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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 623-634, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011277


Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a molybdoenzyme that is primarily expressed in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. AOX-mediated metabolism can result in unexpected outcomes, such as the production of toxic metabolites and high metabolic clearance, which can lead to the clinical failure of novel therapeutic agents. Computational models can assist medicinal chemists in rapidly evaluating the AOX metabolic risk of compounds during the early phases of drug discovery and provide valuable clues for manipulating AOX-mediated metabolism liability. In this study, we developed a novel graph neural network called AOMP for predicting AOX-mediated metabolism. AOMP integrated the tasks of metabolic substrate/non-substrate classification and metabolic site prediction, while utilizing transfer learning from 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data to enhance its performance on both tasks. AOMP significantly outperformed the benchmark methods in both cross-validation and external testing. Using AOMP, we systematically assessed the AOX-mediated metabolism of common fragments in kinase inhibitors and successfully identified four new scaffolds with AOX metabolism liability, which were validated through in vitro experiments. Furthermore, for the convenience of the community, we established the first online service for AOX metabolism prediction based on AOMP, which is freely available at

Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 519-530, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971575


Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is one of the most prevalent pathologic processes affecting 5% of people over 50 years of age and contributing to 45% of dementia cases. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the pathological roles of chronic hypoperfusion, impaired cerebral vascular reactivity, and leakage of the blood-brain barrier in CSVD. However, the pathogenesis of CSVD remains elusive thus far, and no radical treatment has been developed. NG2 glia, also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells, are the fourth type of glial cell in addition to astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system. Many novel functions for NG2 glia in physiological and pathological states have recently been revealed. In this review, we discuss the role of NG2 glia in CSVD and the underlying mechanisms.

Animals , Neuroglia/metabolism , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/metabolism , Antigens/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 221-236, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834298


Background and Objectives@#Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has major effects in premature infants. Although previous literature has indicated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can alleviate lung pathology in BPD newborns and improve the survival rate, few research have been done investigating significantly differentially expressed genes in the lungs before and after MSCs therapy. The aim of this study is to identify differentially expressed genes in lung tissues before and after hAD-MSC treatment. @*Methods@#and Results: Human amnion-derived MSCs (hAD-MSCs) were cultured and met the MSCs criteria for cell phenotype and multidirectional differentiation. Then we confirmed the size of hAD-MSCs-EXOs and their expressed markers. An intratracheal drip of living cells showed the strongest effect on NHLI compared to cellular secretions or exosomes, both in terms of ameliorating pulmonary edema and reducing inflammatory cell infiltration. Through gene chip hybridization, PCR, and western blotting, acylaminoacyl-peptide hydrolase (APEH) expression was found to be significantly decreased under hyperoxia, and significantly increased after hAD-MSC treatment. @*Conclusions@#The intratracheal transplantation of hAD-MSCs ameliorated NHLI in neonatal rats through APEH.

Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 802-814, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776469


The correct differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) is essential for the myelination and remyelination processes in the central nervous system. Determining the regulatory mechanism is fundamental to the treatment of demyelinating diseases. By analyzing the RNA sequencing data of different neural cells, we found that cyclin-dependent kinase 18 (CDK18) is exclusively expressed in oligodendrocytes. In vivo studies showed that the expression level of CDK18 gradually increased along with myelin formation during development and in the remyelination phase in a lysophosphatidylcholine-induced demyelination model, and was distinctively highly expressed in oligodendrocytes. In vitro overexpression and interference experiments revealed that CDK18 directly promotes the differentiation of OPCs, without affecting their proliferation or apoptosis. Mechanistically, CDK18 activated the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, thus promoting OPC differentiation. The results of the present study suggest that CDK18 is a promising cell-type specific target to treat demyelinating disease.

Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 434-446, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775427


The obstacle to successful remyelination in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, mainly lies in the inability of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to differentiate, since OPCs and oligodendrocyte-lineage cells that are unable to fully differentiate are found in the areas of demyelination. Thus, promoting the differentiation of OPCs is vital for the treatment of demyelinating diseases. Shikimic acid (SA) is mainly derived from star anise, and is reported to have anti-influenza, anti-oxidation, and anti-tumor effects. In the present study, we found that SA significantly promoted the differentiation of cultured rat OPCs without affecting their proliferation and apoptosis. In mice, SA exerted therapeutic effects on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), such as alleviating clinical EAE scores, inhibiting inflammation, and reducing demyelination in the CNS. SA also promoted the differentiation of OPCs as well as their remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination. Furthermore, we showed that the promotion effect of SA on OPC differentiation was associated with the up-regulation of phosphorylated mTOR. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SA could act as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of demyelinating diseases.

Animals , Female , Rats , Apoptosis , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Demyelinating Diseases , Encephalitis , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myelin Basic Protein , Metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents , Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells , Metabolism , Remyelination , Shikimic Acid , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Metabolism
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 247-260, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777042


The differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) is essential for myelination and remyelination in the CNS. The failure of OPCs to achieve terminal differentiation in demyelinating lesions often results in unsuccessful remyelination in a variety of human demyelinating diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling OPC differentiation under pathological conditions remain largely unknown. Myt1L (myelin transcription factor 1-like), mainly expressed in neurons, has been associated with intellectual disability, schizophrenia, and depression. In the present study, we found that Myt1L was expressed in oligodendrocyte lineage cells during myelination and remyelination. The expression level of Myt1L in neuron/glia antigen 2-positive (NG2) OPCs was significantly higher than that in mature CC1 oligodendrocytes. In primary cultured OPCs, overexpression of Myt1L promoted, while knockdown inhibited OPC differentiation. Moreover, Myt1L was potently involved in promoting remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination in vivo. ChIP assays showed that Myt1L bound to the promoter of Olig1 and transcriptionally regulated Olig1 expression. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Myt1L is an essential regulator of OPC differentiation, thereby supporting Myt1L as a potential therapeutic target for demyelinating diseases.

Animals , Mice , Cell Differentiation , Physiology , Demyelinating Diseases , Lysophosphatidylcholines , Toxicity , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Metabolism , Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Oligodendroglia , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Remyelination , Physiology , Transcription Factors , Metabolism