers in 22 provinces/municipalities from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. The clinical data included patient gender, age, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, underlying diseases, primary diseases, direct causes of ECF, location and type of ECF, complications, treatment and outcomes. All medical records were carefully filled in by the attending physicians, and then re-examined by more than two specialists. The diagnosis of ECF was based on the clinical manifestations, laboratory/imaging findings and intraoperative exploration.@*Results@#A total of 1521 patients with ECF were enrolled, including 1099 males and 422 females, with a median age of 55 years. The top three primary diseases of ECF were malignant tumors in 626 cases (41.2%, including 540 gastrointestinal tumors, accounting for 86.3% of malignant tumors), gastrointestinal ulcers and perforations in 202 cases (13.3%), and trauma in 157 cases (10.3%). The direct causes of ECF were mainly surgical operation in 1194 cases (78.5%), followed by trauma in 156 (10.3%), spontaneous fistula due to Crohn′s disease in 92 (6.0%), radiation intestinal injury in 41 (2.7%), severe pancreatitis in 20 (1.3%), endoscopic treatment in 13 (0.9%) and 5 cases (0.3%) of unknown reasons. All the patients were divided into three groups: 1350 cases (88.7%) with simple ECF, 150 (9.9%) with multiple ECF, and 21 (1.4%) with combined internal fistula. Among the patients with simple ECF, 438 cases (28.8%) were jejuno-ileal fistula, 313 (20.6%) colon fistula, 170 (11.2%) rectal fistula, 111 (7.3%) duodenal fistula, 76 (5.0%) ileocecal fistula, 65 (4.3%) ileocolic anastomotic fistula, 55 (3.6%) duodenal stump fistula, 36 (2.4%) gastrointestinal anastomotic fistula, 36 (2.4%) esophagogastric/esophagojejunal anastomotic fistula, 29 (1.9%) gastric fistula and 21 (1.4%) cholangiopancreatiointestinal. Among all the simple ECF patients, 991 were tubular fistula and 359 were labial fistula. A total of 1146 patients finished the treatment, of whom 1061 (92.6%) were healed (586 by surgery and 475 self-healing) and 85 (7.4%) died. A total of 1043 patients (91.0%) received nutritional support therapy, and 77 (6.7%) received fistuloclysis. Infectious source control procedures were applied to 1042 patients, including 711 (62.0%) with active lavage and drainage and 331 (28.9%) with passive drainage. Among them, 841 patients (73.4%) underwent minimally invasive procedures of infectious source control (replacement of drainage tube through sinus tract, puncture drainage, etc.), 201 (17.5%) underwent laparotomy drainage, while 104 (9.1%) did not undergo any drainage measures. A total of 610 patients (53.2%) received definitive operation, 24 patients died within postoperative 30-day with mortality of 3.9% (24/610), 69 (11.3%) developed surgical site infection (SSI), and 24 (3.9%) had a relapse of fistula. The highest cure rate was achieved in ileocecal fistula (100%), followed by rectal fistula (96.2%, 128/133) and duodenal stump fistula (95.7%,44/46). The highest mortality was found in combined internal fistula (3/12) and no death in ileocecal fistula. Univariate prognostic analysis showed that primary diseases as Crohn′s disease (χ2=6.570, P=0.010) and appendicitis/appendiceal abscess (P=0.012), intestinal fistula combining with internal fistula (χ2=5.460, P=0.019), multiple ECF (χ2=7.135, P=0.008), esophagogastric / esophagojejunal anastomotic fistula (χ2=9.501, P=0.002), ECF at ileocecal junction (P=0.012), non-drainage/passive drainage before the diagnosis of intestinal fistula (χ2=9.688, P=0.008), non-drainage/passive drainage after the diagnosis of intestinal fistula (χ2=9.711, P=0.008), complicating with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (χ2=179.699, P<0.001), sepsis (χ2=211.851, P<0.001), hemorrhage (χ2=85.300, P<0.001), pulmonary infection (χ2=60.096, P<0.001), catheter-associated infection (χ2=10.617, P=0.001) and malnutrition (χ2=21.199, P<0.001) were associated with mortality. Multivariate prognostic analysis cofirmed that sepsis (OR=7.103, 95%CI:3.694-13.657, P<0.001), complicating with MODS (OR=5.018, 95%CI:2.170-11.604, P<0.001), and hemorrhage (OR=4.703, 95%CI: 2.300-9.618, P<0.001) were independent risk factors of the death for ECF patients. Meanwhile, active lavage and drainage after the definite ECF diagnosis was the protective factor (OR=0.223, 95%CI: 0.067-0.745, P=0.015).@*Conclusions@#The overall mortality of ECF is still high. Surgical operation is the most common cause of ECF. Complications e.g. sepsis, MODS, hemorrhage, and catheter-associated infection, are the main causes of death. Active lavage and drainage is important to improve the prognosis of ECF.

16.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 345-347, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753500

ABSTRACT

Building on the results of a United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)-Iodine Global Network (IGN) Technical Working Group Meeting,a new UNICEF "Guidelines for Monitoring of Salt Iodization Programmes and Assessment of Iodine Nutrition in the Population" has been formulated.This document aims to guide program managers to improve the effectiveness of national salt iodization programs.The main content of the guide is interpreted in this paper.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-744178

ABSTRACT

The standardized training for surgical residents is the systematic and normalized training for residents in the base with national authentication, whose goal is to promote the clinical experience and skill for treatment of the patients. The base construction is an important step to apply the resident training system according to the national policies and regulations . This study analyzed the experience of the Neurosurgical Unit of Xinqiao Hospital in standardized training for surgical residents according to the base construction requirements and evaluation index. Based on the analysis, the study proposed the concrete aims, measures and applying steps for neurosurgery base construction, especially the regulations for diagnosis and treatment of neurosurgical disease , which as a whole is beneficial for promoting the quality of the standardized training of residents in future.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-861876

ABSTRACT

Background: There are many biliary drainage methods for the treatment of biliary obstruction diseases, and the application of endoscopic biliary drainage has been increased gradually. Aims: To compare the effect and complications of different endoscopic biliary drainage for the treatment of biliary obstruction diseases. Methods: A total of 75 patients with biliary obstruction diseases received endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) from February 2012 to December 2017 at the People's Hospital of Xuancheng City were enrolled. The patients were divided into nasobiliary drainage group and biliary stenting group. The success rate, effect, complication of drainage were compared between the two groups, and the cause of biliary re-obstruction after ERCP was analyzed. Results: Before treatment, TBIL, DBIL levels were significantly increased in biliary stenting group than in nasobiliary drainage group (P<0.01). After the treatment, no significant difference in success rate of drainage was found between the two groups. No significant differences in TBIL, DBIL before and after treatment were found between the two groups. After the treatment, ALT, AST, GGT was significantly decreased, and AMS was significantly increased in nasobiliary drainage group (P<0.05); while ALT, GGT, AMS were significantly decreased in biliary stenting group (P<0.05). No significantly difference in incidence of complication was found between the two groups. The causes of biliary re-obstruction after ERCP were mainly bile mud or sedimentary calculus, massive stone, tumor invasion. Conclusions: The nasobiliary drainage and biliary stenting drainage can both improve liver function, and relieve the clinical symptoms of biliary obstruction. No significant difference in drainage effect and complication are found between the two drainage methods.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777514

ABSTRACT

To provide theoretical basis for the formation of Chrysanthemum indicum resource and quality,the differences in biology,ecology,yield and quality of Ch. indicum population in the wild tending,the cultivated and the wild were analyzed and compared in this study. The results showed that in the aspect of biology,there was no significant difference between the condition of wild tending and cultivated Ch. indicum at the height of plant,both were significantly higher than wild Ch. indicum. In the aspect of ecology,in the condition of wild tending is less likely to occur water logging than cultivated Ch. indicum. In the condition of wild tending is less likely to occur plant diseases and insect pests than Ch. indicum in the condition of wild. In the aspect of production,the average output of the sample of the condition of wild tending was significantly higher than that the condition of artificial cultivation and wild quadrat. There was no significant difference between the three kinds of condition on the traits of capitulum dichasium,the content of buddleoside of the wild tending Ch. indicum was significantly higher than that of 0. 80% required by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition). Therefore,the artificial supplement and the appropriate artificial management of wild tending is a mode of production to increase the population density of Ch. indicum and obtain high quality and high yield medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , Water
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777513

ABSTRACT

The Cd stress of Chrysanthemum indicum was treated by different concentrations of Cd Cl2 solution in the culture substrate. The content of Cd in different parts of Ch. indicum and the content of buddleoside and the total flavonoids in Ch. indicum were determined. The absorption characteristics of Cd elements in Ch. indicum were analyzed. And the influence of Cd elements on the quality of the herbs. The results showed that the application of soil Cd in the range of 0-100 mg·kg~(-1) had no significant effect on the biomass of Ch. indicum,and the root-shoot ratio showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing trend. The content of Cd in different parts of Ch. indicum was significantly different,and the content of aboveground part was higher than that of underground part. The enrichment factors of Cd elements in different parts of Ch. indicum are different. The enrichment coefficient of aboveground parts is larger than that of underground parts. The whole parts and plants show an increase first and then decrease,and the overall enrichment factor is greater than1. The transfer coefficient of the aerial part/underground part of Ch. indicum showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing-increasing trend with the increase of the amount of Cd applied in the soil,and the transfer coefficient was higher than 1. The contents of buddleoside and total flavonoids in Ch. indicum after Cd stress treatment were lower than the control,and the overall performance was lower and then increased,but it was still significantly lower than the control,indicating that Cd pollution directly led to the decrease of chemical quality of Ch. indicum.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Chrysanthemum , Flavonoids , Soil , Soil Pollutants
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