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Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 264-268, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280263


To explore the spatial distribution mechanism of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), PhyML v3.0 was used to build phylogenetic tree using JEV sequences in the dataset. PAUP v4.0 and Migrapyhla softz ware were then used to analyze the migration events. The results showed that a total of 95 migration events were observed during the dispersal of JEV throughout Asia. Further analysis revealed that Thailand, and several Chinese provinces (including Shandong, Shanghai, Sichuan and Yunnan), were the main migration sources of JEV. JEV spread from these migration sources as follows: from Thailand to Australia, Cambodia, Tibet and India; from Shanghai to eastern coastal Asian regions and Yunnan; from Shandong to Korea, Zhejiang, Hubei, Shanxi and Liaoning; from Sichuan mainly to inland regions of China, as well as Vietnam and Japan; and from Yunnan to Zhejiang. This study indicated that frequent migration events occurred during the dispersal of JEV in the Asia and Pacific regions, and that Thailand, Shandong, Shanghai, Sichuan and Yunnan were the sources of JEV dispersal.

Asia , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Classification , Genetics , Physiology , Encephalitis, Japanese , Epidemiology , Virology , Phylogeny
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247089


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To perform pathological observation and etiological identification of specimens collected from dairy cows, beef cattle and dogs which were suspected of rabies in Inner Mongolia in 2011, and analyze their etiological characteristics.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Pathological observation was conducted on the brain specimens of three infected animals with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, followed by confirmation using immunofluorescence and nested RT-PCR methods. Finally, phylogenetic analysis was conducted using the virus N gene sequence amplified from three specimens.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eosinophilic and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen in neuronal cells of the CNS; and rabies non-characteristic histopathological changes were also detected in the CNS. The three brain specimens were detected positive. N gene nucleotide sequence of these three isolates showed distinct sequence identity, therefore they fell into different groups in the phylogenetic analysis. N gene in the cow and dog had higher homology with that in Hebei isolate, but that in the beef cattle had higher homology with that in Mongolian lupine isolate and Russian red fox isolate.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Rabies were observed in the dairy cow, beef cattle and canine in the farm in Inner Mongolia, in 2011, which led to a different etiologic characteristics of the epidemic situation.</p>

Acetazolamide , Animals , Brain , Pathology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases , Epidemiology , Pathology , Dog Diseases , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Dogs , Mongolia , Epidemiology , Nucleoproteins , Genetics , Phylogeny , Rabies , Epidemiology , Rabies virus , Genetics , Time Factors
Virologica Sinica ; (6): 194-203, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-424010


In recent years (2007 to 2011),although the overall number of rabies cases in China has decreased,there is evidence of emerging or re-emerging cases in regions without previous rabies cases or with low incidence of rabies.To investigate the origin and the factors affecting the spread of rabies in China,specimens were collected from 2007 to 2011 from provinces with emerging and re-emerging cases and tested for the presence of the rabies virus.Positive specimens were combined with sequences from GenBank to perform comparisons of homology and functional sites,and to carry out phylogenetic analyses.Out of these regions,five provinces had 9positive specimens from canine and cattle,and 34 canine or human specimens were obtained from previously high-incidence provinces.Complete sequences of G gene were obtained for these samples.Homology of the sequences of these 43 specimens was 87%-100% at the nucleotide level and 93.7% -100% at the amino acid level.These G gene sequences were combined with reference sequence from GenBank and used to construct a phylogenetic tree.The results showed that 43 specimens were all assigned to China clade I and clade Ⅱ,with all specimens from emerging and re-emerging areas placed within clade I.Specimens isolated from Shanxi and Inner Mongolia in 2011 were distinct from previously-isolated local strains and had closer homology to strains from Hebei,Beijing and Tianjin whereas new isolates from Shanghai were tightly clustered with strains isolated in the 1990s.Finally,Shaanxi isolates were clustered with strains from adjacent Sichuan.Our results suggest that the rabies cases in emerging and re-emerging areas in China in the last 5 years are a consequence of the epidemic spreading from of neighboring provinces and regions experiencing a serious epidemic of rabies.