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1.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 253-259, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923159

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the neurotoxicity and hematotoxicity of maternal exposure to 1-bromopropane(1-BP) on the offspring rats by the breast-feeding route. Method A total of eight specific pathogen free female rats and their 64 male newborn rats were divided into the control group and the exposure group, with four lactation female rats and their 32 male newborn rats in each group. The female rats in exposure group were intragastrically administered with 700.00 mg/kg body mass of 1-BP during lactation, and the control group was given equal volume of corn oil for 21 days, once a day. The body mass of female rats and their offspring rats were measured during the exposure period. After exposure, the Morris water maze and the open field tests were performed in male offspring. The blood samples of offspring were collected for blood routine and blood biochemical indexes detection. The histopathological examination was performed in the hippocampus in the male offspring. RESULTS: A litter of eight pups in the exposure group began to die one day after the mother rat was exposed to 1-BP, and all rats died on the ninth day after exposure. There was no significant difference in the body mass of female rats between the exposure group and the control group(P>0.05). The body mass of offspring rats in the exposure group was lower than that in the control group at the same time point from the first day to the 21 st day of the female rats exposed to 1-BP(all P<0.05). In the orientation navigation experiment, the escape latency time on the first, the second day and the total distance on the first day in the offspring of the exposure group were significantly prolonged than those in the control group at the same time points(all P<0.05). The number of times of crossing the platform of offspring rats in the exposure group was less than that in the control group in the spatial exploration test(P<0.01). In the open field test, there was not statistical significance of the activity, rest time ratio, total distance, the distance ratio and time ratio in the central region in the offspring between the two groups(all P>0.05). The counts of white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and average red blood cell width, platelet ratio and average platelet volume of the offspring of the exposure group decreased(all P<0.05), the serum levels of globulin, total protein, triacylglycerol and total bilirubin decreased(all P<0.05), and the albumin/globulin ratio and serum glucose level increased(all P<0.05), when compared with that of the control group. Histopathological examination results showed that the nerve fibers were loose in the hippocampal dentate gyrus area, and there were necrotic neurons and loss of nerve fibers in the CA1 area of the offspring rats. CONCLUSION: Maternal exposure to 1-BP during lactation can induce neurotoxicity and hematotoxicity to offspring rats. The neurotoxicity mainly caused damage to the central nerve system, which affected the learning and memory function of the offspring rats. The reason may be related to the damage caused by 1-BP on the hippocampal function.

2.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 247-252, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923158

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish the laboratory historical control values for biological indicators in SD rats with 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity tests. METHODS: The body mass, blood routine indexes, serum biochemical indexes, organ mass and organ coefficient of 10 batches of specific pathogen free SD rats in the control group and the control additional group were collected for 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity tests, and the historical control values was established. RESULTS: The body mass of both male and female SD rats increased with the increasing age(all P<0.01). The body mass of male rats was higher than that of female rats each week(all P<0.01). The body mass, blood routine and serum biochemical indexes, organ mass and organ coefficient of SD rats were affected by the age and gender of rats to varying degrees. The effects of age and gender on organ mass and organ coefficient were not consistent. The laboratory historical control values of body mass, blood routine indexes, serum biochemical indexes, organ mass and organ coefficient of SD rats were established according to the age measured in weeks and the gender of rats. CONCLUSION: The laboratory control values of biological indicators of SD rats should be established according to different weekly age and the gender of rats. Organ coefficient is more suitable as an observation index for toxicological safety evaluation compared with organ mass.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888124

ABSTRACT

To systematically review the efficacy of Xuebijing Injection combined with western medicine in the treatment of systemic inflammatory response syndrome(SIRS). In this study, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed and EMbase databases were retrieved for clinical randomized controlled trials on the effect of Xuebijing Injection combined with western medicine in the treatment of SIRS from the establishment of the database to July 31, 2020. After screening, Meta-analysis was conducted by RevMan 5.3 software, trial sequential analysis was conducted by TSA 0.9.5.10 beta software, and the evidence quality level was evaluated by GRADEprofiler 3.6.1 software. Meta-analysis showed that Xuebijing Injection combined with western medicine could reduce white blood cell count(MD=-2.32, 95%CI[-2.44,-2.21], P<0.000 01), C-reactive protein count(MD=-22.70, 95%CI[-29.61,-15.79], P<0.000 01), APACHE Ⅱ score(MD=-2.15, 95%CI[-2.43,-1.87], P<0.000 01), tumor necrosis factor alpha count(SMD=-1.23, 95%CI[-1.48,-0.99], P<0.000 01) and interleukin-6 count(SMD=-0.92, 95%CI[-1.15,-0.69], P<0.000 01), improve treatment efficiency(RR=1.39, 95%CI[1.23, 1.56], P<0.000 01), reduce incidence of multiple organ dysfunction(RR=0.47, 95%CI[0.35, 0.64], P<0.000 01) and mortality(RR=0.22, 95%CI[0.13, 0.37], P<0.000 01), which were better than western medicine treatment alone. Trial sequential analysis showed that in terms of reducing the incidence of multiple organ dysfunction and C-reactive protein count, the cumulative Z value passed through the traditional threshold, TSA threshold and expected information value, and reached the required number of cases. GRADE evaluation showed that the level of evidence was low or very low. According to the findings, Xuebijing Injection combined with western medicine is effective in treating SIRS. However, as the low quality of the included studies may affect the reliability of the conclusion, more high-quality studies shall be included for further verification in the future, so as to provide better suggestions for clinical medication.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Injections , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906394

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of Guiqi Dingnian prescription (GDP) on the expression of related molecules in Janus tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK2/STAT) signaling pathway of <italic>D</italic>-galactose (<italic>D</italic>-gal)-induced senescent mesangial cells. Method:The senescent mouse mesangial cells induced by 10 g·L<sup>-1</sup> <italic>D</italic>-gal were continuously treated with 40 mg·L<sup>-1 </sup>GDP for three days. The senescence of the treated cells was determined by senescence-associated (SA)-<italic>β</italic>-gal staining. The cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. The cell viability was analyzed using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). The mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α</italic> (TNF-<italic>α</italic>), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear transcription factor-<italic>κ</italic>B (NF-<italic>κ</italic>B), and IL-1<italic>α</italic> were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The protein expression levels of STAT1, phosphorylated STAT1 (p-STAT1), STAT3, and p-STAT3 in the JAK2/STAT signaling pathway were determined by Western blot. Result:CCK-8 results showed that the optimal concentration of GDP was 40 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>. Compared with the blank group, the positive rate of SA-<italic>β</italic>-gal in the model group was significantly higher(<italic>P</italic><0.01), the percentage of cells in G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> phase was significantly increased(<italic>P</italic><0.05), the percentage of cells in G<sub>2</sub>/M and S phase was significantly decreased(<italic>P</italic><0.01). The mRNA expression levels of TNF-<italic>α</italic>,IL-6,NF-<italic>κ</italic>B and IL-1<italic>α </italic>were significantly increased(<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the model + GDP group exhibited significantly decreased SA-<italic>β</italic>-gal-positive cells (<italic>P</italic><0.05), reduced cells in the G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> phase (<italic>P</italic><0.05), increased cells in the G<sub>2</sub>/M and S phases (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and down-regulated TNF-<italic>α</italic>, IL-6, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B, and IL-1<italic>α </italic>mRNA expression (<italic>P</italic><0.05) and STAT1, p-STAT1, STAT3, and p-STAT3 protein expression (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:GDP delays the senescence of mouse mesangial cells possibly by down-regulating the expression of related molecules in the JAK2/STAT pathway.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906375

ABSTRACT

Objective:To screen the active components of sovereign medicinal Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix in Rongjin Niantong formula based on bioinformatics and network pharmacology and observe their effects on therapeutic targets of osteoarthritis (OA) in <italic>in vivo</italic> and <italic>in vitro</italic> animal experiments. Method:The main active components and therapeutic targets of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix were retrieved from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and the differentially expressed genes relevant to OA from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database for cross analysis. The effects of main active components in Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix on enriched therapeutic targets of rats with OA <italic>in vivo </italic>and <italic>in vitro</italic> were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot. Result:There were 20 active components for Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix against OA, with quercetin being an important one. Among the three target genes, osteopontin (OPN) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) were the key ones in the network. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis yielded 227 related terms, involving the regulation of physiological response to trauma (GO: 1903034), negative regulation of trauma response (GO: 1903035), etc. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed 12 related pathways, involving extracellular matrix receptor interaction (hsa04512) and so on. In animal experiments, compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited increased gene and protein expression of OPN and PAI-1. Compared with the model group, the quercetin group displayed decreased gene and protein expression of OPN and PAI-1 (<italic>P</italic><0.05). In cell experiments, the OPN and PAI-1 protein expression levels in the model group were increased as compared with those in the normal group, while the Collagen Ⅱ protein expression was decreased. The OPN and PAI-1 protein expression levels in the quercetin group and the inhibitor group were down-regulated in contrast to those in the model group, whereas the Collagen Ⅱ protein expression levels were up-regulated significantly (<italic>P<</italic>0.05). Conclusion:Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix<italic> </italic>inhibits cartilage degeneration and exerts the preventive and therapeutic effects against OA, which is possibly due to the efficacy of its active component quercetin in down-regulating the expression of OPN and PAI-1 in chondrocytes and up-regulating the Collagen Ⅱ protein expression.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905274

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the mechanism of balance control after stroke by plantar pressure analysis. Methods:From July to December, 2019, twelve stroke subjects (stroke group) and 30 normal subjects (control group) were recruited in the rehabilitation department of our hospital. Both groups were measured plantar pressure in eyes open and closed conditions. The kinematic parameters, dynamic parameters, plantar pressure center (CoP), symmetry index (SI), symmetry angle (SA) and Romberg quotient (RQ) were calculated. Results:Compared with eyes open condition, the average Y and maximum swing of the control group increased significantly in eyes closed condition (P < 0.01); moreover, the ball length, average speed and maximum swing increased significantly in the stroke group (P <0.05). Compared with the control group, the area of the ellipse (|t| > 3.509, P < 0.001) and the average X (|Z|> 2.311, P < 0.05) significantly increased both in eyes open and closed condition, whereas the maximum swing (Z = -3.118, P < 0.01) increased significantly in eyes closed condition in the stroke group. The RQ of ball length was significantly more in the stroke group than in the control group (t = -3.570, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in SI and SA of all parameters between the eyes open and closed condition in two groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, load SI, overall load SI, forefoot load SI, area SI and forefoot area SI increased in both the eyes open and closed conditions in the stroke group (t > 2.344, P < 0.05), whereas load SA, overall load SA, forefoot load SA, area SA, forefoot area SA increased (|t|> 2.297, P < 0.05), hindfoot load SA increased only in eyes open condition (t = -2.485, P < 0.05), and hindfoot area SA increased only in eyes closed condition (t = -2.132, P < 0.05). In the control group, CoP was mainly distributed in the negative direction of Y axis when the eyes were open and closed, while CoP in the stroke group was relatively discrete, and the distribution on X axis was more obvious than that of the control group. Conclusion:The balance control of stroke patients might depend on visual compensation, and the plantar pressure analysis system could be used to evaluate the balance function in stroke patients.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903870

ABSTRACT

This paper is to illustrate the infestation and related ecological characteristics of chigger mites on the Asian house rat (Rattus tanezumi). A total of 17,221 chigger mites were collected from 2,761 R. tanezumi rats, and then identified as 131 species and 19 genera in 2 families. Leptotrombidium deliense, the most powerful vector of scrub typhus in China, was the first major dominant species on R. tanezumi. All the dominant mite species were of an aggregated distribution among different individuals of R. tanezumi. The species composition and infestations of chiggers on R. tanezumi varied along different geographical regions, habitats and altitudes. The species-abundance distribution of the chigger mite community was successfully fitted and the theoretical curve equation was Ŝ (R)=37e–(0.28R)2. The total chigger species on R. tanezumi were estimated to be 199 species or 234 species, and this further suggested that R. tanezumi has a great potential to harbor abundant species of chigger mites. The results of the species-plot relationship indicated that the chigger mite community on R. tanezumi in Yunnan was an uneven community with very high heterogeneity. Wide geographical regions with large host samples are recommended in the investigations of chigger mites.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896166

ABSTRACT

This paper is to illustrate the infestation and related ecological characteristics of chigger mites on the Asian house rat (Rattus tanezumi). A total of 17,221 chigger mites were collected from 2,761 R. tanezumi rats, and then identified as 131 species and 19 genera in 2 families. Leptotrombidium deliense, the most powerful vector of scrub typhus in China, was the first major dominant species on R. tanezumi. All the dominant mite species were of an aggregated distribution among different individuals of R. tanezumi. The species composition and infestations of chiggers on R. tanezumi varied along different geographical regions, habitats and altitudes. The species-abundance distribution of the chigger mite community was successfully fitted and the theoretical curve equation was Ŝ (R)=37e–(0.28R)2. The total chigger species on R. tanezumi were estimated to be 199 species or 234 species, and this further suggested that R. tanezumi has a great potential to harbor abundant species of chigger mites. The results of the species-plot relationship indicated that the chigger mite community on R. tanezumi in Yunnan was an uneven community with very high heterogeneity. Wide geographical regions with large host samples are recommended in the investigations of chigger mites.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921759

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the correlations of the spatial structure properties of Chinese medicinal extracts with hygroscopicity and the anti-hygroscopic techniques. With Poria extract used as the model drug, pregelatinised starch and microcrystalline cellulose at different ratios were added into Poria fluid extract for preparing powder particles with diverse spatial structures using different drying processes. Then, their hygroscopic behaviours were characterized by equilibrium hygroscopicity(F~∞) and semi-hygroscopic time(t_(1/2)). The correlations of the hygroscopicity of each powder with the spatial structure properties such as particle size(D_(90)), porosity(ε), true density(ρ_t), and surface element distribution were analyzed using partial least-squares method. The F~∞ and t_(1/2) values of Poria extract prepared by three drying methods were sorted in a descending order as follows: F~∞(spray drying>drying at ordinary pressure>drying at reduced pressure); t_(1/2)(drying at reduced pressure>drying at ordinary pressure>spray drying). The powder obtained by spray drying showed a spherical structure with the smallest particle size and intra-particle ε but relatively stronger hygroscopicity. The large-scale surface element enrichment of the powders dried by reduced pressure effectively reduced their hygroscopicity. F~∞ and t_(1/2) were negatively correlated with ε but positively with D_(90), and the interactive influence of each spatial structural properties was not significant. There existed a correlation between the spatial structure of the powder particles of Chinese medicine extracts and their hygroscopicity, and the hygroscopicity could be improved by designing the spatial structure. This study has provided some practical basis for developing the moisture-proof technology of Chinese medicinal preparations.


Subject(s)
China , Particle Size , Plant Extracts , Powders , Technology , Wettability
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919299

ABSTRACT

Based on the field investigations in 91 investigation sites (counties) in southwest China between 2001 and 2019, the present paper reported the chigger mites on A. agrarius mice in southwest China for the first time by using a series of statistical methods. From 715 striped field mice captured in 28 of 91 investigated sites, only 255 chiggers were collected, and they were identified as 14 species, 6 genera in 3 subfamilies under 2 families. Of 715 A. agrarius mice, only 24 of them were infested with chigger mites with low overall prevalence (PM=3.4%), overall mean abundance (MA=0.36 mites/host) and overall mean intensity (MI=10.63 mites/host). The species diversity and infestation of chiggers on A. agrarius were much lower than those previously reported on some other rodents in southwest China. On a certain species of rodent, A. agrarius mouse in southwest China seems to have a very low susceptibility to chigger infestations than in other geographical regions. Of 14 chigger species, there were 3 dominant species, Leptotrombidium sialkotense, L. rupestre and Schoengastiella novoconfuciana, which were of aggregated distribution among different individuals of A. agrarius hosts. L. sialkotense, one of 6 main vectors of scrub typhus in China, was the first dominant on A. agrarius. The species similarity of chigger mites on male and female hosts was low with CSS=0.25, and this reflects the sex-bias of different genders of A. agrarius mice in harboring different chigger species.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887894

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the application value of indocyanine green(ICG)in the localization of small pulmonary nodules in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery(VATS). Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 45 patients with small nodules(diameter<1 cm)who received preoperative localization with ICG and underwent VATS wedge resection from October 2020 to February 2021.The data for analysis included patients age,nodule diameter,distance from the parietal pleura,nodule density,success rate of localization,time of localization,incidence of complications,and pathological findings. Results The success rate of localization was 100%.The average nodule size was 6.3 mm,and the nodules were(10±11)mm from the parietal pleura.After localization of 59 nodules,13(22.0%)cases were found to have mild pneumothorax,and 4(6.7%)cases were found to have mild hemorrhage.The success rate of operation was 100%,and 43(72.9%)cases were confirmed adenocarcinoma by postoperative pathology. Conclusion ICG has a high success rate and good safety in the localization of small pulmonary nodules in VATS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Indocyanine Green , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule/surgery , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1687-1694, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Computed tomography images are easy to misjudge because of their complexity, especially images of solitary pulmonary nodules, of which diagnosis as benign or malignant is extremely important in lung cancer treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a more effective strategy in lung cancer diagnosis. In our study, we aimed to externally validate and revise the Mayo model, and a new model was established.@*METHODS@#A total of 1450 patients from three centers with solitary pulmonary nodules who underwent surgery were included in the study and were divided into training, internal validation, and external validation sets (n = 849, 365, and 236, respectively). External verification and recalibration of the Mayo model and establishment of new logistic regression model were performed on the training set. Overall performance of each model was evaluated using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Finally, the model validation was completed on the validation data set.@*RESULTS@#The AUC of the Mayo model on the training set was 0.653 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.613-0.694). After re-estimation of the coefficients of all covariates included in the original Mayo model, the revised Mayo model achieved an AUC of 0.671 (95% CI: 0.635-0.706). We then developed a new model that achieved a higher AUC of 0.891 (95% CI: 0.865-0.917). It had an AUC of 0.888 (95% CI: 0.842-0.934) on the internal validation set, which was significantly higher than that of the revised Mayo model (AUC: 0.577, 95% CI: 0.509-0.646) and the Mayo model (AUC: 0.609, 95% CI, 0.544-0.675) (P < 0.001). The AUC of the new model was 0.876 (95% CI: 0.831-0.920) on the external verification set, which was higher than the corresponding value of the Mayo model (AUC: 0.705, 95% CI: 0.639-0.772) and revised Mayo model (AUC: 0.706, 95% CI: 0.640-0.772) (P < 0.001). Then the prediction model was presented as a nomogram, which is easier to generalize.@*CONCLUSIONS@#After external verification and recalibration of the Mayo model, the results show that they are not suitable for the prediction of malignant pulmonary nodules in the Chinese population. Therefore, a new model was established by a backward stepwise process. The new model was constructed to rapidly discriminate benign from malignant pulmonary nodules, which could achieve accurate diagnosis of potential patients with lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules , Risk Assessment , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2048-2058, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887059

ABSTRACT

At present, the modernization of Chinese medicine preparations (CMPs) is still a challenging task. The 3 typical Chinese medicine materials (CMMs) used for preparing CMPs are the powders, extracts, and components of Chinese medicine and their properties of CMMs are important for designing CMPs. Basing on our long term research, we have established a property system for CMMs according to the state of CMMs under an exactly condition and according to the interaction characteristics between substances. The property system could be divided into 5 categories: material composition, spatial structure, body property, surface property, physicochemical properties, and they could also be divided into 18 subcategories. Furthermore, we also established the corresponding index and characterization system, where the 61 indexes and characterization techniques were systematically summarized. At last, we hope that the article will promote the modernization of CMPs.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1902-1910, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887017

ABSTRACT

Nanocrystal drugs have many advantages, such as no carrier materials, easy industrialization, diversified dosage forms, and can significantly improve the solubility and bioavailability of insoluble drugs, so many drugs have been on the market. The traditional nanocrystal preparation technology has the problems of low preparation efficiency and process limitation of the smallest achievable particle size. With the progress of pharmaceutical preparation technology, the preparation technology of nanocrystal drugs is constantly improving, and new preparation technologies are constantly emerging. The emergence of new technologies has greatly shortened the process time and makes it possible to prepare nanocrystal drugs with smaller particle diameters. In this paper, the preparation technologies of nanocrystal drugs, especially the new preparation technologies such as high gravity controlled precipitation, microfluidic reaction technology and various combination technologies, are reviewed from three aspects: "Top-down" technology, "Bottom-up" technology and combination technology. This article also prospects the development of new preparation technologies, hoping to provide reference for the related research of nano-preparations.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886644

ABSTRACT

Objective:Using a spatio-temporal clustering analysis of varicella in Shanghai from 2006 to 2015 at a subdistrict level, we aim to provide decision support for formulating a reasonable varicella prevention strategy. Methods:Based on the data of varicella cases in Shanghai from 2006 to 2015, SaTScan was employed to detect and analyze the spatial pattern of varicella clusters. Moreover, field investigation was combined to infer and explain the risk factors of varicella clusters. Results:The spread of varicella in Shanghai from 2006 to 2015 had an obvious annual change and spatial differentiation at a subdistrict level. The findings of SaTScan showed that with a confidence level of 99.9%, there were totally 7 spatio-temporal clustering events in Shanghai from 2006 to 2015, in which 3 events were regional events and 4 were independent events. Independent events usually lasted for 2-4 years, while regional events in the "Jiading-Chongming district" and "Songjiang-Minhang district" areas had a longer duration and a larger impact. Conclusions:From 2006 to 2015, there is an obvious temporal and spatial clustering pattern of varicella in Shanghai. Majority of abnormal spatio-temporal clusters occur in rural areas rather than urban areas, which may be related to increasing floating population and migration of susceptible population caused by the implementation of large-scale construction projects.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1591-1598, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881548

ABSTRACT

The efficient and safe delivery of drugs to the therapeutic site through the biofilm has traditionally been a difficult and hot topic in the field of drug delivery. In recent years, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) have become ideal penetration enhancers for drug delivery systems because of their high permeability, good safety and biodegradability, which has attracted wide attention of domestic and foreign researchers. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties, characteristics, action mechanism and application of APG in drug delivery system are reviewed, and its application prospect in drug delivery system is prospected.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the influencing factors in children with chronicity immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and to provide basis for judging the prognosis and treatment in children with ITP.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of children with ITP admitted to The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University in the past 5 years were retrospectively analyzed and followed up for more than 1 year. According to the inclusion criteria, the eligible cases (328 cases in total) were selected and collected through medical record system retrieval, outpatient clinic and telephone follow-up. Independent influencing factors affecting the prognosis of children with ITP were obtained through single-factor and multi-factor logistic analysis, and their predictive value for the prognosis of ITP in children were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Of 328 children with ITP, 208 were newly diagnosed with ITP (64%), 54 were persistent ITP (16%), 66 were chronic ITP (20%), and the remission rate within 1 year was 79.9%. The results of univariate analysis showed that, age, pre-morbidity history of infection and vaccination, antinuclear antibodies, initial absolute lymphocyte count(ALC) and treatment options were related to the prognosis of the children (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the history of infection and vaccination before onset, initial treatment options, and ALC at the time of initial diagnosis were independent factors affecting the prognosis of children with ITP (P<0.05). The time for platelet recovery to 100×10@*CONCLUSION@#The initial treatment plan combined with IVIG can reduce the occurrence of chronicity in children with ITP, and its efficacy is better than that of the single corticosteroids group (the platelet recovery time is shorter); history of preceding infection or vaccination, ALC at the time of initial diagnosis are independent factors affecting the prognosis of children with ITP, and the combination of the two shows a better predictive value for the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Prognosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878925

ABSTRACT

To study the time-toxicity relationship and mechanism of Gardeniae Fructus extract on the hepatoxicity in rats. Rats were randomly divided into C group(0 day), D5 group(5 days), D12 group(12 days), D19 group(19 days), and D26 group(7 days recovery after 19 days of administration). The rats in normal group received normal saline through intragastric administration, and the rats in other groups received 10 g·kg~(-1 )Gardeniae Fructus extract through intragastric administration. After the final administration, the livers were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the histopathological changes in the liver tissue. Total liver proteins were extracted for proteomic analysis, detected by the Nano-ESI liquid-mass spectrometry system and identified by Protein Disco-very software. SIEVE software was used for relative quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteins. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed based on STRING. Cytoscape software was used for cluster analysis of differential proteins. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) database was used to perform enrichment signal pathway analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was performed for the screened differential protein expression and liver pathology degree score. The results showed that the severity of liver injury in D5, D12 and D19 groups was significantly higher than that in group C. The degree of liver damage in D5 group was slightly higher than that in D12 and D19 groups, with no significant difference between group D26 and group C. Totally 147 key differential proteins have been screened out by proteomics and mainly formed 6 clusters, involving in drug metabolism pathways, retinol metabolism pathways, proteasomes, amino acid biosynthesis pathways, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathways. The results of Pearson correlation analysis indicated that differential protein expressions had a certain temporal relationship with the change of liver pathological degree. The above results indicated that the severity of liver damage caused by Gardeniae Fructus extract did not increase with time and would recover after drug with drawal. The above pathways may be related to the mechanism of liver injury induced by Gardeniae Fructus extract.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Fruit , Gardenia , Liver , Proteomics , Rats , Signal Transduction
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874365

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Systemic inflammatory response is a critical factor that promotes the initiation and metastasis of malignancies including pancreatic cancer (PC). This study was designed to determine and compare the prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio (FAR) in resectable PC and locally advanced or metastatic PC. @*Materials and Methods@#Three hundred fifty-three patients with resectable PC and 807 patients with locally advan-ced or metastatic PC were recruited in this study. These patients were classified into a training set (n=758) and a validation set (n=402). Kaplan-Meier survival plots and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze prognosis. @*Results@#Overall survival (OS) was significantly better for patients with resectable PC with low preoperative PLR (p=0.048) and MLR (p=0.027). Low FAR, MLR, NLR (p < 0.001), and PLR (p=0.003) were significantly associated with decreased risk of death for locally advanced or metastatic PC patients. FAR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.522; 95% confidential interval [CI], 1.261 to 1.837; p < 0.001) and MLR (HR, 1.248; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.532; p=0.034) were independent prognostic factors for locally advanced or metastatic PC. @*Conclusion@#The prognostic roles of FAR, MLR, NLR, and PLR in resectable PC and locally advanced or metastatic PC were different. FAR showed the most prognostic power in locally advanced or metastatic PC. Low FAR was positively correlated with OS in locally advanced or metastatic PC, which could be used to predict the prognosis.

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