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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821645

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the changes in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Hunan Province, so as to provide scientific basis for the development of the schistosomiasis elimination programme in the province. Methods According to the requirements of the National Guidelines for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 version), a total of 41 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all disease-endemic counties (districts) across Hunan Province. During the period between 2015 and 2019, Schistosoma japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock, and snail status was monitored. The morbidity due to schistosomiasis and snail status was compared between years. Results The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 2.57% and 1.56% in local residents and mobile populations in national surveillance sites of Hunan Province from 2015 to 2019, respectively, and the sero-prevalence appeared a tendency towards a decline over years. A higher sero-prevalence rate of S. japonicum infections was seen in men than in women (P < 0.01). During the 5-year study period, the sero-prevalence rate of human S. japonicum infections appeared a tendency towards a decline in the marshland, embankment, inner embankment and hilly types of endemic areas over years. There were 44 and 19 egg -positives detected in local residents and 5 and 1 egg-positives in mobile populations in 2015 and 2016 respectively. A total of 9 346 domestic animals were monitored from 2015 to 2019, and 6 egg-positives were detected in 2015 and 2016 (all were bovine). A total of 0.155 billion m2 settings were surveyed from 2015 to 2019, and the mean density of living snails appeared a tendency towards a decline over years, with a 45.79% reduction in 2019 as compared to 2015. However, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails during the 5-year period. A total of 1 469 mixed snail samples were detected using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and 6 positive snail samples were identified in 2015 (one sample) and 2017 (5 samples). Conclusions The overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a decline in Hunan Province, and the prevalence of S. japonicum infections is at a low level in humans and livestock; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. Improvements of health education, intensification of schistosomiasis examinations in mobile populations and reinforcement of the surveillance-response system is required to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control in Hunan Province.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821643

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the effect of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. Methods The integrated schistosomiasis control measures implemented by the health, agriculture, water resources, forestry, land and resources sectors were retrospectively collected in Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019, and the completion of each measure, cost of control measures, Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and bovines, and snail status were analyzed each year. An index system for assessing the integrated schistosomiasis control effect was constructed using the Delphi method to calculate the integrated schistosomiasis control effect index. In addition, a cost-effect analysis was performed in terms of the decline in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and bovines, areas with snails in inner embankments, and areas with infected snails. Results A total of 7 110 926 500 Yuan were invested into the integrated schistosomiasis control program of Hunan Province from 2004 to 2019. During the 16-year period, a total of 277 437.12 hm2 snail habitats received molluscicidal treatments, 6 927 230 person-times given expanded chemotherapy, 2 116 247 bovine-times given expanded chemotherapy, 954 850 harmless toilets built, 290 359 bovines fenced, 136 666 bovines eliminated, 141 905 machines used to replace bovines, 39 048.63 hm2 water lands improved as dry lands, 724.12 km irrigation regions improved, 3 994 300 populations covered with safe water, 191 102.89 hm2 forests planted and 38 535.27 hm2 lands leveled. The prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 4.29% in humans and 4.48% in bovines in Hunan Province in 2004, with 2 449.37 hm2 snail habitats in inner embankments and 3 423.74 hm2 infected snail areas. In 2019, the prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced to 0 in both humans and bovines, and areas of snail habitats reduced to 540.92 hm2 (77.92% reductions), while the areas with infected snails reduced to 0. The overall integrated schistosomiasis control effect index appeared a tendency towards a rise over years since 2004, and the integrated schistosomiasis control effect index was 97.35 in 2019; the annual mean costs for a 1% reduction in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in 100 populations and 100 bovines were 70.11 Yuan and 4 204.78 Yuan, and the annual mean costs for a 1% reduction in the snail areas in inner embankments and infected snail areas were 2 010.20 Yuan and 1 298.09 Yuan, respectively. Conclusions The integrated control measures achieve remarkable effectiveness for schistosomiasis control in Hunan Province, with a remarkable decline in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and bovines and great shrinking of snail areas in inner embankments and infected snail areas. Adequate fund investment is required to improve the integrated schistosomiasis control measures and consolidate the control achievements.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818855

ABSTRACT

This paper reviewed the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Basin in three stages, centered on the measures and achievements. It pointed out the key work of prevention and control which are infectious source control and effective surveillance at present stage. It will be beneficial to schistosomiasis control in China.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818733

ABSTRACT

This paper reviewed the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Basin in three stages, centered on the measures and achievements. It pointed out the key work of prevention and control which are infectious source control and effective surveillance at present stage. It will be beneficial to schistosomiasis control in China.

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